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Green Lake, Marquette ^ Waushara Counties, 



Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and 
Representative Citizens of the Counties, 




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jHE greatest of English historians, Mac aula y, and one of the most brilliant writers of 
the present centur^^ has said: '*The history of a country is best told in a record of the 
lives of its people." In conformity with this idea the Portkait and Biographical 
Album of this county has been prepared. Instead of going to musty records, and 
taking therefrom dry statistical matter that can be appreciated by but few, our 
corps of writers have gone to the people, the men and women who have, by their 
enterprise and industry, brought the county to a rank second to none among those 
comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelli- 
gent public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the 
imitation of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by 
industry and economy have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited 
advantages for securing an education, have become learned men and women, with an 
;e extending throughout the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who 
have risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and whose names have 
become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and 
records how that success has usually crow^ned their efforts. It tells also of many, very 
man3% who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way,*' content 
to have it said of them as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — "they have done what 
they could." It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left the plow and the 
anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country's 
call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was restored and peace 
once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every woman is a lesson that should not 
be lost uix)n those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the fact 
tliat it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which would otherwise be 
inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work and every opportunity possible 
given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written-, and the publishers flatter them- 
selves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. In addition to the biograph- 
ical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume. For this the 
publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give the 
information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some member of 
the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such opposition the support of the interested 
one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though repeated calls were made 
at their residence or place of business. 

CniCAGO, March, 1889 

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HE Father of our Country was 
born in Westmorland Co.,vVa., 
Feb. 22, 1732. His parents 
were Augustine and Mary 
(Ball) Washington. The family 
to which he belonged has not 
been satisfactorily traced in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1657, 
and became a prosperous 
planter. He had two sons, 
Lawrence and John. The 
former married Mildred Warner 
and had three children, John. 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him four children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his 
second marriage, George was the 
eldest, the others being Betty, 
Samuel, John Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 
Augustine Washington, the father of George, died 
'" i743> leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
the Patomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, save for a short time after he left 
school, when he received private instruction in 
mathematics. His si)cllinft was rather defective. 

Remarkable stories are told of his great physica. 
strength and development at an early age. He was 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that nobleness of character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was 1 4 years old he had a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshipman's warrant was secured for him, 
but through the opposition of his mother the idea was 
abandonad. Two years later he was appointed 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. In 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 175 r, though only 19 years of 
age, he was appointed adjutant with the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
active service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Indies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health They 
soon returned, and in the summer of 1752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her den^ise the 
estate of Mount Vernon was given to George. 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie, as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia was 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assigned to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very perilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. This was to pro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake Erie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to be traversed 
was between 500 and 600 miles. Winter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without military 
escort, through a territory occupied by Indians. The 

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trip was a perilous one, and several times he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
a full and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most important part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
dock's defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
were disabled early in the action, and Washington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says:. "I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was levelinq; my companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not bom to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times, and failed to hit 

After having been ^s^ years in the military service, 
and vainly sought promotion in the royal army, he 
look advantage of the fall of Fort Duquesne and the 
expulsion of the French from the valley of the Ohio, 
CO resign his commission. Soon after he ^tered the 
Legislature, where, although not a leader, he took an 
active and important part. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (Dand ridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the port 
^f Boston, the cry went up throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virginia, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia,Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if possible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
responsible office was conferred upon Washington, 
who was still a member of the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, but upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and expect Congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under ever)' possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation of earth. On Dec. 23, 1783, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, resigned his 

commission as commander-in-chief of the army to 
to the Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a fam>er and planter, shunning all 
connection with pubHc life. 

In February, 1 7 89, Washington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a new 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the part 
of other governments; trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the countr}', 
owmgto the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean ; and 
while perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the veiy outset, it left him exposed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he absolutely 
refused a third nomination. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hoping to pass there 
his few remaining years free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in. the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France. 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the aniiies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he sui^erintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off. December 12, he took 
a severe cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
in h's throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally pn the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was borne wi'h military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest respect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and character, which have been able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and which we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The person of Washington was unusally tan, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beautiful symmetry. 
He commanded respect without any appearance of 
haughtiness, and ever serious without being dull. 

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-«!«;?— JOHN ADAMS. ""'*"'* 


OHN ADAMS, the second 
J President and the first Vice- 
' President of the United States, 
was born in Braintree ( now 
Quincy),Mass., and about ten 
miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
1735. His great-grandfather, Henry 
Adams, emigrated from England 
about 1 640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams. His 
father was a farmer of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of shoemaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
tion at Harvard College. John 
graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
school in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
* school of affliction," from which he endeavored to 
gain ielief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this by what he 
termed " the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
cils, cf diabolical malice, and Calvanistic good nature,'' 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
^itofetision, possessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of si)eech, and having quick percep- 
tive powers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
and ii lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, (1765), the attempt of Parliamentary taxa- 
tion turned him from law to iX)Htics. He took initial 
3te[)s toward holdin^, .a town meeting, and the resolu- 

tions he offered on the subject became very populai 
throughout the Provmce, and were adopted word for 
word by over forty different towns. He moved to Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocates of the popular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congress, 
which met in 1774. Here he distinguished himselt 
by his capacity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for independence against tlie 
majority of the members. In May, 1776, he moved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies 
should assume the duties of self-government. He 
was a prominent member of the committee of ave 
appointed June 11, to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, but 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it through 
Congress in a three days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with th* 
glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter to his wife 
which, as we read it now, seems to have been dictated 
by the spirit of prophecy. " Yesterday," he says, " the 
greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America; and greater, perhaps, never was or wil 
be decided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, * that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and inde. 
l>endent states.* The day is passed. The fourth of 
July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch in the history 
of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty 
God. It ought to be solemnized with ix)mp, shows. 

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games, six)rts, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from this 
time forward for ever. You will think me transported 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
the toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
these States; yet, through all the gloom, I can see the 
rays of light and glory. I can see that the end is 
worth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hope we shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France, and to co-operate with Bemjamin 
Franklin and Afthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him from his home, 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
posed him to great peril of capture by the BriUsh cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was again 
Chosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the Brirish Cabinet 
might be found willing to listen to such proposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negotiated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties. 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the excitement, 
toil and anxiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to go to England to drink the waters of 
Bath. While in England, still drooping anddesix)nd- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot,he made the trip. 

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to appoint a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing but little, he sought permission ' to return to 
his own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President. Again 
at the second elecrion of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President,though not without much opposition. 
Serving in this office four years,he was succeeded by 
Mr. JelTerson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice President the great 

French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countrymen led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. Adams felt no sympathy with the French people 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in their 
power of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
class of atheist philosophers who he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these distinguished 
men, and two powerful parries were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
4orm, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strength 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his peculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supporting. In 1824, his cup of happiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1826, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left upon the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly pilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his bed. On being requested to name a toast for the 
customary celebration of the day, he exclaimed " In- 
dependence FOREVER." When fhe day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannons, 
he was asked by one of his ::tt end ants if he knew 
what day it was.** He replied, "O yes ; it is the glor- 
ious fourth of July — God bless it — God bless you all." 
In the course of the day he said, " It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
"Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spiiit into the hands of his God. 

The personal ap|:>earance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not particularly prepossessing. His face, 
as his portrait manifests,was intellectual ard expres- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and his 
manners were frequently abrupt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofty dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manners and address of Jefferson. 

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born April 2, 1743, at Shad- 
well, Albermarle county, Va. 

His parents were Peter and 
Jane ( Randolph) Jefferson, 
the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Lon- 
don. To them were born six 
daughters and two sons, of 
whom Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
ing been kept diligently at school 
from the time he was ^\^ years of 
age. In 1760 he entered William 
end Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the Colonial Court, and it was the obodeof fashion splendor. Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, keeping fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet he 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, and irreproacha- 
able in his morals. It is strange, however, under 
such influences, that he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
explained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
,>reviously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
hours a day to haid study, allowing himself for ex- 
ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
phy and the languages. The most difficult Latin and 
Greek authors he read with facility. A more finished 
scholar has seldom gone forth from college halls; and 

there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
practice of his profession he rose rapidly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. But the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened the spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
him into active ix)litical life. In 1769 he was chosei 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. In 
1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy and highly accomplished young widow 

Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shad well, th:^re 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jefferson selected for his new 
home; and here he reared a mansion of modest ye^ 
elegant architecture, which, next to Mount Vernon 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and hv-. 
was placed uix)n a number of important committeeG, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was apjipinted 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were "made 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776, What must have been the feelings of that 

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man — what the emotions that swelled his breast — 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, was also to publish her to the world, free, 
<iovcrign and independent. It is one of the most re-, 
markable papers ever written ; and did no other effort 
\X the mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamp his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, as Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Monlicello, to capture the Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after the hurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the British troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was apix)inted Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
in Washington's cabinet. This position he resigned 
Jan. J, 1794. In 1797, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event which threatened the 
tranquility and peace of the Union; this was the con- 
spiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, and led on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
southwestern frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This has been generally supposed 
was a mere pretext ; and although it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a far more dangerous 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he determined 
to retire from political life. For a period of nearly 
:Drty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
•ic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and responsibility. Having thus de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
country, he now felt desirous of that rest which his 
declining years required, and upon the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticelio. 

Mr. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their horses, — 
fathers and mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, — and remained three and even six months. 
Life at Monticelio, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth anniver- 

sary of the Declaration of American Independence, 
great preparations were made in every part of the 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the /ramer. 
and one of the few surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion, to participate in their festivities. But an ill- 
ness, which had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decUne the invitation. 

On the second of July, the disease under which 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants, entertained nc 
hope of his recovery. From this' time he was perfectly 
sensible that his last hour was at hand. On the next 
day, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expressed the earnest wish that 
he might be permitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard — that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst upon his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consummation of a noble 
life ! To die on that day, — the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day which his own name and his own act had^ 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a whole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill up the record his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions of 
freedom ; hand in hand, during the dark and desper- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desponding countrymen; for half a 
century they had labored together for the good of 
the country; and now hand in hand they depart. 
In their lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
head broad, and his whole countenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He possessed great fortitude of mind as 
well as personal courage ; and his command of tem- 
l>er was such that his oldest and most intimate friends 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded that 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver- 
sation he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic ; and 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discemable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 

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PHQes n^TiDisoi}.'^ 

of the Constitution," and fourth 
^President of the United States, 
was born March i6, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
June 28, 1836. The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of the important 
events in that heroic period of our 
country during which the founda- 
tions of this great republic were 
laid. He was the last of the founders 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to be called to his eternal 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing upon the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
James Madison was an opulent 
planter, residing upon a very fine es-- 
tate called " Montpelier," Orange Co., 
Va. The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
It was but 25 miles from the home of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
18 he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here he applied himself to study with the most im- 

Blue Ridge. 

prudent zeal; allowing himself, for months, but three 
hours' sleep out of the 24. His health thus became so 
seriously impaired that he never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 177 1, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost purity, and with a 
mind highly disciplined and richly stored with learning 
which embellished and gave proficiency to his subsf ' 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive andsystematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
which he lived, and the society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire him with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-work ol 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not lo be long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Endowed with a mind 
singularly free from passion and prejudice, and with 
almost unequalled powers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and against revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
(1777), he was a candidate for the General Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-loving voters, and 
consequently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
member of the Council ; and their appreciation of his 

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intellectual, social and moral worth, contributed not 
a little to his subsequent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress. Here he met the most illustrious men ;n 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In the year 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, with no power to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an efficient national government 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution through the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting the other States to appoint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
this subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn up 
by Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time appointed. Every State but Rhode Island 
lO'as represented. George Washington was chosen 
president of the convention ; and the present Consti- 
tution of the United States was then and there formed. 
There was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and the pen of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote 81 to 79, was 
to be presented to the several States for acceptance. 
But grave solicitude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
States, with but little power at home and little respect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by the conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the people of the United 
States, expounding the principles of the Consritution, 
and urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader of the Republican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he met Mrs Todd, a 
young widow of remarkable power of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
queenly, and probably no lady has thus far occujiied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
which has constituted our republican court as Mrs. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
, was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of war. 

British orders in council destroyed our commerce, and 
our flag was exposed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retiring 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an American ship brought 
to, uix)n the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please to 
designate as British subjects; orders them down the 
ship's side into his boat; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to fight, by compulsion, the 
battles of England. This right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our Government could induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the 1 8th of June, 18 12, President Madison gave 
his approval to an act of Congress declaring war 
against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madison, on the 4th 
of March, 1813, was re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of oQice. This is 
not the place to describe the various adventures of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infan . 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling with the most formidable power which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commenced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in February, 
18 13, in Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the United States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as me 
ditator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of the 
metropolis. The whole population fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the White 
House, with her carriage drawn up at the doer to 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war. He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of being 
captured. But few hours elapsed ere the Presidenrial 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. 13, 1815, the treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. 

On the 4th of March, 18 17, his second term of 
office expired, and he resigned the Presidenrial chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He rerired to his beau- 
riful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On June 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in death. Mrs. Madi- 
son died July 12, 1849. 

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prrjES njoiiROE. <^fe 

fWl AMES MONROE, the fifth 
f?|^Presidentof The United States, 
' was born in Westmoreland Co., 
Va., April 28, 1758. His early 
^^ life was passed at the place of 
nativity. His ancestors had for 
many years resided in the prov- 
ince in which he was born. When, 
at 17 years of age, in the process 
of completing his education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial Congress assembled at Phila- 
delphia to deliberate upon the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
(ireat Britian, declared the separa- 
tion uf the Colonies, and promul- 
gated the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. Had he been born ten years before it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instrument. At this time he left 
school and enlisted among the patriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked liope- 
less and gloomy. The number of deserters increased 
from day to day. The invading armies came pouring 
in ; and the tories not only favored the cause of the 
mother country, but disheartened the new recruits, 
who were sufficiently terrified at the prospect of con- 
tending with an enemy whom they had been taught 
to deem invincible. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
political emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
ranks, and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die with her strife 

for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the mel- 
ancholy retreat from Harleam Heights and White 
Plains, and accompanied the dispirited army as it fled 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four months 
after the Declaration of Independence; the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle of 
Trenton he led the vanguard, and, in the act of charg- 
ing uix)n the enemy he received a wound in the left 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was pro- 
moted a captain of infantry ; and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by becoming a;^. 
officer in the staff of Lord Sterling. During the cam- 
paigns of 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy 
wine, Germantown and Monmouth, he continued 
aid-de-camp; but becoming desirous to regain his 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued, with considerable 
ardor, the study of common law. He did not, however, 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, ser\'ed as avolun 
teer, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 1782, he was elected from King George county, 
a member of the Leglislature of Virginia, and by that 
body he was elevated to a seat in • the Executive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period displayed some of that ability 
and aptitude for legislation, which were afterwards 
employed with unremitting energy for the public good, 

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he was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
the G>ngress of the United States. 
Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of the old 
Confederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
•jhinking, with many others of the Republican party, 
that it gave too much power to the Central Government, 
and not enough to the individual States. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends who were its warm 
supporters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 1789, he became a member 
of the United States Senate ; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent ideas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
strict construction of tlie Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little power, and the State 
Governments as much power, as the Constitution would 
warrant.' The Federalists sympathized with England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could possibly 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies to the 
good of the nation. Two more honest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist, and 
James Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building up this majestic nation, which is destined 
to eclipse all Grecian and Assyrian greatness, the com- 
bination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
light equilibrium. And yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the princi- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France had helped 
i;s in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse 
thaii that which we had endured Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 

Washington, who could appreciate such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Convention 
in France with the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three yeais. He was again sent to France to 
co-operate with Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territory then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain. Their united efforts were sue 
cessful. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territory of Orleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United States. 
This was probably the largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. But Eng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on the same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of State under 
Madison. While in this office war with England was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
these trying tjmes, the duties of the War Department 
were also put upon him. He was truly the arnr.or- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. Upon the return oi 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of State until the ex- 
piration of Mr. Madison s adminstration. At the elec 
tion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, 18 17, was inaugurated. Four years 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presidency 
were the cession of Florida to the United States; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the " Monroe doctrine,'* 

This famous doctrine, since known as the ** Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
time the United States had recognized the independ- 
ence of the South American states, and did not ^ish 
to have European powers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows: "That we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European powers to extend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation by European 
]X)wers of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States.*' This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the approved 
sentiment of the United States. 

At the end of his second term Mr Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 1830, 
when he went to New York to live with his son-in- 
law. In that city he died,on the 4th of July, 1831 

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TILDICN irorNDAfii.N^ 

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J, 3 , iAola/t^ 

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sixth President of the United 
Stales, was born in the rural 
home of his honored father. 
John Adams, in Qaincy, Mass , 
on the I ith cf July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exahed 
worth, watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but 
eight years of age, he stood with 
his mother on an eminence, listen- 
iil^ to the booming of the great bat- 
tle on Bunker s Hill, and gazing on 
upon the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years old he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his father for Europe, 
through a fleet ol hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy spent a year and a half in Paiis, where 
his father was associated with Franklin ^nd Lee as 
minister plenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was apain sent abroad Again 
j'of.n Quincy accompanied his father. At Paris he 
applied himself with great diligence, for six months, 
to jtudy; then accom pained his father to Holland, 
where he entered, first a school in Amsterdam, then 
the University at Leyden. About a year from this 
time, in 1781, when the manly boy was but fourteen 
yea^s of age, he was selected by Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretar}'. 

In this school of incessant labor and of enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. This long journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his sixteenth year. Again he resumed 
his studies, under a private tutor, at Hague. Thence^ 

in the spring of 1782, he accompanied his father \z 
Paris, traveling leisurely, and forming acquaintance 
with the most distinguished men on the Continci.t; 
examining architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he again 
became associated with the most illustrious men of 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temix)ral 
themes which can engross the human mind. Afte* 
a short visit to England he returned to Paris, ana 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, 1785, 
when he returned to America. To a brilliant young 
man of eighteen, who had seen much of the world, 
and who was familiar with the etiquette of courts, a 
residence with his father in Ix)ndon, under such cir- 
cumstances, must have been extremely attractive 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he pre- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education 
in an American college. He wished then to study 
law, that with an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an independent support. 

Upon leaving Harvard College, at the age of twent}' 
he studied law for three years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in July, he reached 
London in October, where he was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. Jay and Pinckney, 
assisting them in negotiating a commercial treaty with 
Gieat Brilian. After thus spending a fortnight in 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left the Hague to go to Portugal as 
minister plenipotentiary. On his way to Portugal, 
upon arriving in London, he met with despatches 
directing him to the court of Bei/in, but requesting 
him to remain in London unril he should receive his 
instructions. While waiting he was married to an 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, — Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughter 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul in london; 
a lady endownd with that beauty and those accom- 
plishment which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. 

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He reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797 ; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled all the purposes of his mission, he solicited his 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
the Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and then 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
ability and his experience, placed him immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of that body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to the encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was*no man in America more 
familiar with the arrogance of the British court upon 
these p6ints, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Quincy Adams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; lo 
the climate and astronomical observations ; while he 
kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All through life the Bible constituted an important 
part of his studies. It was his rule to read five 
chapters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 18 17, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately appointed Mr. 
Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
sailed in June, 18 19, for the United States. On the 
1 8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roe s administration, Mr. Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe s second 
term of office, new candidates began to be presented 
for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. Adams brought 
forward his name. It was an exciting campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety-nine ; John Quincy Adams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty -one ; Henry Clay, thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, the 
question went to the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates now 
combined in a venomous and persistent assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
*Kq oaiit history of our country than the abuse which 

was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted lo the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu- 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise. When at his home in 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and applying himself to work in his library 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andrew 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slavery question now began to assume 
portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long permitted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen 
years, until his death, he occupied the post as repre- 
sentative, towering above all his peers, ever ready to 
do brave battle* for freedom, and winning the title of 
"the old man eloquent." Uix)n taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he sfiould hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his place in the morning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought forward and escape his scrutiny. '1 he 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
the proslavery party in the Government, was sublime 
in Its moral daring and heroism. For persisting in 
presenring i)etitions for the abolition of slavery, he 
was threatened with indictment by the grand jur)% 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination : 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed to repeat every night, before 
he slept, the pra}er which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2 1 St of February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by paraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those around him. 
For a time he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " This is the end of earth ;"then after a moment's 
pause he added, ^^I am content'' These were the 
last words of the grand "Old Man Eloquent." 

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seventh President of tlie 
United States, was bom in 
Waxhaw settlement, N. C, 
March 15, 1767, a few days 
after his father's death. His 
parents were [)oor emigrants 
from Ireland, and took up 
their abode in Waxhaw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest ix)verty. 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly; and there was but very 
h'ttle in his character, made visible, which was at- 

When only thirteen years old he joined the volun- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
1781, he and his brother Robert were captured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. ** I am 
a prisoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desperate 
Dlow at the head of the helpless young prisoner. 
Andrew raised his hand, and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, — one on the hand and the other upon the 
head. The officer then turned to his brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which quite 
disabled him, and which probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered much other ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
mother was successful in obtaining their exchange. 

and took her sick boys home. After a long illness 
Andrew recovered, and the death o{ his mother soon 
left him entirely friendless. 

Andrew supix)rted himself in various ways,s i^has 
working at the saddler's trade, teaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 1784, when he 
entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusements of the 
rimes than to his studies. In 1788, he was apix>inted 
solicitor for the western district of Noriji Carolina, of 
which Tennessee was then a part. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but Andrew Jackson nerer knew fear, 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmish 
witn the Sharp Knife. 

In 1 79 1, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman who 
supposed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Great was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditions of the divorce had just been 
definitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr. 
Jackson into disfavor. 

During these years he worked hard at his profes- 
sion, and frequently had one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed Dickenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the eleven 
counties. Andrew Jackson was one of the delegates. 
The new State was entitled to but one member in. 
the National House of Representatives. Andrew Jack-\ 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then held its 

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sessions, — a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Deuio- 
cratic party. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
Bonaparte, loved France and hated England. As Mr. 
Jackson took his seat, Gen. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then expiring, delivered his 
last speech to Congress. A committee drew up a 
complimentary dddress in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of the address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
** wise, firm and patriotic." 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which |X)sition he held for six years. 

When the war of 181 2 with Great Britian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Biirr sent word to the President that there was 
an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
v* ould do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hundred 
volunteers. His offer was accepted, and the troops 
were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make an at- 
tack upon New Orleans, where Gen. Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen hundred troops to aid Wilkinson. The 
expedition reached Natchez; and after a delay of sev - 
eral weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered back to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had displayed, and his entire 
devotion to the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden opinions ; and he became the most popular 
man in the State. It was ia this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of **01d Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Benton, for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking a part as second in a duel, in 
which a younger brother of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe pistol wounds. While he was 
lingering upon a bed of suffering news came that the 
Indians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
Florida to the Lakes, to exterminate the white set- 
tlers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. Jackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Alabama. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on 
one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men, Gen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
days. He reached their fort, called Tohopeka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 27th of March. 1814. The bend 

of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the narrow 
neck the Indians liad constructed a formidable breast- 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, 
" with ftn ampie suply of arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
perate. Not an Indian would accept of quarter. When 
bleeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revolting. Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few probably, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. The 
ix5wer of the Creeks was broken forever. This bold 
plunge into the wilderness, with its terriffic slaughter, 
so appalled the savages, that the haggard remnarits 
of the bands caaie to the camp, begging for peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled us to con- 
ce>itrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of the Indians No man of less resolute will 
than Gen. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointjsd major-general. 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march. Gen. Jackson came to 
Mobile. A British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force upon the beach, anchored near the little fort, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault. The battle was long and doubtful. At length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his little 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
And the battle of New Orleans >^hich soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. Here his 
troops, which numbered about four thousand men, 
won a signal victory over the British army of about 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British vas two thousand six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 1824, 
he was defeated by Mr. Adams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1829, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perhaps never been surpassed. From the shock of 
her death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most memorable 
in the annals of our country; applauded by one party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. At the expiration of his 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died June 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 

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eighth President of the 
United States, was born at 
Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
1782. He died at the same 
place, July 24, 1862. His 
body rests in the cemetery 
at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft fifteen feet 
high, bearing a simple inscription 
about halt way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered 
cr unbounded by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van Buren 
Df romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in nj wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
political and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biography. His an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, 
and were among the earliest emigrants from Holland 
to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a farmer, 
residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, 
also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- and exemplary piety. 

Hj was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At the 
ai,c of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies 
in his native village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of him 
before he co ild be admitted to the bar. Inspired with 
a lofty ambition, and conscious of his ix)wers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatigable industry. After 
a|:€nding six yenr-i in an office in his native village, 

he went to the dty of New York, and prosecuted his 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. Van 
Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the 
many discussions which had been carried on in his 
fathers hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Je(Terson, and earnestly and eloquently esix)used the 
cause of State Rights; though at thai time the Fed- 
eral party held the supremacy both in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, th. 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years 
constantly gaining strength by contending in the 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mi. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, the victim of consump- 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record 
of those years is barren in items of public interest. 
In 1812, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
the State Senate, and gave his strenuous r.upix)rt to 
Mr. Madison s adminstration. In 18 15, he was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved 
to Albany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged us one of the most 
p.ominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 

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the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that " universal suffrage" which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency with his 
democratic principles, he contended that, while the 
path leading to the privilege of voting should be open 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some property interests in the welfare of the 

In 1 82 1 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate; and in the same year, he took a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
Ihe approval of men of all parties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a 
conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then irk the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
cfte Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
termined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
"State Rights" view in opposition to what was 
deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governor of 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his 
seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United 
States contributed so much towards ejecting John Q. 
Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whether 
entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as one of the 
most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
Zt was supposed that no one knew so well as he how 
\o touch the secret springs of action; how to pull all 
che wires to put his machinery in motion ; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secredy and 
rtealthily accomplish the most gigantic results. By 
these powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few thought then could be accomplished. 

Wiien Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
appointed Minister to England, where he went the 
same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
refused to ratify the nomination, and he returned 

home, apparently untroubled ; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election 
of President Jackson ; and with smiles for all and 
frowns for none, he took his place at the head of that 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomir.ation 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite ; and this, probably more than any other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Execu- 
tive. On the 20th of May, r836, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. 
Jackson as President of the United States He was 
elected by a handsorne majority, to the delight of the 
retiring President. "Leaving New York out of the 
canvass," ^ys Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution had conferred 
upon him the power to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting events. 
The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to in 
volve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial panic which spread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic party, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re election. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats, in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, 
and living within his income, had now fortunately a 
competence for his declining years. His unblemished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
patriotism; and the distinguished positions which he 
had occupied'in ^he government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot the whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retired from 
the presidency. From his fine estate at Lindenwald^ 
he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoying in a healthy old 
age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life. 

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SON, the ninth President of 
tS^l^V'^f ffjf? ^^^ United States, was born 
'^(^^^f^l^^^ at Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op>- 
iilent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
intimate friend of George 
Washington, w as early elected 
a member of the Continental 
Congress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
British crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
rison and John Hancock were 
both candidates for the office of 

Mr Harrison was subsequently 
chosen Governor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
William Henry, of course enjoyed 
in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
i.ig received a thorough common-school education, he 
entered Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated 
with honor soon after the death of his father. He 
-^hen repaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianship of 
Robert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Uix)n the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
withstanding the remonstrances of his friends, he 
abandoned his medical studies and entered the army, 
having obtained a commission of Ensign from Presi- 

dent Washington. He was then but 19 years old. 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to General Wayne, after whose 
death he resigned his commission. He was then ajv 
pointed Secretary of the North-western Territory. This 
Territory was then entitled to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 

In the spring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two portion^. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region now embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called ** The Teritory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called^ Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin, was called the "Indiana Territory." Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, then 27 years of age, was ap>- 
pointed by John Adams, Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He >^as thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white population. The ability and 
fidelity with which he discharged these responsible 
duties may be inferred from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office — first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlements in that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resounding with all the 
tumult of wealth and traffic. One of these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrisoi* 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indian.^. Abou* 

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the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tecumseh, or " The Crouching 
Panther;" the other, Olliwacheca, or " The Prophet." 
Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in any enterprise in which he might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
a. id had long regarded with dread and with hatred 
the encroachment of the whites upon the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
an orator, who could sway the feelings of the untutored 
Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath which 
they dwelt. 

But the Prophet was not merely an orator ; he was, 
i 1 the sui>erstitious minds of the Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
nigician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades, he went 
from tribe to tribe, assuming that he was specially sent 
by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciliate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 18 12, his army began its march. When 
near the Prophet s town three Indians of rank made 
their appearance and inquired why Gov. Harrison was 
approaching them in so hostile an attitude. After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations Selecting a favorable spot for his night s en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtrements on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the morning, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the embers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloudy morning with a drizzling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians had crept as near as possi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
tlie desperation which superstition and passion most 
highly inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply provided 
with guns and ammunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompained by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
jus yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victory. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
until day dawned : they then made a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
fore them, and completely routing the foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from the Can- 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves from the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, plundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a state of consternation which even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. 
The war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The horizon was illuminated with the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the settlers. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these despairing circumstances. Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
Detroit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be diflicult to place a man in a situadon 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triumphantly did he meet all the re 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharing 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
pursuing the foe up the Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle. Thirty-five British officers, 
his prisoners of war, supped with him after the battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
before the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 1816, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member of 
the National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved an 
active member; and whenever he spoke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloquence, which arrested 
the attention of all the members. 

In 1 81 9, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the presidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1836, the friends of Gen. Harrison brought him 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren *s term, he was re-nominated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John Tyler for the Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen. Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison s election ; but 
hi^ triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which be formed, with Daniel Webster 
at its head as Secretary of State, was one of the most 
brilliant with which any President had ever been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
joyous prospects, Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisy-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died on the 4th of April ; just one month after 
his inauguration as President of the United States, 

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OHN TYLER, the tenth 
^ Presidentof the United States. 
He was born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
was the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered William 
and Mary College and grad- 
uated with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted him- 
self with great assiduity to the 
study of law, partly with his 
father and partly with Edmund 
Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, ne 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing. It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
et of the court in which he was 
-lot retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimously elected to a seat in the State 
Legiplature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For ^^^ successive years he 
was elected to the Legi.slature, receiving nearly the 
unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic party, opposing a national 
Lank, internal improvements by the General ^vern- 

ment, a protective tariff, and advocating a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over State rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term he found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in the 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in promoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes. Governor of his 
naUve State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opix)nent, 
considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opposed the tariff; he spoke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional ; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions upon slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by the Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declaredthat Gen. 
Jackson, by his opposition to the nullifiers, had 
abandoned the principles of the Democraric party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler s record in Congress, — a record 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice of 
his prpfession. There was a cplit v\ the Den^ocratic 

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party. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
fersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compli- 
ments upon him. He had now attained the age of 
forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. In con- 
sequence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
vate afifairs had fallen into some disorder; and it was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted himself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Harrisburg to nominate a President in 
1839. The majority of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to the disappointment of 
the South, who wished for Henry Qay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not iasympa- 
ihy with the Whig party in the Noxth : but the Vice 
President has but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
pened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In 1 84 1, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time, President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thus found himself, to his own surprise and that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the stability of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
unexpected tidings of the death of President Harri- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
-April was inaugurated to the high and responsible 
office. He was placed in a position of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his long life he had been 
opposed to the main principles of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, honest man, with an unblemished record. 
Gen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus surround himself with coun- 
sellors whose views were antagpnistic to his own ? or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
mony with himself, and which would oppose all those 
views which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfare? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Harrison had 
selected to retain their seats. He reccommended a 
day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten days' delay, returned it with 
his veto. He suggested, however, that he would 

approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he 
proposed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and 
privately submitted to him. He gave it his approval. 
It was passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 
ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms. The party which elected him 
denounced him bitterly. AH the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs 
of Congress, both the Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that all political alliance 
between the Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong party 
men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends. Thus 
the four years of Mr. Tyler s unfortunate administra- 
tion passed sadly away. No one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vituperation. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. More and more, 
however, he brought himself into sympathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until atthe close of his term, 
he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. 
Polk, the Democratic candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, to the regret of neither party, and 
probably to his own unspeakable lelief. His first wife. 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, President Tyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a jroung lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments. 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, — Sherwood For- 
est, Charles city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with information from 
books and experience in the world, and possessing 
brilliant powers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unasual attractions. With sufficient 
means for the exercise of a generous hospitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State- 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. Cal- 
houn had inaugurated. President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a member of their Congress ; 
and while engaged in active measures to destroy, by 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 

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AMES K. POLK, the eleventh 
jPresident of the United States, 
was bom in Mecklenburg Co., 
N. C.,Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 
ents were Samuel and Jane 
(Knox) Polk, the former a son 
of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the 
first pioneers, in 1735. 

In the year 1S06, with his wife 
and children, and soon after fol- 
lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk famly, Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co., they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
hard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James K. Polk spent the 
early years of his childhood and 
youth. His father, adding the pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
' gradually increased in wealth until 
he became one of the leading men of the region. His 
mother was a superior woman, of strong common 
sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James developed a taste for 
reading and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
a liberal education. His mother's training had made 
him methodical in his habits, had taught him punct- 
uality and industry, and had inspired him with lofty 
principles of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he might not be able to endure a 

sedentary life, got a situation for him behind the 
counter, hoping to fit him for commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when at his 
earnest solicitation his father removed him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. With 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half 
years, in the autumn of 1 815, entered the sophomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 

He graduated in 1818, with tfie highest honors, be* 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, both in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Polk's health was at thi? 
time much impaired by the assiduity with which he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he went to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Grundy, to study law. Here Mr. PolV 
renewed his acquaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably beei 
slightly acquainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican, 
and James K. Polk ever adhered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a popular public speaker, and was 
constantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such thnt 
he was popularly called the Napoleon of the stumji. 
He was a man of unblemished morals, genial n: d 

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^ourtcrus in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 
natu'*e in the joys and griefs of others which ever gave 
him troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his 
strong influence towards the election of his friend, 
Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, — a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to his constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
for fourteen successive years, until 1839, he was con- 
tinuec^ in that office. He then voluntarily withdrew, 
only I Hat he might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of I'^'nnessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
member, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
alwnys in his seat, always courteous ; and whenever 
he spoke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr. Polk i^er- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
passed by the Hou^e as he withdrew on the 4th of 
March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usagQ, Mr. Polk, as a 
fcandidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the 1 4th of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 184 1, 
his term of office expired, and he was again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States. The verdict of 
the country in favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and the last act of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left the country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

\x\ his first message. President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be re- 
ceived into the Union on the same footing with the 
other States. In the meantime, Gen. Taylor was sent 

with an army into Texas to hold the country. He was 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further west, to the Rio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which commanded the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated on 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and war 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. The 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk s administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of "observation," then of "occupation," 
then of " invasion," was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused. 
It v/as by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

* To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
pro^rate before us. Her capital was in our hands. 
We now consented to peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all right : there were 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-four years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good. With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic ties 
of the dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranquility and happiness were before him. But the 
cholera — that fearful scourge— was then sweeping up 
the Valley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the 15th of June, 1849, in the fifty-fourth 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 

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THH \h •' VOXK 



rn-DEN rorNUATioNa 

I L 

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President of the United States, 
"was bom on the 24th of Nov., 
1784, in Orange Co., Va. His 
father, Colonel Taylor, was 
a Virginian of note, and a dis- 
tinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary 
was an infant, his father with his 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
the pathless wilderness, a few 
miles from Louisville. In this front- 
ier home, away from civilization and 
all its refinements, young Zachary 
could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When six years of age he attended a common 
school, and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of char- 
acter He was strong, feailess and self-reliant, and 
manifested a strong desire to enter the army to fight 
the Indians who were ra^vaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
army ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. Soon after 
this he married Miss Margaret Smith, a young lady 
from one of the first families of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, in 18 1 2, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison,on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
icd by Tecumseh, Its garrison consisted of a broken 

company of infantry numbering fifty men, many of 
whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 181 2, the Indians, stealthily, 
and in large numbers, moved upon the fort. Ti.^.i 
approach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Capt. Taylv^r 
made every possible preparation to meet the antiv,i- 
pated assault. On the 4th of September, a band of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Capt. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would come to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, kept 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down ; the savages disappeared, the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One hour before 
midnight the war whoop burst from a thousand lii^ > 
in the forest around, followed by the discharge of 
musketry, and the rush of the foe. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to his post. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, no immagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. The savages suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to one of the block-houses- 
Until six o clock in the morning, this awful conflict 
continued. The savages then, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for this gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, Major Taylor was placed 
in such situations that he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the.depthsof the 
wilderness, to Fort Crawford, on Fox River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here-yHre was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one 
best could. There were no books, *no society, no in- 

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tellectual stimalas. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rolled on Gradually he rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black-Hawk war, which resulted in 
the capture of that renowned chieftain, Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and efficient part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and in 
employments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to compel 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty, 
haO promised they should do. The services rendered 
heic secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
tc :he rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
after, in May, 1838, was appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

After two years of such wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the peninsula. Gen. Taylor 
obtained, at his own request, a change of command, 
and was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Lx)uisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama and Georgia. Establishing his headquarters 
at Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Here he remained for ^vt, years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
imposed upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
being the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
by the United States. Soon the war with Mexico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over the 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred upon Gen. Taylor, and his name 
was received with enthusiasm* almost everywhere 4n 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
forces much larger than he commanded. 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
simplicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
xht sobriquet of "Old Rough and Ready.* 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Vista 
•pread the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every ones lips. The 
Whig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
ful popularity in bringing forward the unpolished, un- 
lettered, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
Presidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an- 
nouncement, and for a time would not listen to it; de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such an 
office. So little interest had he taken in politics that, 
for forty years, he had not cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
who had been lon^ years in the public service found 
thtir claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 

had never been heard of, save in connection with Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena 
Vista. It IS said that Daniel Webster, in his haste re- 
marked, *' It is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a fine 
wnter His friends took possession of him, and pre- 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opposing candidates, — 
Gen. Cass and Ex-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an excellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial position, 
and was, at times, sorely perplexed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pushing its claims with tireless energy , expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba ; California was 
pleading for admission to the Union, while slavery 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trying to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or 

In the midst of all these troubles. Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but little 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over fiwQ days, died on the 9th of July, 1850. 
His last words were, ** I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. I have endeavored to do my duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people ; and the Natbn bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

Gen. Scott, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: — ** With a good store of 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's mind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigible, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head ; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, — in any such case, this critic held the 
offender to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated , phrase, 
* touch with a pair of tongs.* 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth's spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. In short, 
few men have ever had a more comfortable, labor- 
saving contempt for learning of every kind." 

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^-y^^^^£Oj.,.ob ytSu^^oa^ 

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^ffllLLflSn FILLMEHE.^ 

teenth President of the United 
States, was born at Summer 
Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y ., on 
the 7th of January, 1800. His 
father was a farmer, and ow- 
ing to misfortune, in humble cir- 
cumstances. Of his mother, the 
daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, 
of Pittsfield, Mass., it has been 
said that she possessed an intellect 
of very high order, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
position, graceful manners and ex- 
quisite sensibilities. She died in 
1831 ; having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished prom- 
ise, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded hoaie and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon schools, which he occasionaMy attended were 
very imperfect institutions ; and books were scarce 
and expensive. There was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career upon which he 
was about to enter. He was a plain farmer s boy ; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home had taught him to revere the Bible, 
and had laid the foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small villiage, where some 

enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. This proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. Soon every leisure moment was occupied with 
books. His thirst for knowledge became insatiate 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory , and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and he was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed, 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fine personal appearance 
and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so happened that 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample 
pecuniary means and of benevolence, — Judge Walter 
Wood, — who was struck with the prepossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made his acquaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
no friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been veryJmperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him such 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion about 
a collegiate education. A young jnan is supposed to 
be liberally educated if he has graduated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university haP \ 
€nd then enters a law office, who is by no meaos as 

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well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he was 
admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
practice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or In fame. 
Here, in the year 1826, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, — Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder member of the bar in 
Buffalo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a representative from Erie 
County. Though he had never taken a very acrive 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the Whig party. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature , still the testimony comes from all parties, 
that his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degrt e the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress He entered that troubled 
arena in some of the most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress ; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past expe- 
rience as a representative gave him stKngth and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear upon the public good. Every 
measure received his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in the year 1847, 
he was elected Comptroller of the State. 

Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in 
Congress and as Comptroller, had given him very con- 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of the Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in trumpet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the same 
ticket some man of reputation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
namesofZachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Fillmore Vice-President, of the United States. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the Con- 
stitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus became Presi- 
dent. He appointed a very able cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretary of State. 

Mr. Fillniore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power to cone iliate 
the South ; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inadequacy of all measures of transient conciliation. 
The population of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable that the power of tl^e Government should 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous compromise measures were adopted under Mr. 
Fillmcre's adminstration, and the Japan Exj^dition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the " Know Nothing " party, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Fillmore kept aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of cheer to the one party or the other. 
He was thus forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March 8, 1874, 

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^?c.o ;:> ^FMNKLIN PIERCE.-^ 

^=^' "^"SPgpF 

louneenth President of the 
^United States, was boni \\\ 
Hil!slx)roiigli, N. H-, Nov. 
23, 1804. His Lither was n. 
Revohubdiiry soldier, wliu, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed oat i\ 'lome in ihc 
wilderness. He was a m.ui 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind^ and an uncomproniis- 
tng Oemoerat, The mother of 
Frinklin Pierce was all tliata son 
could dcsire,^ — ^an intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate, Christian wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the play ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. The neighbors 
looked upon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always sj^eakingkind words, 
doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar ; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me He was 
one of the most popular young men in the college. 
The purity of his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 

i;cnial nature, rendered him a universal favorite. 
There was stJLuething very i->ecu]iarly winning in his 
address J and it was evidently not in the slightest de- 
cree studied: it was ibe simple outgushing of his 
own inatrnanimous and loving nature. 

Uijon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
coin nis need the study of law rn the office of Judge 
Wood biiry, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of greiit private worth. The 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
fathers prominence as a imblic man, and the brilliant 
IKjlitical t:arcer into which Judge Woodbury was en- 
tering;, al! tended to entice Mr. Pienre into the faci 
nating yet [>erilous jjath of jxjlincal life. With all 
the urdor of his nature he csixjused the cause of Gen. 
Jackson for the Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four yeais. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of the house by a very large vote. 

li^ 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Without taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, 
and ever rising in the esrimarion of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was the youngest member in 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every 
station with wnich her husband was honoicd. Of the 

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three sons who were born to them, all now sleep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, upon his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariuos 
state of Mrs. Pierce's health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he embarked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 27th of May, 1847. 
He took an important part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Mexican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very frequently taking an active part in political ques- 
tions, giving his cordial support to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval; and he 
strenuously advocated the enforcement of the infa- 
mous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a "Northern man with Southern principles.'* 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust i:i office to carry out their plans. 

On the 1 2th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then the Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more ballotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was 
the Whig candidate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States — Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever experienced. The controversy be- 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point. It became evident that there was 
an " inepressible conflict " between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South ; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on every South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slavery sentimei:t, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep reprehension of his ad- 
ministrative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated those measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he iTad 
rendered himself so unpopular as no longer to be 
able acceptably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident ; and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumption. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion bCirst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen- 
erous to a fault, he contributed liberally for the al- 
leviation of suffering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladened by his material bounty. 

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AMES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
|teenth President of the United 
States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the 
eastern lidge of the Allegha- 
nies, in Franklin Co., Penn., on 
the 23d of April, 17 91. The place 
where the humble cabin of his 
father st<'od was called Stony 
Batter. It was a wild and ro- 
mantic spot in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all around. His father 
was a native of the north of Ireland ; 
a poor man, who had emigrated in 
1783, with little property save his 
own strong arms. Five years afterwards he married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young bride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing with his axe, and settled down there to per- 
fonn his obscure part in the drama of life. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, he remained 
for eight years, enjoying but few social or intellectual 
advaniagrs. When James was eight years of age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, where 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in English, Latin and Greek. His 
jjfOgreES was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de- 
veloped remarkable talent, and took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His application 
to study was intense, and yet his native powers en- 

abled him to master the most abstruse subjects with 

In the year 1809, he graduated with the highest 
honors of his class. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 181 2, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very rapidly he rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest law)ers of the State, When but 
twenty-six years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate ore of the 
judges of the State, who was tried upon articles of 
impeachment. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower House. 
During the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 1831, he reared 
altogether from the toils of his profession, having ac- 
quired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to ihe Presidency, 
appointed Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission he performed with ability, which 
gave satisfaction to all parties. Upon his return, in 
1833, he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster, 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advocated l!:e meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of m ik/ug repri- 

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sals against France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country ; and defended the course 
of the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal froni office of those who were not tlie sup- 
porters of his administration. Upon this question he 
was brought into direct collision with Henry Clay. 
He also, with voice and vote, advocated expunging 
from the journal of the Senate the vote of censure 
against Gen. Jackson for removing the deposits. 
Earnestly he opposed the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and urged the prohibition of the 
circulation of anti-slavery documents by the United 
States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slavery, he advo- 
cated that they should be respectfully received ; and 
that the reply should be returned, that Congress had 
no power to legislate upon the subject. " Congress," 
said he, " might as well undertake to interfere with 
slavery under a foreign government as in any of the 
States where it now exists." 

Upon Mr. Polks accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as such, 
took his share of the responsibility in the conduct of 
the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that crossing 
the Nueces by the American troops into the disputed 
territory was not wrong, but for the Mexicans to cross 
the Rio Grande into that territory was a declaration 
of war. No candid man can read with pleasure the 
account of the course our Government pursued in that 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the perpetuation and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. He gave his 
cordial approval to the compromise measures of 1S50, 
which included the fugitive-slave law. Mr. Pierce, 
unon his election to the Presidency, honored Mr: 
Buchanan with the mission to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. The 
political conflict was one of the most severe in which 
0.1 r country has ever engaged. All the friends of 
slavery were on one side ; all the advocates of its re- 
striction and final abolition, on the other. Mr. Fre- 
mont, the candidate of the enemies of slavery, re- 
reived 114 electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
174, and was elected. The popular vote stood 
1,340,618, for Fremont, 1,224,750 for Buchanan. On 
March 4th, 1857, Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only four 
years were wanting to fill up his threescore years and 
ten. His own friends, those with whom he had been 
allied in political principles and action for years, were 
seeking the destruction of the Government, that they 
might rear upon the ruins of our free institutions a 
nation whose comer-stone should be human slavery. 
In this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly be- 
wildered He could not, with his long-avowed prin- 

ciples, consistently oppose the State-rights party in 
their assumptions. As President of the Ui»iied States, 
bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws, 
he could not, without perjury of the grossest kind, 
unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the repub- 
lic. He therefore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administration 
nominated Abraham Lincoln as their standard bearer 
in the next Presidential canvass. The pro-slavery 
party declared, that if he were elected, and the con- 
trol of the Government were thus taken from their 
hands, they would secede from the Union, taking 
with them, as they retired, the National Capitol at 
Washington, and the lion's share of the territory of 
the United States. 

Mr. Buchanan's sympathy with the pro-slaver)' 
party was such, that he had been willing to offer them 
far more than they had ventured to claim. All the 
South had professed to ask of the North was non- 
intervention upon the subject of slavery. Mr. Bu- 
chanan had been ready to offer them the active co- 
operation of the Government to defend and extend 
the institution. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slaveholders 
claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Buchanan avow- 
ing that Congress had no power to prevent it, one of 
the most pitiable exhibitions of governmental im- 
becility was exhibited the world has ever seen. He 
declared that Congress had no power to enforce its 
laws in any State which had withdrawn, or which 
was attempting to withdraw from the Union. Thi? 
was not the doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with 
his hand upon his sword hilt, he exclaimed, "The 
Union must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i860; nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in listless despair. 
The rebel flag was raised in Charleston ; Fort Sumpter 
was l>esieged; our forts, navy-yards and irsenals 
were seized ; our depots of military stores were plun- 
dered ; and our custom-houses and post offices were 
appropriated by the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels, and the imbecility of our 
Executive, were alike marvelous. The Nation looked 
on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to glide away, 
and close the administration, so terrible in its weak- 
ness At length the long-looked-for hour of deliver- 
ance came, when Abraham Lincoln was to receive the 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends cannot recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his fame, 
that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its billows 
of flame and blood over our whole land, no word came 
from his lips to indicate his wish that our country's 
banner should triumph over the flag of the rebellion. 
He died at his Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 

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m < ABRAHAM > ^ 


sixteenth President of the 

United States, was lx)rn in 

Hardin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 

I S09, About the year 1 7 80, a 

man by the name of Abraham 

^ Li ncobi left Virginia with his 

family and moved into the then 

wildsof Kentucky. Only two years 

after this emigration, still a young 

man, while working one day in a 

field, was stealthily approached by 

an Indian and shot dead. His widow 

was left in extreme ixjverty with five 

little children, three boys aiid two 

girls- Thomas, the youngest of the 

lioys» wa^ four years of age at his 

fathers death. This Thomas was 

the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 

President of the United States 

must henceforth fo»-ever be enrolled 

whose name 

with the most prominent in the annals of our world. 

Of course no record has been kept of tlie life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
the poorest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
log -cabin; his food the coarsest and the meanest. 
Education he had none; he could never either read 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave the cabin of his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a friend- 
.ess, wandering boy, seeking work. He hired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
lal)orer in the fields of others. 

When twenty-eight years of age he built a log- 
rnbin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was Abraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created to adorn 
a palace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
" All that I am, or hope to be," exclaims the grate- 
ful son •*! owe to my angel-mother. ** 

When he was eight years of age, his father sold his 


cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana. Where 
two years later his mother died. 

Abraham soon became the scribe of the uneducated 
community around him. He could PiOt have had a 
better school than this to teach him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader. The 
books he could obtain were few ; but these he read 
and re-read until they were almost committed to 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. There were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham's sister 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mar- 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr. 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter s claim in 1830, 
and emigrated to Macon Co., 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the family comfortably settled, and their 
small lot of enclosed prairie planted with com, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
home, and to go out iuto the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be. He saw the value of 
education and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power He saw the ruin 
which atdent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly temperate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
eating liquor to pass his lips. And he had read in 
God's word, "Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain ;" and a profane expression he 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were pure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired laborer 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield, 
where he was employed in building a large fiat-boat. 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them down 
the Sangamon to the IlHnois, and thence by the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans. Whatever Abraham Lin- 
coln undertook, he performed so faithfully as to give 
great satisfaction to his employers. In this advcn- 

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ture his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return they placed a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangamon County, and although only 23 
years of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson the appointmentof Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
made this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected Mr. 
Stuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, borrowed of 
Mr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
began his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
Die hifndred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was he .first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began the practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged in almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas, on the slavery question. 
In the organization of the Republican party in Illinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in opposition to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat' in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
jlavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
:he Declaration of fndependence, that all men are 
created equal. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the 1 6th of June, i860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the citjr amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. An immense building called "The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. William H. Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was the most 
orominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
the nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him : 
and as little did he dream that he was to render services 
to his country, which would fix upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
a place in the affections of his countiymen, second 
cnly, if second, to that of Washington. 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that vas poured upon this good 

and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this 
high position. In February, 186 1, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The whole journc wastrought 
>vith much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, upon his arrival to "get up a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death with 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. A secret and special train was provided to 
take him from Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at ah 
unexpected hour of the night. The train started at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent auy possible communi- 
cation on the part ol the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train had 
started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached VVashington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal people. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
important positions. 

During no other administration have the duties 
devolving upon the President been so manifold, and 
the responsibilities so great, as those which fell to 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling his own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the difficulties, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
triah, bo*h personal and national Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, 
with no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had been 
made for his assassination, and he at last fell a victim 
to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, with Gen. Grant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords* Theater. It 
was announced that they would be present. Gen. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, feel- 
ing, with his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disappointment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the box where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o'clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its ruler. 
Strong men met in the streets and wept in speechless 
anguish. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will fitly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country 'w'ill 
live with that of Washington's, its father; his country- 
men being unable to decide whirh v«; tUe e^reatet. 

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teenth President of the United 
States. The early life of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
the record of poverty, destitu- 
tion and friendlessness. He 
was born December 29, 1808, 
in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
belonging to the class of the 
"poor whites " of the South, vere 
in such circumstances, that they 
could not confer even the slight- 
est advantages of education upon 
their child. When Andrew was five 
years of age, his father accidentally 
lost his life while herorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by the 
labor of his mother, who obtained her living with 
her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being unable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gejatleman 
was in the habit of going to the tailor s shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to the boys at work there. He often 
read from the speeches of distinguished British states- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native ability, became much interested 
in these speeches ; his ambition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, and 
with the assistance of some of his fellow- workmen, 
IcAmed his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to bonow the book of speeches. The owner. 

pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the book, 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed 01^ 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve hours 
at work in the shop, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreation to devote such time as he could to 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who pos 
sessed some education. Under her instructions he 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominent 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man s party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs ; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In 1835, he was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives of Tennes- 
see. He was then just twenty-seven years of age. 
He became a very active member of the legislature, 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1840 "stumped the State," advocating Martin Tan 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to thosv 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1 841, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successive 
elections, held that important post for ten years. In 
1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these res])onsible posi 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abi. 

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ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1857, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845,- he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
and become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1850, he also supported the com- 
promise measures, the two essential features of which 
were, that the white people of the Territories should 
be permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the free States of the North should return to the 
South persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly origin: 
on the contrary, he often took pride in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. " Sir,** 
said he on the floor of the Senate, ** I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that Adam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston- Baltimore convention of 1800, he 
was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
Presidency. In 186 1, when the purpose of the South- 
ern Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must be held subordinate to the Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established the most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished ; that the Government will not 
always bear with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
was in utter io^nsistency with, and the most violent 

opposition to, the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress ; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and lawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost In 
the beginning of 1868, on account of " high crimes 
and misdemeanors," the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the not guilty 
side would have sustained the impeachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though impotently, 
his conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
alleled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. Andrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The bullet of the assassin introduced him to the 
Presidents chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the gratitude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until 1875. ^^ J^'^- 26, after an exciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President Grant, on the 5 th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous health, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A.M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on the 3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect 

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TILDBN r(n>'M)ATluN8 

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ghteenth President of the 

f I "p United States, was bom on 

the 29th of April, 1822, of 

_ _ Christian parents, in a humble 

l^pT home, at Point Pleasant, on the 

banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town, Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edu- 
. cation. At the age of seven- 
M teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
the Military Academy at West 
I Point. Here he was regarded as a 
solid, sensible young man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 

The war with Mexico came, Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the exhibition of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resaca de la Palma, his second battle. At the battle 
of Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
he performed a signal service of daring and skillful 
horsemanship. His brigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route exposed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 
side of the aniroal, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 

From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
ro aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In- 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was appointed quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rey, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetted captain at Cha- 
pul tepee. 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, 111. This was in the year i860. As the tidings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his cotm ting-room, he said,^ 
** Uncle Sam has educated me for the army ; though 
I have served him through one war, I do not feel that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready to discharge 
my obligations. I shall therefore buckle on my sword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a company of vol- 
unteers, and led them as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the State, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. The Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the 
volunteer organization that was being fonned in the 
State in behalf of the Government. On the 15 th of 

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June, x86i, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
that he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General and was placed in command at Cairo. The 
rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River. Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared in the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing the enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at Fort Henry 
won another victory. Then came the brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victory, and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a Major-General, and the military 
listrict of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains. Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then came the 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicfcsburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and seventy-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow which the rebels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown from 
his horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
was laid up for months. He then rushed to the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a wonderful series of strategic and technical meas- 
ures put the Union Army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
general, and the rank was conferred on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credentials 
and enter upon tb^ duties of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as soon, as he took charge of 
the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
continent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majestic armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
Steamers were crowded with troops. Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed with remarkable en- 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- 
render of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal- 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
the country brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago^ 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 214 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5 th of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selection was emphati- 
cally indorsed by the people ^s^ months later, 292 
electoral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term. Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civilized world, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, private 
as well as public and official, as were never before 
bestowed upon any citizen of the United States. ^ 

He was the most prominent candidate before the 
Republican National Convention in 1880 for a re- 
nomination for President. He went to New York and 
embarked in the brokerage business under the firm 
name of Grant & Ward. The latter proved a villain, 
wrecked Grant s fortune, and for larceny was sent to 
the penitentiary. The General was attacked with 
cancer in the throat, but suffered in his stoic-like 
manner, never complaining. He was re-instated as 
General of the Army and retired by Congress. The 
cancer soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 
1885, the nation wenr in mourning over the death of 
the illustrious General. 

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..A i •--'■-; ^Ji^iiil^^'-' 

^ tyu.^^^ju^'O-^ 

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the nineteenth President of 
the United States, was bom in 
Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
most three months after the 
death of his father, Rutherford 
Hayes. His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as far back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families belonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
' and had a large following. Misfor- 
tune ov<?r<aking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
land in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his li/e. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
ried Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of his mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was a manufac- 
turer of scythei; at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of Ezekiel ai/d grandfather of President Hayes, was 
bom in New Haven, in August, 1756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavem-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes the father of President Hayes, was 

born. He was married, in September, 1813, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, tliey having been 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious, 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me- 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a stock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 181 2, for reasons inexplicable 
to his neighbors, he resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The joumey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayes deter- 
mined to move to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, 1822, a victim of malarial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of the 
son, of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from Ver- 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, and the 

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subject of this sketch was so feeble at birth that he 
was not expected to live beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weaker and 
weaker, so that the neighbors were in the habit of in- 
quiring from time to time " if Mrs. Hayes' baby died 
last night." On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother s assiduous care of 
nim, said in a bantering way, " That's right ! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
wonder if he would reallv come to something yet." 

"You need not laugh, ' said Mrs. Hayes, ** You 
wait and see. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1825, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 

The boy was seven years old before he went to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his mother and 
jister as he would have done at school. His sports 
were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, which are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deepest interest 
in his education ; and as the boy's health had im- 
proved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; but he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Kenyon College in 1838, at the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at Cambridge, Mass., where he re- 
mained two years. 

In 1845, after graduatmg at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the bar at Marietta, Ohio, and shortly 
afterward w6nt into practice as an attorn ey-at-l aw 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 

In 1849 he moved to Cincinnati, wher-e his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a powerful influence uix)n his subse- 
quent life. One of these was his marrage with Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicothe; the other was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
members such men as'^hief Justice Salmon P. Chase, 

Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. The Literary Club brought Mr. Hayes into 
constant association with young men of high char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
qualities so long hidden by his bashfulness and . 

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas ; but he declined to ac- 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office oi 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Council 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1 861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was at 
the zenith of his professional life. His rank at the 
bar was among the the first. But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take up 
arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. In 
October, 186 1, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the 79th Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevetted 
Major-General, "for gallant and distinguished services 
during the campaigns of 1864, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, from 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been Dem- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the army ; but he finally declared, " I 
shall never come to Washington until I can come by 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Governor of Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-elected over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard bearer of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after a 
hard long contest was chosen President, and was in 
augurated Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, however, with satisfaction to h:s party, 
but his admlI^i»tr*tion was an average on« 

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THE VK^" Y*:nK 

A8T0E, LftNOX AM) 
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tieth President of the United 
States, was born Nov. 19, 
1831, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
ents were Abrani and Eliza 
(Ballou) Garfield, both of New 
England ancestry and from fami- 
lies well known in the early his- 
tory of that section of our coun- 
try, but had moved to the Western 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 

The house in which James A. was 
bom was not unlike the houses of 
poor Ohio farmers of that day. It 
*tds about 20x30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
tween the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
nard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
cleared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built, 
f he household comprised the father and mother and 
dieir four children — Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and 
"ames. In May, 1823, the father, from a cold con- 
tacted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
chis time James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
tell how much James was indebted to his brothers 
toil and self- sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his father's death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
ters live in Solon, O., near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the most of 
them. He labored at farm work for others, did car- 
penter work, chopped wood, or did anything that 
would bring in a few dollars to aid 'his widowed 
mother in he' struggles to keep the little family to- 

gether. Nor was Gen. Garfield ever ashamed of his 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his strug- 
gling childhood, youth and manhood, neither did thry 
ever forget him. When in the highest seats of honor 
the humblest fjiend of his boyhood was as kindly 
greeted as ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the 
sympathy of one who had known all the bitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was fever the simple, plain, 
modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until hi 
was about sixteen years old was to be a captain of 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with tho 
understanding, however, that he should try to obtain 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city. 
After making many applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Ames 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. He re- 
mained at this work but a short time when he wen' 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Institute, teaching a /ew terms of school in 
the meantime, and doing other work. This school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1850, of 
which church he was then a member. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his way. 
He then became both teacher and pupil. He soon 
" exhausted Hiram " and needed more ; hence, in the 
fall of 1854, he entered Williams College, from which 
he graduated in 1856, taking one of the highest hon- 
ors of his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian or Diciples Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
he happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, President of 
Yale College, says of him in reference to his religion : 

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"President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious convictions. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, shows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his being, and to a more than usual degree. In 
my judgment there is no more interesting feature of 
his character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Christians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sympathy which he ever showed in their Christian 
communion. Not many of the few *wise and mighty 
and noble who are called ' show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian comnmnions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fashionable 
Chrisrianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
church of his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unsec- 
larian charity for all * who love our Lord in sincerity.'" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolph, Nov. ii, 1858, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1856, 
in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in i86i was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part of this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the old flag. He re- 
ceived his commission as Lieut. -Colonel of the Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 
14, 1 86 1. He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the' 
work of driving out of. his native State the officer 
(Humphrey Marshall) reputed to be the ablest of 
those, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplished, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Lincoln, on his success commissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. 10, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now he was the youngest General in the 
army." He was with Gen. Buell*s army at Shiloh, 
in its operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of the 
General Court-Martial for the trial of Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter. He was then ordered to report to Gen. Rose- 
crans, and was assigned to the "Chief of Staff." 

The military history of Gen. Garfield closed with 

his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he woo 
the stars of the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Gev Garfield wa» 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for sixty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and Joshua 
R. Giddings. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the time he en- 
tered Congress he was the youngest member in that 
body. Ther« he remained by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 1880. 
Of his labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Since 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a question which 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before a 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to which 
you will not find, if you wish instruction, the argu- 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
better than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Upon Jan. 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elected to 
the U. S. Senate, and on the eighth of June, of the 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention. 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, i88r, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened its existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favor with the people, and by the first 
of July he had completed all the inidatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williamg 
College, While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Blaine, a man stepped behind 
him, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
The President tottered and fell, and as he did so the 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, but inflicting no farther • 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the history of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and hope. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and August, 
he lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the country and the world the 
noblest of human lessons — how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
19, 1883, at Elberon, N. J , on the very bank of the 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly previous. The 
world wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
The murderer Was duly tried, found guilty and exe- 
cuted, in one year after he committed the foul deed. 

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twenty-first Presi^wni of the 

United States was bom in 

Franklin Cour ty, Vermont, on 

the fifth of Odober, 1830, and is 

the oldest of a family of two 

sons and five daughters. His 

father was the Rev. Dr. William 

Arthur, a Baptist d^rgyman, who 

emigrated to tb'.s countr)' from 

the county Ant am, Ireland, in 

his 1 8th year, and died in 1875, ^"^ 

Newton ville, neai Albany, after a 

long and successful ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, S< henectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
in Vermont for two years, and at 
the expiration of that time came to 
New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and entered the o^ce of ex- Judge 
E. D. Culver as student. After 
being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
in the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
but in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success^ 
ful career almost from the start. General Arthur 
loon afterward rndxr^'d the daughter of Lieutenant 

Hemdon, of the United States Navy, who was lost at 
sea. Congress voted, a gold medal to his widow ii\ 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. Arthur's 
nomination to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
in his first great case, the famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Jon, 
athan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship them to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law. A howl of rage went up from 
the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal. 
Wm. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Charles 0*Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he too was beaten by Messrs 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jennings, 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
Avenue car with violence after she had paid her fare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickly 

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followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, appointed him Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan's term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the firm. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, eac];! of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, 1880. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on the continent. It 
was composed of the heading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for their 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our country. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
the Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
♦vas Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
March 4, 1881, as President and Vice-President. 
A few months only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin's bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, — those moments of 
anxious suspense, when the hearts of all civilized na- 

tions were throbbing in unison, longing for the re- 
covery of the noble, the good President. The remark- 
able patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was 
seemingly more than human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr. 
Arthur's every move was watched, and be it said to his 
credit that his every action displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as ^ever 
before in its history over the death of any other 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty of 
the Vice President to assume the responsibilities of 
the high office, and he took the oath in New York. 
Sept. 20, 1881. The position was an embarrassing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were on him, anxious to know what he would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duries of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President's long illness, 
and many important measures were to be immediately 
decided by him ; and still farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his own 
hands ; and, as embarrassing as were the condition of 
affairs, he happily surprised the nation, acting so 
wisely that but few criticised his administration. 
He served the nation well and faithfully, until the 
close of his administration, March 4, 1885, and was 
a popular candidate before his party for a second 
term. His name was ably presented before the con- 
vention at Chicago, and was received with great 
favor, and doubtless but for the personal popularity 
of one of the opposing candidates, he would have 
been selected as the standard-bearer of his party 
for another campaign. He retired to private life car- 
rying with him the best wishes of the American peo- 
ple, whom he had served in a manner satisfactory 
to them and with credit to himself 

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"• <)C><> 

LAND, the twenty- second Pres- 
ident of the United States, was 
born in 1837, in the obscure 
town of Caldwell, Essex Co., 
N. J., and in a little two-and-a- 
half-story white house which is still 
standing, characteristically to mark 
the humble birth-place of one of 
America's great men in striking con- 
trast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in 
origin and bom in the cradle of 
wealth. When the subject of this 
sketch was three years of age, his 
father, who was a Presbyterian min- 
ister, with a large family and a small salary, moved, 
by way of the Hudson River and Erie Canal, to 
Fayetteville, in search of an inc-eased income and a 
larger field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles from 
Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour was born. 

At the last mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the " good, old-fashioned 
way," and presumably distinguished himself after the 
manner of all village boys, in doing the things he 
ought not to do. Such is the distinguishing trait of 
all geniuses and independent thinkers. When he 
arrived at the age of 14 years, he had outgrown the 
capacity of the village school and expressed a most 

emphatic desire to be sent to an academy. To this 
his father decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him to 
become self-supporting by the quickest possible 
means, and this at that time in Fayette/ille seemed 
to be a position in a country store, where his father 
and the large family on his hands had considerable 
influence. Grover was to be paid $50 for his services 
the first year, and if he proved trustworthy he was to 
receive $ioo the second year. Here the lad com- 
menced his career as salesman, and in two years he 
had earned so good a reputation for trustworthiness 
that his employers desired to retain him for an in- 
definite length of time. Otherwise he did not ex- 
hibit as yet any particular ** flashes of genius " or 
eccentricities of talent. He was simply a good boy. 
But instead of remaining wirh this firm in Fayette- 
ville, he went with the family in their removal to 
Clinton, where he had an opportunity of attending a 
high school. Here he industriously pursued his 
studies until the family removed with him to a point 
on Black River known as the " Holland Patent," a 
village of 500 or 600 people, 15 miles north of Uiica, 
N. Y. At this place his father died, after preaching 
but three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, at a 
small salary, the position of " under-teacher " in an 
asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully for two 
years, and although he obtained a good reputation in 
this capacity, he concluded that teaching was not his 

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calling for life, and, reversing the traditional order, 
he left the city to seek his fortune, instead of going 
to a city. He first thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
there was some charm in that name for him; but 
before proceeding to that place he went to Buffalo to 
TLsk the advice of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted 
stock-breeder of that place. The latter did not 
speak enthusiastically. " What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply. "Good gracious!" remarked 
the old gentleman ; " do you, indeed ? What ever put 
that into your head? How much money have you 
got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I haven't got 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him a 
place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at $50 a 
year, while he could "look around." One day soon 
afterward he boldly walked into the office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and told Ihem what he 
wanted. A number of young men were already en- 
gaged in the office, but Grover's persistency won, and 
tie was finally pennitted to come as an office boy and 
have the use of the law library, for the nominal sum 
of $3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for 
his board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and, although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair and his overcoat — he had 
none — yet he was nevertheless prompt and regular. 
On the first day of his service here, his senior em- 
ployer threw down a copy of Blackstone before him 
with a bang that made the dust fly, saying " That's 
where they all begin." A titter ran around the little 
circle of clerks and students, as they thought that 
was enough to scare young Grover out of his plans ; 
i)ut indue lime he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleveland 
exhibited a talent for executiveness rather than for 
chasing principles through all their metaphysical 
possibilities. " Let us quit talking and go and do 
't," was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland was 
elected was that of Sheriff of Erie Co., N. Y., in 
which Buffalo is situated; and in such capacity it fell 
to his duty to inflict capital punishment upon two 
criminals. In 1881 he was elected Mayor of the 
City of Buffalo, on the Democratic ticket, with es- 
pecial reference to the bringing about certain reforms 

in the administration of the municipal affairs of that 
city. In this office, as well as that of Sheriff, his 
performance of duty has generally been considered 
fair, with possibly a few exceptions which were fer- 
reted out and magnified during the last Presidential 
campaign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an iniqui- 
tous street-cleaning contract : " This is a time foi 
plain speech, and my objection to your action shall 
be plainly stated. I regard it as the culmination of 
a mos bare-faced, impudent and shameless scheme 
to betray the interests of the peopb and to wors3 
than squander the people's money." The New York 
Sun afterward very highly commended Mr. Cleve- 
land's administration as Mayor of Buffalo, and there- 
upon recommended him for Governor of the Empire 
State. To the latter office he was elected in 1882, 
and his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made, if 
any, were made very public throughout the nation 
after he was nominated for President of the United 
States. For this high office he was nominated July 
II, 1884, by the National Democratic Convention at 
Chicago, when other competitors were Thomas F. 
Bayard, Roswell P. Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Benjamin F. Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.; and he 
was elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Repub- 
lican statesman, James G. Blaine. President Cleve- 
land resigned his office as Governor of New York in 
January, 1885, in order to prepare for his duties as 
the Chief Executive of the United States, in which 
capacity his term commenced at noon on the 4th of 
March, 1885. For his Cabinet officers he selected 
the following gentlemen: For Secretary of State, 
Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware ; Secretary of the 
Treasury, Daniel Manning, of New York; Secretary 
of War, William C. Endicott, of Massachusetts ; 
Secretary of the Navy, William C. Whitney, of New 
York; Secretary of the Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, of 
Mississippi; Postmaster-General, William F. Vilas, 
of Wisconsin ; Attorney-General, A. H. Garland, of 

The silver question precipitated a controversy be- 
tween those who were in favor of the continuance of 
silver coinage and those who were opposed, Mr. 
Cleveland answering for the latter, even before his 

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twenty- third President, is 
the descendant of one of the 
historical families of this 
country. The head of the 
family was a Major General 
Harrison, one of Oliver 
Cromwell's trtisted follow- 
ers and fighters. In the zenith of Crom- 
well's power it became the duty of this 
Harrison to participate in the trial of 
Charles I, and afterward to sign the 
death warrant of the king. He subse- 
quently paid for this with his life, being 
hung Oct. 13, 16G0. His descendants 
came to America, and the next of the 
family that appears in history is Benja- 
r;:in^ Harrison, of Virginia, great-grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, and 
after whom he was named. Benjamin Harrison 
was a member of the Continental Congress during 
the years 1774-5-6, and was one of the original 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
was three times elected Governor of Virginia. 
Gen William Henry Harrison, the son of the 


distinguished patriot of the Revolution, after a suc- 
cessful career as a soldier during the War of 1812, 
and with 'a clean record as Governor of the North- 
western Territory, was elected President of the 
United States in 1840. His career was cut short 
by death within one month after his inauguration. 
President Harrison was born at North Bend, 
Hamilton Co., Ohio, Aug. .^0, 18b3, His life up to 
the time of his graduation by the Miami University, 
at Oxford, Ohio, was the uneventful one of a coun- 
try lad of a family of small means. His father was 
able to give him a good education, and nothing 
more. He became engaged while at college to the 
daughter of Dr. Scott, Principal of a female school 
at Oxford. After graduating he determined to en- 
ter upon the study of the law. He went to Cin 
cinnati and then read law for two years. At tht 
expiration of that time young Harrison received tfc:"^ 
only inheritance of his life ; his aunt dying left him 
a lot valued at 1800. He regarded this legacy as & 
fortune, and decided to get married at once, taks 
this money and go to some Eastern town an I be- 
gin the practice of law. He sold his lot, and with 
the money in his pocket, he started out with his 
young wife to fight for a place in the world. Ee 

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decided to go to Indianapolis, which was even at 
that time a town of promise. He met with slight 
encouragement at first, making scarcely anything 
the first year. He worked diligently, applying him- 
self closely to his calling, built up an extensive 
practice and took a leading rank in the legal pro- 
A»ssion. He is the father of two children. 

In 1860 Mr. Harrison was nominated for the 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
gan his experience as a stump speaker. He can- 
vassed the State thoroughly, and was elected by a 
handsome majority. In 1862 he raised the 17th 
Indiana Infantry, and was chosen its Colonel. His 
regiment was composed of the rawest of material, 
out Col. Harrison employed all his time at first 
mastering military tactics and drilling his men, 
when he therefore came to move toward the East 
witli Sherman his regiment was one of the best 
drilled and organized in the army. At Resaca he 
especially distinguished himself, and for his bravery 
nt Peachtree Creek he was made a Brigadier Gen- 
eral, Gen. Hooker speaking of him in the most 
complimentary terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the field 
iie Supreme Court declared the office of the Su- 
preme Court Reporter vacant, and another person 
was elected to the position. From the time of leav- 
ing Indiana with his regiment until the fall of 1864 
he had taken no leave of absence, but having been 
nominated that year for the same office, he got a 
thirty-day leave of absence, and during that time 
made a brilliant canvass of the State, and was elected 
for another term. He then started to rejoin Sher- 
man, but on the way was stricken down with scarlet 
fever, and after a most trying siege made his way 
to the front in time to participate in the closing 
incidents of the war. 

In 1868 Gen. Harrison declined ::. re-election as 
reporter, and resumed the practice of law. In 1876 
be was a candidate for Governor. Although de- 
nted, the brilliant campaign he made won for him 
5t National reputation, and he was much sought, es- 
pecially in the East, to make speeches. In 1880, 
as usual, he took an active part in the campaign, 
and was elected to the United States Senate. Here 
he served six years, and was known as one of the 
ablest men, best lawyers and strongest debaters in 

that body. With the expiration of his Senatorial 
term he returned to the practice of his profession, 
becoming the head of one of the strongest firms in 
the State. 

The political campaign of 1 888 was one of the 
most memorable in the history of our country. The 
convention which assembled in Chicago in June and 
named Mr. Harrison as the chief standard bearer 
of the Republican party, was great in every partic- 
ular, and on this account, and the attitude it as- 
sumed upon the vital questions of the day, chief 
among which was the tariff, awoke a deep interest 
in the campaign throughout the Nation. Shortly 
after the nomination delegations began to visit Mr. 
Harrison at Indianapolis, his home. This move- 
ment became popular, and from all sections of the 
country societies, clubs and delegations journeyed 
thither to pay their respects to the distinguished 
statesman. The popularity of these was greatly 
increased on account of the remarkable speeches 
made by Mr. Harrison. He spoke daily all through 
the summer and autumn to these visiting delega- 
tions, and so varied, masterly and eloquent were 
his speeches that they at once placed him in the 
foremost rank of American orators and statesmen. 

On account of his eloquence as a speaker and his 
power as a debater, he was called upon at an un- 
commonly early age to take part in the discussion 
of the great questions that then began Id agitate 
the country. He was an uncompromising ant! 
slavery man, and was matched against some of t!:e 
most eminent Democratic speakers of his State. 
No man who felt the touch of his blade desired to 
be pitted with him again. With all his eloquence 
as an orator he never spoke for oratorical effect, 
but his words always went like bullets to the mark 
He is purely American in his ideas and is a splec 
did type of the American statesman. Gifted witli 
quick perception, a logical mind and a ready tongue, 
he is one of the most distinguished impromptu 
speakers in the Nation. Many of these speeches 
sparkled with the rarest of eloquence and contained 
arguments of greatest weight. Many of his terse 
statements have already become aphorisms. Origi- 
nal in thought, precise in logic, terse in statement, 
yet withal faultless in eloquence, he is recognized as 
the sound statesman and brill iaut orator o^ the day 

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©nry ^odge» 


HE first Dodge in America 
settled on Block Island, a 
portion of Rhode Island, in 
the year 1660, and is down 
in the records as Trustrome 
(Tristram) Daudge. Israel, 
father of Gov. Henry Dodge, 
settled in Kentucky during the 
bloodiest period of the Indian 
massacres, and built the first 
stone house at Bairdstown. He 
erected large mills at Ste. Gene- 
vieve, Mo., and during one of his 
journeys between his house and that 
place with his wife, was inter- 
cepted at Yincennes, Ind., where, on Oct. 12, 1782, 
Henry was born. The name Henry was bestowed 
in honor of a gunsmith named Moses Henry, who, 
when a savage had seized and was about to dash 
the child's brains out, by an extraordinary exhi- 
bition of intrepidity, sav^d its life. 

A little later the Dodges mored to Ste. Gene- 
vieve. Henry's education was completed in a log 
school house at Bairdstown, but later he read law a 
little and at twenty-one was appointed Sheriff of 
Ste. Genevieve County, Mo. 

When the War of 1812 broke out, he enlisted as 
a subaltern and successively filled every intermedi- 
ate rank to that of brigadier-general, which he re- 
ceived in 1814. 

In 1820 he was elected a member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of Missouri, and appointed 
United States Marshal. In 1827 the discovery of 

lead in Wisconsin having created considerable ex- 
citement, he emigrated to the '4ead region," set- 
tling at Dodgeville, Iowa County, which was named 
in his honor. 

Here he erected the first smelting works and for 
some time carried on with great energy the busi- 
ness of mining and and smelting, going in person 
down the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers on flat- 
boats to New Orleans with cargoes of lead. 

Soon after reaching what is now Wisconsin, the 
Winnebago Indians began raiding the feeble settle- 
ments, killing and scalping men, women and child- 
ren. The settlers chose Gen. Dodge to lead them, 
who, after erecting block houses and forging spikes 
for defense, started in pursuit of the leaders of the 
uprising. His great energy and full knowledge of 
the peculiarities of savage warfare so surprised and 
terrorized the Indians that they surrendered the 
originators of the raid, who, though tried and con- 
victed, were pardoned by President J. Q. Adams. 

Gen. Dodge's name became widely known 
through the Black Hawk War. The Sacs had 
yielded the lead regions to the Government, and 
agreed to remove across the Mississippi into Iowa. 
Black Hawk contended the treaty had been improp- 
erly signed and refused to move. Finally in 1831, 
United States troops forced him across; but calm, 
brave and patriotic, he recrossed in April, 1832, 
with 500 warriors and 1,500 women and children, 
to recover his villages and country. 

Immediately 2,000 troops were raised, Dodge 
recruiting the Mineral Point '*free rangers," a fear- 
less, rough-and-ready and well armeil body of 

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men, who with their commander, commissioned 
Colonel by the Governor of Michigan, pursued 
Black Hawk until he was finally captured. 

There is an immense amount of bragging and 
falsehood in the popular accounts of the Black 
Hawk War, but Gen. Dodge rendered valuable 
service by terrorizing the Winnebagoes, whose 
treacherous and sneaking character he seemed to 
understand, thus keeping them in subjection. 

In 1833, Gen. Dodge was placed in command of 
1,000 mounted rangers, raised hy special act of 
Congress, for the protection of the frontier. At 
the end of a year of this precarious service, he 
was placed in command of the first regiment of 
dragoons ever enlisted into the army of the United 
States, and sent towards the head waters of the Ar- 
kansas River for the purpose of reclaiming whites 
held in captivity by the Commanches, Kiowas and 
other hostile tribes. 

In 1835 he penetrated the wild country at the 
head of the Platte River and formed treaties with 
more than thirty tribes of Indians. On his return 
Congress ordered the journal of his expedition, a 
rare and interesting volume now out of print, to 
be published. 

Wisconsin having been created into a territory 
in 1836, Gen. Dodge was nominated by President 
Jackson to be its firat Governor and Superintendent 
of Indian affairs. 

A "grand independence celebration" having been 
arranged at Mineral Point, on July 4, 1836, Gen. 
Dodge was invited to be present and as part of the 
ceremonies solemnlj" subscribed to the oath of of- 
fice in the presence of the people, and made a brief 
speech. It was the most democratic inauguration 
ever held in Wisconsin. 

The first election having been held, Gen. Dodge 
convened the Legislature at Belmont, now in 
La Fayette County, on Oct. 25, 1836. His mes- 
sage, delivered in person to both Houses, was com - 
'prehensive. He wished Congress to clear the Rock 
River of its obstructions, but thought that railways 
must furnish the future means of transportation, and 
asked the Government to construct a line from the 
Mississippi to Lake Michigan. 

He also recommended "the propriety of asking 
from Congress a donation of one township of land 

to be sold and the proceeds of the sale placed un- 
der direction of the Legislative Assembly for the 
establishment of an academy for the education of 
youth." This embodies precisely the principle of 
the plan on which Universities were established in 
Wisconsin and other States, by grants of lands 
from Congress. 

There was a certain mixture of dash, self-conceit, 
energy and insight into the ways and wants of the 
pioneers, that made him popular. Besides, he had 
recommended the "right of pre-emption, graduated 
prices for lands according to values," and that the 
Government put a stop to "speculation in land, 
the immediate gift from God to man." He was 
re-appointed in 1 839. 

On March 4, 1841, the Whigs came into power, 
under William H. Harrison and John Tyler, and 
Gov. Dodge was removed to make room for 
James Duane Doty. Thereupon the Democrats 
made him their nominee for delegate to Congress, 
and he was elected over Jonathan E. Arnold, of 
Milwaukee; and he was re-elected in 1843, over 

Gen. Hicox. 

In March, 1845, the Democrats, under James K. 
Polk, assumed national control and Gen. Dodge 
was re-appointed Governor of the Territory and 
continued to serve as such until Wisconsin was ad- 
mitted as a State in 1848. 

The new State Legislature met in June and on 
the 8th elected Gov. Dodge and Isaac P. Walker to 
the United States Senate; and in casting lots for 
the long and short terms. Gov. Dodge drew the 
former. He was re-elected in January, 1851, for 
the term ending on the 4th of March, 1857. This 
closed the public career of Henry Dodge. 

Though not an educated man he found delight 
in cei-tain branches of 'literature, especially during 
the latter part of his life in careful perusals of 
"Scott's Bible" and its notes, and at his death, 
which occurred on June 19, 1869, at the home of 
his son, Augustus C. Dodge, in Burlington, Iowa, 
he was a member of the Episcopal Church. 

His last years were passed mostly at Mineral Point 
in a state of complete rest and peace, in emphatic 
and beautiful contrast to the privations, warfare 
and stormy activity of his earlier life on the front- 
ier and far into the heart of the Indian countr>\ 

In 1 870 the Legislature of Wisconsin appropri- 
ated 12.000 for Knowles' marble bust of Gov. 
Dodge, which stands in the Capitol at Madteon. 
No other citizen was ever thus honored at public 

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-f-^»^^=» 3t I * 

HE ablest ana most compre- 
hensive of our pioneer 
statesmen, and the one who 
possessed a better knowledge 
of the Territory and its re- 
sources, and a surer insight 
into the future than any other 
man of his time, was born at 
Salem, Washington Co., N. Y., 
on Nov. 5, 1799. After com- 
pleting a thorough English 
course of study, he studied law, 
and in his twentieth year settled in 
Detroit, where his suave manners, 
conspicuous abihty and handsome, 
commanding presence brought immediate popu- 

In 1819 he was admitted to the bar of the Su- 
preme Court of Michigan, and soon after was 
elected Secretary of the Detroit City Council, Clerk 
of the Supreme Court, and Secretary of the Terri- 
torial Legislature. In these positions he increased 
his reputation, for he seemed to know exactly how 
everything connected with administrative affairs 
should be done, and ix)ssessed the tact to do it ac- 
curately and promptly. 

Charles C. Trowbridge, of Detroit, in a letter to 
Lyman C. Drainer, of the Wisconsin State Histori- 
cal Societ}', says: "I found Doty here when I 
came, in September, 1819, and roomed with him; 
made the tour of the lakes with him in (ien. Cass' 
expedition of 1820, and enjoyed his uninterrupted 

friendship. He became the law partner of George 
McDougal, * * who predicted from the first that 
Doty would become a man of mark. The partner- 
ship continued several years — I think until Doty 
was made Judge of the Northern District. * * 
While he lived in Detroit, Gov. Doty was dis- 
tinguished for close application to his profession 
and for frugality." 

In 1820 Lewis Cass made his famous tour of the 
lakes, and penetrated to the source of the Missis- 
sippi in a flotilla of birch-bark canoes. Doty was 
secretary of the expedition, and his report is still 
looked upon as embodying the most accurate in- 
formation to be had in reference to the condition 
of the country before it was settled by the whites — 
game, food -products, Indian tribee and habits, tim- 
ber, etc. " Northern Wisconsin in 1820," in Vol. 
VII Wisconsin Historical Collections. At the close 
of this expedition, at the age of twenty-two, having 
already revised and published the laws of Michi- 
gan, Doty went to Washington and was admitted 
to practice before the United States Supreme Court. 

In 1823, all the country west of Lakes Michigan 
and Superior, in the old Northwest Territory, was 
set off into a new judicial district, and Mr. Doty 
was appointed by President Monroe to be its first 
judge. It is not possible now to fully appreciate 
the dangers and responsibilities which this appoint- 
ment entailed. He was comi>elle(l to establish this 
hitherto unknown authority at Prairie du Chien, 
Green Bay and Mackinaw; traveling with his books, 
papers and records, on horseback, between these 

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widely-separated points through a hostile and un- 
known country. Besides, the condition of such as 
called themselves settlers was, in its way, even 
worse. At each point were a few soldiers ; here and 
there were traders living with Indian women and 
everywhere around and mixed in with them were 
Indians subject to no authority whatever, as they 
believed. He was compelled to hear murder trials, 
divorce suits, actions upon contracts, controversies 
between trappers, claims to lands yet unsurveyed, 
to settle conflicts between civil and military author- 
it}', and generally to bring order out of social 
chaos; and here should be recorded Mr. Doty's 
most important and difficult work — laying the 
foundation of society and teaching these wild classes 
to respect and obey the laws. At first the people 
were disposed to resist the Judge's authority, as he 
at once began to compel those who had been living 
with Indian women to marry or leave them and 
provide for whatever offspring had been the fruits 
of these strange unions. 

Judge Doty's record, from the time of his first 
term at Mackinaw, beginning on July 21, 1823, to 
November, 1 832, is preserved in the vaults of the 
State Historical Society at Madison, and is a 
model of neatness and perspicuity. 

In 1832 he was appointed by the Secretary of 
War to lay out military roads from Green Bay to 
Prairie du Chien and to Ft. Dearborn, now Chicago, 
and in 1834 was elected to serve as a member of 
the Territorial Legislature of Michigan, drafting 
and passing the act which made Michigan a State, 
and Wisconsin a Territory. 

The first legislature of the Territory of Wiscon- 
sin met in 1836 and fixed the seat of government. 
There were several candidates — some real places, 
like Fond du Lac, Mineral Point, Cassville, Bel- 
mont and Green Bay, and some cities on paper. 
Mr. Doty, knowing the topography of the country 
better than any other man, entered a large tract of 
land between the lakes at Madison — a beautiful lo- 
cation — platted it, and offered free a site in the 
midst of a fine natural park for the capitol buildings. 
After a bitter fight he was victorious, and Madison 
was chosen as the seat of government. From this 
event dated the unparalleled political assaults upon 
Mr. Doty, which did not cease until he was com- 

pletely out of the public eye — the foundation for 
it all — being the disappointment of speculatore and 
politicians who wanted the capital located else- 
where ; yet all concede now that Gov. Doty selected 
the most beautiful location in the -State - for the 
State House. 

In 1837 he was elected delegate to Congress; was 
re-elected two years later, and served until he was 
made Governor and Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs of Wisconsin Territory, in which capacity 
he served from Oct. 5, 1841 to Sept. 16, 1844. 

Gov. Doty's first message was long and compre- 
hensive. He opposed all laws creating monopolies — 
charters granting exclusive privileges; recom- 
mended that steps be taken to organize a State; 
that bank circulation should be circumscribed and 
rendered more stable; that, to encourage the intro- 
duction of sheep and growth of wool, sheep and 
their fleeces be exempt from taxation ; that a more 
effective system for the support of common schools 
should be devised, and that all the Indians be re- 
moved from the Territory. 

Although his administration was stormy and un- 
pleasant — ^an open rupture occurring between him- 
self and the Legislature — Gov. Doty was active 
and ambitious in behalf of the people of the Terri- 
tory. He made a vigorous attempt to have the 
southern boundary of Wisconsin established on a 
line drawn westward from the head of Lake Michi- 
gan, as the Ordinance of 1787 provided, which 
would have made Chicago instead of Milwaukee 
the metropolis of Wisconsin. 

In 1846 he was chosen to serve in the conven- 
tion called to form a new State constitution, and in 
1849 was elected to Congress, and re-elected in 
1851. While serving in this capacity he was 
branded as an Abolitionist, because, desiring to 
protect an important interest in his State, he re- 
fused to vote to repeal the duty on lead. 

In 1861 he was appointed Superintendent of In- 
dian Affairs of Utah, and made the first treaty ever 
had with the Shoshonees. In May, 1863 he was 
made Governor of Utah, in which capacity he was 
forced to contend with the bloody and unscrupu- 
lous powers of the Mormon Church, and which 
oflSce he* held at the time of his death, June 13, 

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jxalKaaiel Jjoller Tallmadge. 



HE Tallmadge family is of 
^ Saxon descent, as the name, 
originally spelled Tolle- 
mache, indicates. Burke 
says, '*It has flourished with 
the greatest honor in an uniu- 
tenupted male succession in the 
County of SuflPolk since the first 
arrival of the Saxons in Eng- 
land, a period of more than 
thirteen centuries. Tollemaehe, 
Lord of Bentley, and Stoke Tolle- 
maehe, in the County of Oxford, 
lived in the Sixth century; and 
upon the old manor-house of Bent- 
ley is still the following inscription : "Before the 
Norman into England came, Bentley was my resi- 
dence and Tollemaehe my name." 

Joel, father of N. P. Tallmadge, served with 
honor in the War of the Revolution, and was pres- 
ent at the surrender of Gen. Burgoy ne. Nathaniel 
P. was bom at Chatham, Columbia Co., N. Y., on 
Feb. 8, 1795. He first attracted attention by an 
unusual thirst for knowledge, beginning latin with- 
out a tutor, while yet in the district school. So 
conspicuous was the boy's ability to acquire inform- 
ation that he was placed under the care of William 
H. Maynard, from whom he imbibed modes of 
tliougbt that colored his entire life. 

After graduating from Williams College with 
honor in 1815, he began the study of law in the 
oflSce of Gen. James Tallmadge, in Poughkeepsie, 
who taught him to be thorough rather than in haste 
to pass an examination. In 1 818 he was admitted to 
the bar and began the practice of his profession, 

wholly eschewing politics until 1828, when he was 
elected to the Assembly from Duchess County. 

Though this Legislature was composed of excep- 
tionally able men, when it came to revising the 
statutes young Tallmadge showed such a complete 
knowledge of the principles of law and govern- 
ment that he was soon acknowledged to be a leader. 

In 1829 he was elected to the State Senate, where 
he made a reputation that extended far beyond 
the borders of his state. DeWitt Clinton's Erie 
canal project having always been defended by him, 
he was made chairman of the committee on canals. 

The subject of railways had begun to attract at- 
tention in the United States. No man in the 
country had a more thorough understanding than 
Mr. Tallmadge of the experiments in Europe with 
steam transportation, and this knowledge was em- 
bodied in an elaborate report to the Senate, which 
discussed the subject in a manner that would do 
credit to the present day. He pointed out that 
railway transportation would sooner or later super- 
sede every other form, ''as railways do not freeze in 
the winter nor dry up in the summer, besides in 
speed and safety, they will be incomparable." He 
especially desired to see a railroad built along the 
banks of the Hudson River, between New York 
and Albany, for the purpose of testing his theory 
that boats could not long compete with locomotives. 

Before the expiration of his term in the State 
Senate he was elected to the United States Senate 
for the term of six years beginning March 4, 1833 
Although perhaps tlie youngest man in that body, 
Mr. Tallmadge exerted a marked influence in shap 
ing legislation. He was a sound logician and pol 
ished orator and had the reputation of fully under 

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standing whatever matter he undertook to discuss. 
His controversy with Calhoun on the right of col- 
ored people to present petitions to Congress was 
able and memorable. 

But that which disclosed his real strength and 
audacity of character was his controversy with 
President Van Buren, some of whose recommend- 
ations he opposed. At last the two were brought 
to a personal interview, which was described as 
very interesting owing to the attempt of the Presi- 
dent to intimidate the Senator from New York. 

On returning from Washington, Mr. Tallmadge 
received an ovation, which was intended as an ap- 
proval of his opposition to Van Buren. A process- 
ion me£ him at the steamboat landing as an escort 
to the Astor House, and in the evening he was hon- 
ored with a reception at National Hall. 

His popularity was now great, and he proceeded 
to organize the Democracy of New York for the 
purpose of defeating Van Buren. While this was 
going on, in 1839, he was triumphantly re-elected 
to the Senate. Having been ostracized by the ad- 
ministration organs of his party, hampered by the 
use of executive power and denounced as an apos- 
tate, Tiis re-election was generally regarded as fore- 
shadowing the fate of Van Buren, and so it proved. 
Mr. Tallmadge could have been the nominee for 
vice-president on the ticket with Gen. Harrison, 
but declined that honor, as he did also the offer 
of a seat in Harrison's cabinet and a foreign mis- 

In 1844, having purchased a beautiful tract of 
land near Fond du Lac, in every way fit for the es- 
tablishment of a baronial home, with the intention 
of making Wisconsin his future residence, Presi- 
dent Tyler nominated him for Governor of the 
Territory. After some deliberation he resolved to 
resign his position in the United States Senate and 
accept the office. 

Mr. Tallmadge succeeded James D. Doty as 
chief executive of this Territory*, on Sept. 16, 
1844, and held the office until May 13, 1815, vvhen, 
the Democrats having again succeeiied to power, 
he was removed and (tov. Dodge appointed. 

Mr. Tallmadge, on becoming Governor, found 
the people full of excitement, owing to the stormy 
controversy between the Legislature and Gov. Doty; 
but he soon restored peace and harmony, and 
worked hand in hand with that body, to which 
he delivered his message in person on Jan. 17, 1845. 

In this message he pointed out that the famous 
Milwaukee <fe Rock River Canal had been aband- 

oned, its projectors having sold enough of the 
land grant to build a water power at Milwaukee, 
and recommended that a railway from the Missis- 
sippi to Lake Michigan, should be built to take its 

He also op^xised as too early in a new settlement 
to be wise, the proposed extension of the period 
required for naturalization to twenty-one years, 
and recommended the establishment for the pro- 
motion of agriculture, of "pattern farms," agricul- 
tural societies, and agricultural schools. Those 
who now take note of our university farm and 
agricultural experiment station, our farmers' insti- 
tutes and our numerous agricultural associations, 
all fostered by public appropriations, must be im- 
pressed with the foresight of Gov. Tallmadge. 

So dignified, courteous and able was this mes- 
sage that the Legislature authorized 750 copies of 
it to be printed in German; the first time such an 
unusual thing was ever done in Wisconsin. 

On retiring from the office of Governor, Mr. 
Tallmadge abandoned active politics, and though 
continuing his residence at Fond du Lac, spenj; a 
large portion of his time in Washington, where he 
was ever ready to advance the interests of Wiscon- 

Gov. Tallmadge was a lover of literature, phil- 
osophy and good company. His speeches and 
writings abound in apt and beautiful poetical quo- 
tations; he eagerly espoused any controversy 
upon the problem of life, of which he took an 
ethereal though philosophical view, and his spa- 
cious home was ever open to his hosts of friends. 

There settled near Fond du Lac at an early day 
a considerable list of people remarkable for wealth, 
culture and hospitality. In fact there was no 
social coterie in the Territory at all to be compared 
with the one under mention at the time Govs. 
Doty and Tallmadge settled at Fond du Lac; and 
the life they lived of constantly interchanging 
social amenities of tho most cordial and polished 
character, can hardly be understood by the present 
generation. Their children were taught French, 
music and art by private tutors; they gave hunting 
and other parties on a broad scale; they regarded 
the poor with consideration and respect and they 
added in every way a charm and wholesome gla- 
mour to society that had never been seen in a new 
country and is not now to be found anywhere. In 
all this the Tallmadge family were leaders for many 
years and very popular. 

Gov. Tallmadge was romantic and fine-grained 
in his organization, as may be seen by reading an 
early volume published by him — "Healing of the 
Nations.'* He left an autobiography, which is to 
be published in the future. 

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R. DEWEY has been a con- 
spicuous character in Wis- 
consin for more than half a 
century, and unless Moses 
M. Strong be excepted, is 
personally familiar with more 
men, events, facts, and political 
secrets than any man now living. 
About these matters, however, 
he was never very talkative, hav- 
ing been a believer in an early ad- 
monition by James Buchanan : "Say 
little and write nothing for the 
public eye." Mr. Dewey is the 
son of Ebenezer and Lucy (Web- 
ster) Deweyj and was born in the 
(own of Lebanon, State of Connecticut, on Decem- 
ber 19, 1813. The following year his parents re- 
moved to Otsego County, in the State of New 
York, where his youthful days were spent in the 
town of Butternuts, now Morris. 

The early education of Mr. Dewey was com- 
menced in the district school of that place. At 
the age of sixteen he was sent to Hamilton Acad- 
emy, then under charge of Prof. Zenos Moore, in 
the town of Hamilton, Chenango Co., N. Y., where 
he remained three years. Among Jiis classmates 
were William Pitt Lynde, for man}^ years Member 


of Congress from Milwaukee, and Prof. J. W. 
Sterling, of the University of Wisconsin, both now 

After leaving the academy Mr. Dewey taught 
school in the town of Morris one year, after which 
he read law, first with his father then with the law 
firm of Hansen <fe Davis, and later with Samuel S. 
Bowne, of Coopei-stown. Leaving Bowne's oflSce in 
May, 1836, for Wisconsin, he arrived at the lead 
mines on the 19th of June, and in Cassville, 
his present home, in Grant County, on the Missis- 
sippi River, about a week later. He was admitted 
to the bar on an examination held by Charles Dunn, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Territory 
of Wisconsin, in 1838, and practiced law with J. 
Allen Barber (deceased) until May, 1848. 

At the first election of county ofl3cers in Grant 
County, in 1837, Mr. Dewey was elected Register 
of Deeds. He moved to Lancaster the same year, 
where he lived seventeen years. While residing 
there he held various county ofl3ces, and was elected 
to the Territorial Legislature three times, once 
being chosen S4)eaker of the House of Represent- 
atives, and Vice-President of the Council. 

In May, 1848, Wisconsin having been admitted 
to the Union, Mr. Dewey was elected b}'^ the Demo- 
crats to be its first Governor, over John H. Tweedjs 
by a majority of over 5,000. The various depart- 

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ments being new, the functions strange and numer- 
ous, and many of the subordinates unused to pub- 
lic service of any kind, his position was one of 
many difficulties and required gre^t patience and 
care. For the first time all State matters were 
divorced from Federal control; appointments must 
be made in spite, or at the dictation of local in- 
fluence ; responsibilit}' for erroi-s was transferred from 
Washington to Madison, and there was tlie general 
pressure and chaos attendant upon a new order of 
things on a large scale. So well, however, did he dis- 
charge the duties of his office, that he was re-nomi- 
nated and re-elected, in 1849. by a larger majority 
than before for the full term of two years. In Janu- 
ary, 1853, at the end of his second gubernatorial 
term, he retired to private life, but at the first op- 
portunity, during the fall of that year, was called out 
again, being nominated for the State Senate in the 
16th District, and elected over Orsamus Cole, now 
Chief Justice of the Wisconsin Supreme Court, by a 
majority of three votes. 

In 1855 he removed to Cassville, which has 
been his home since, except five years, from 1858 
to 1863, during which time he lived in Platteville. 
While living in Lancaster he was chosen chairman 
of the Town Board one term, and also Chairman 
of the County Board of Supervisors one term. He 
was Director of the School Board which built the 

first school-house in Lancaster. While at Platte- 
ville he was twice elected President of the Village 
Board, and was Director of the S3hool Board that 
built the brick school-house at that place. He was 
Chairman of the Town Board of Cassville seven 
years, and was director of the School Board that 
erected the new Cassville school building. In 1873 
he was appointed State's Prison Commissioner by 
Gov. Taylor, and for half a century has been a 
member or nominee of every Territorial and 
State Convention held in Wisconsin by the 
Democratic party, besides being many times a 
delegate to their national conventions for nomi- 
ating candidates for President, and frequently on 
the State electoral ticket, either as district elector 
or . elector-at- large. Everywhere, though quiet 
and reserved, he was a familiar figure, with his 
long, double-breasted frock coat of black broadclotli, 
Byronic collar, and intensely black beard and hair. 
Gov. Dewey was always a man of strong will 
and modest actions. It is said that the numberless 
honors with which his party has adorned his life, 
came alwayai Mutliout solicitation, and in all his 
positions of trust no one has ever thought of ques- 
tioning his integrity. In his notions and habits he 
has been as changeless as in his political principles, 
and it is said that, until this sketch was prepared, 
the public had no knowledge of the day or place of 
his birth. 

Note: — Gov. Dewey died at his late home in Cassville, July 21, 1889. 

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HIS distinguishea gentleman 
had fewer personal and po- 
litical enemies than any man 
who ever served as Gov- 
ernor of the State, and he 
himself died without knowing 
exactly why it was so, or why 
and how he was ever made Gov- 
ernor. Capt. James Farwell, of 
Massachusetts, married Rebecca 
Cady, of Vermont, and settled 
near Watertown, N. Y., where the 
first fruit of this union, Leonard 
J., was born on Jan. 5, 1819. In 
1824, Mrs. Farwell died, and in 
1830 she was followed by her hus- 
band. Thus, at the age of eleven 
3'ear8, Leonard was left an orphan 
and poor. He attended the dis- 
trict school until his fourteenth 
year, and then entered a dry-goods 
store. This business not suiting 
his tastes, he applied himself to 
mastering the tinner's trade, at the same time mak- 
ing a careful study of book-keeping and the founda- 
dation principles of trade and commerce. 

In 1838, having completed his apprenticeship, 
young Farwell settled at Lockport, 111., and with- 
out other capital than energy, and the tools and 
knowledge of his trade, opened a small tinshop and 
hardware &V>''«. Although he soon built up a good 


business, he thought he could see that Lockpcrt 
was not destined to become a large city, and there 
fore, on his twenty-first birthday, namely, Jan. 5, 
1840, sold out and removed at once to Milwaukee, 
where he opened a general hardware store oa a 
large scale. 

Having a perfect knowledge of the details of the 
business, and possessing great energy and capacity, 
Mr. Farwell soon made his new venture a success, 
and in a few years, by judicious and liberal adver- 
tising, built up the largest wholesale house in Wis- 
consin, and perhaps the largest in the West. 

In 1846 he made a tour of the West Indies, and 
on his return, having observed that the entire coun- 
try was growing steadily and rapidly, purchased 
about one-half of what is now the city of Madison, 
including the water-power at the outlet of Fourth 



In September 1847, he started on an extended 
tour of the Old World, visiting between that date 
and the spring of 1849, the chief points of interest in 
Europe, Asia, Africa, and Great Britain, contribut- 
ing regularly to the Milwaukee >Se;i//ne/ incidents of 
travel and observations upon the countries visited. 

On returning from abroad, Mr. Farwell disposed 
of his business in Milwaukee, and began to carry 
into execution his plan for making a beautiful and 
prosperous city of Madison, the first move being to 
erect a saw-mill and grist-mill, so the people might 
have lumber and flour without traveling great dis- 
tances over unimproved roads. He straightened 

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and deepened the channel of the Catfish River, 
which connects Fourth and Third lakes; drained 
the lowlands; laid out roads and streets far into 
the country; built bridges and sidewalks; planted 
trees along the streets of his entire purchase; erected 
many costly buildings and graded the thorough- 
fares; gave the lakes the Indian names they now 
bear and planted their waters with new varieties of 
fish (some of which are now caught by JLh& ton) ; 
established the Madison Museum ; started a woolen 
factory and the first machine-shop and foundry; 
helped to build the gas works, water cure, Capitol 
House — in fact, either conceived or had a strong 
hand in building up almost everything that made 
Madison what it is. 

As he had, in 1851, given Madison what in these 
days would be called a "boom," some one, it is not 
possible to say who, conceived the idea of nominat- 
ing Mr. Farwell for Governor on the Whig ticket. 

The Whigs were in a hopeless minority, and Mr. 
Farwell was wholly unknown in politics; indeed, 
very few could say positively whether he was a 
Whig or Democrat. His wealth, his energy, his un- 
bounded public-spirit, and his great personal popu- 
larity, however, carried him through the conven- 
tion with a hurrah. The unanimous enthusiasm of 
the convention became epidemic, and spread over 
the State like a prairie fire; party lines were broken, 
the Democracy was demoralized, and Mr. Farwell, 
though all the other Whig nominees were defeated, 
was elected. 

Thus, at the age of thirty-two, and in ten years, 
he had acquired a fortune, made long journeys on 
both hemispheres, built a city, and became chief 
executive of his adopted State — an unparalleled 

As Governor he tried to do for the entire State 
what, as a private citizen, he had been doing for 
Madison, promote material interests in a solid and 
wholesome way; and though the Legislature was 
politically adverse, his important recommendations 
were all carried into effect by that body — a separate 
Supreme Court, a State banking system, a geologi- 
cal survey, an imigration agency, and other things 
of that sort. 

Mr. Farwell did not wish to be a nominee for 
Governor, nor to fill the oflace, and the committee 

sent to notify him of his nomination could not at 
first discover his whereabouts — he was in hiding. 
Therefore he refused to permit the use of his name 
a second time, and returned to his mills, real-estate, 
and railroad enterprises, in January, 1854. 

The financial revulsion of 1857 prostrated Mr. 
Farwell to such an extent that he never fully re- 
covered. His railroad investments proved par- 
ticularly disastrous, though Madison property, of 
which he held large amounts, also became practi- 
cally worthless, and so remained for years. He then 
retired to a farm on Lake Mendota, just outside of 
Madison, where he superintended the erection of 
the buildings for the State Asylum for Insane, but 
otherwise engaged in no public enterprises. 

In 1859 he was elected to the State Legislature, 
in the hope of bringing him again into public life. 
In 1863 he was made Assistant Examiner in the 
Patent Oflace, and three months later Chief Ex- 
aminer of new inventions, which position he re- 
signed in 1870, for the purpose of embarking in the 
patent business in Chicago. 

On the night of the assassination of Lincoln, Mr. 
Farwell was in Ford's Theatre, and from his previ- 
ous information, comprehended at once that the 
threatened conspiracy to kill the principal oflficers 
of the administration was being carried into effect, 
and hastened at all si>eed from the theatre to the 
room of Vice-President Johnson, reaching there 
just in time to prevent Atzerot from executing that 
part of the terrible plot which had been assigned to 

For thus saving his life, Mr. Johnson tendered to 
Mr. Farwell any position he might desire, but the 
offer was declined on the ground that public oflices 
should not be used for the payment of debts of 

The great fire in Chicago in 1872, inflicted an- 
other severe financial blow upon him, and Mr. 
Farwell then removed to Grant City, Mo., where he 
was engaged in the real estate and banking busi- 
ness until his death on April 11, 1889, at the age of 
seventy years. 

Gov. Farwell was an able, honest, energetic, 
patriotic, and useful citizen and public oflficial, 
and cannot be remembered with too much kindness 
and gratitude by the i)oople of Wisconsin. 

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WJlMam iiHijiiB^tel Ka?rs^t;cw 


HARACTER is one thing 
and reputation another. A 
kinder heart or a truer friend 
than Gov. Barstow would 
be hard to find; yet partisan 
polities gave to him for a 
time such a notorious and 
unenviable reputation that it was easy 
for those who did not know him per- 
sonally to believe him practically de- 
void of any good quality. Unless it 
was James Duane Doty, no other 
Governor was the victim of more 
slander or more bitter attacks. Some 
of this he may have deserved,but much 
of it was as unjust as all of it was relentless. The 
Barstows came from Yorkshire, England, tv^here 
they bore a distinguished name, and settled in 
Massachusetts and Connecticut in 1635. William 
Augustus was born at Plainfield, Conn., Sept. 13, 
1813. His father, who served in the Revolution, 
was a man of great force of character, a farmer. 
William was reared on the family homestead, attend- 
ing the district school during the winter, and tilling 
the soil during the summer. 

An elder brother, Samuel H., opened a store at 
Norwich, Conn., in which at sixteen years of age 
William became a clerk. In April, 1834 he gave 
up this position and entered into partnership with 

another brother, Horatio N., at Cleveland, in mill- 
ing and forwarding, and built up an extensive 
business from a very modest beginning. 

The financial revolution of 1837, as it did man}' 
wealthier firms, compelled the brothers to suspend. 
After settling up their affairs as best they could, 
William, in November, 1839, removed to what was 
then Prairieville, wliere he had purchased the water- 
power and 160 acres of land within what is now the 
city of Waukesha. He at once erected a flouring- 
mill and opened a store, soon becoming the head 
of a prosperous business and one of the foremost 
men of the place. In those days Waukesha was 
called the ''Hub," as it was really the political cen- 
tre of the Territory. 

In a new country a merchant and miller will find 
many opportunities to counsel, relieve, and materi 
ally encourage the poorer settlers. Mr. Bars tow- 
failed to see none of these opportunities, nor to 
help those in misfortune or distress. His course in 
this respect gained a wide circle of grateful and 
devoted friends, who always remembered him when 
he was a candidate for oflBce. 

In 1841 he was made Postmaster,and for some time 
served as one of the three County Commissioners 
of Milwaukee County, which then embraced what 
is now Waukesha County. While filling the oflSce 
of Commissioner he was instrumental in setting off 

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the territory and creating the connty of Wauke- 
sha in 1846, establishing the county-scat in Wau- 
kesha village. It was also his idea to have the 
State prison established in Waukesha, in which he 
so far succeeded as to have what is now the county 
jail, a stone building, used for the confinement of 
convicts sentenced to the State penitentiary by the 
United States Courts. 

In 1849 Mr. Barstow was nominated and elected 
by the Democrats to be Secretary of State. In this 
office he served two years from the 7th of January, 
1850, and during that time was charged with the 
difficult task of bringing into market and selling 
the State school lands. Probably no Secretary was 
ever called upon to perform more new and imix)rt- 
ant duties or settle more precedents. In these his 
business genius found ample opportunity for dis- 
play. Besides having a large amount of new work 
to perform, he was compelled, on finding the rec- 
ords of the office in a condition of chaos, "with his 
own hand," as has been said by his private secre- 
tary, E. M. Hunter, '^to write out in the most com- 
plete and finished manner nearly the full record of 
the office up to the moment it came under his con- 

In 1853 Mr. Barstow was elected Governor by 
the Democrats, taking his seat in Janhary, 1854. 
His first message gave evidence of unusual ability 
and public-spirit; his appointments were creditable 
and satisfactory, among them that of the poet, 
James Gates Percival, to succeed Edward Daniels 
as State Geologist. 

Although his administration was stormy, he was 
renominated in 1855, his opponent being Coles 
Bashford. The campaign against him was one of 
unparalleled bitterness and violent personalities. 
When it was over the returns showed that Gov. 
Barstow had been defeated by a few votes, but the 
board of canvnssers accepted some '^supplemental" 
returns from the pine forests, which, had they not 
turned out to be in every respect fraudulent, would 
have made him Governor again. 

Mr. Bashford carried the matter before the Su- 
preme Court, which enabled Gov. Barstow to see 
the spurious character of the "supplemental" re- 
turns, whereupon he resigned, greatly to his own 
honor and to the disgust of those who laid the 
scheme to corrupt the ballot and overturn the will 
of the people. Had he followed the advice of a 
few hot-heads, who were near to him and who were 
more responsible than himself for whatever caused 
the attacks on his administration, there would have 
been bloodshed. 

Being at the head of his party Gov. Barstow 
naturally became the target for all the criticisms 
and odium which this barefaocfl fraud upon the 

ballot called forth; but it has always been said by 
those who knew the truth, that he had no hand in 
suggesting or preparing the spurious returns, and 
did not know their utterly fraudulent character 
until after his opponent, Bashford, had taken the 
case into court. 

Two years later he removerl to Jauesville and 
entered into the business of banking with Alex T. 
Gray and E. M. Hunter, which soon proved a 
failure. Gov. Barstow then returned to milling, 
which he followed until he entered the army in 

1861 as Colonel of a regiment of cavalry recruited 
by himself. 

Col. Barstow's health being impaired, he was in 

1862 made Provost Marshal General of Kansas, 
charged with the responsible task of clearing that 
section of guerrillas. 

In 1863 his health becoming still further im- 
paired by his efforts to command his regiment, he 
was detailed upon court-martial duties at St. Louis, 
which lasted to the end of his term of service, or 
to March 4, 1865. 

Col. Barstow then went to Leavenworth for the 
purpose of engaging in business. He was, however, 
too feeble to do so, and slowly sank until Dec. 13, 
1865, when he passed away at the age of fifty-two. 
'*He fills," says Col. E. A. Calkins, a firm and life- 
long friend, ''a soldier's grave, for he as truly died 
in the cause of his country as if he had received a 
fatal wound in battle. I shall never cease to cher- 
isn his memory for his many manly virtues, for his 
intrepid spirit, which \^'^ls not disturbed either in 
the decisive emergencies of political conflict or the 
more trying vicissitudes of peril and distress, and 
for the integrity with which he adhered to one set 
of principles, and one set of friends throughout his 

In his younger days Mr. Barstow was consid- 
ered the handsomest man in Wisconsin, and was 
very popular with all classes, so far as they could 
come in contact with him. His friendships were 
warm, sincere and lasting, and there was no sacri- 
fice too great for him to make for those he loved. 
Had he been less tenacious of his friendships, es- 
pecially unworthy ones, his public reputation would 
not have been so much in need of defense. 

Like Alex W. Randall, whose friend and associate 
he was for many years. Gov. Barstow was a great 
lover of sociability and fun; like James Duane 
Doty^ he had no enemies save those made by politics, " 
and it is sad to record that one who had occupied 
such high places and possessed so many friends, 
and who loved so dearly the kind offices of friend- 
ship, should, as Gov. Barstow did, die among 
strangers and be compelled to receive the last sad 
attentions of life from straniror hands. 

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popularity enough to enable 
him to reach the highest 
office in the gift of the peo- 
ple of the State in a shorter 
period — less than five years 
from the time he settled in 
Wisconsin — than has ever sufficed to 
make any other man Governor of Wis- 
consin. But few men ever possessed 
an equal faculty for making and re- 
taining friends. Mr. Bash ford was 
born at Cold Spring, Putnam Co., 
N. Y., Jan. 24, 1816. lie was edu- 
cated in the Wesley an Seminary, now 
Genesee College, at Lima, N. Y., where he was a 
briUiant student. He studied law* with John M. 
^lolley, at Lj'ons, N. Y., and in 1841 was admitted 
X) the bar. During the following year he removed 
^o, and in 1847 was elected District Attorney of 
Wayne County. Though re-elected with increased 
popularity, he resigned in 1 850, and removed to 
lie growing city of Oshkosh, Wis., where he at 
cnce became a prominent figure at the bar and in 

In 1851 he was in the Whig State convention, 
anil assisted in the nomination of Leonard J. Far- 

well for Governor, and the next year, almost as 
soon as he was eligible, was elected to the State 
Senate as a Whig and Free Soiler. Proving nn 
able and useful Senator he was re-elected in 1854, 
for the years 1855-56 but resigned to become, in 

1855, the first Republican candidate for Governor. 
Tlie campaign was more hotly contested than any 
of its predecessors, and by the first and true returns 
Mr. Bashford was elected by a small majority, 
though the other Republican nominees were de- 

However, several set^ of ''supplemental" returns 
were concocted as coming from remote points in 
the pineries. These, purporting in some cases to 
have come from places known to be without white 
inhabitants, were overwhelm ingl}'' in favor of the 
Democratic candidate, Barstow,and were of course 
manufactured in sufficient numbers to overcome the 
small majority honestly cast for Mr. Bashford. 
The State Board of Canvassers were partisans of 
Barstow, and so received and counted these spurious 
returns from uninhabited districts, and declared 
him elected. 

Mr. Barstow took the oath of office, as usual, in 
the executive chamber, on the 7th of January, 

1856, and continued personally in charge of the 
office. On the same day, at noon, Mr. Bashford 

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appeared before the Supreme Court and was sworn 
in as Governor by Chief Justice Whiton. Thence 
he proceeded to the executive chamber and form- 
ally demanded possession ; but Mr. Barstow, pre- 
senting his compliments and respects, declined to 
abdicate or vacate. Thereafter, on the request of 
Mr. Bashford, the Attorney General of the State 
filed an information with the Supreme Court in- 
quiring by what right or title Barstow held the 
office of Govc. nor, and the Court summoned the 
defendant to api>ear and make answer thereto. He 
did not appear until February 2, when his attorneys 
moved to quash all proceedings thus far had under 
the writ, for the reason that the Court had no juris- 
diction of the case. This motion was denied, the 
Court holding at the same time, that the filing of 
tlie motion was an admission by Mr. Barstow that 
the allegations in the information filed by the At- 
torney General were true. He was ordered also to 
appear and plead before a certain fixed day. 

The acting Governor's attorneys pleaded to the 
jurisdiction of the Court. Mr. Bashford interposed 
a demurrer to this plea, which was sustained and 
Mr. Barstow required to answer within four days. 
His attorneys then withdrew from the case, on the 
giound that to continue further would be an ad- 
mission that the Court had rightful and final juris- 
diction over it. The Court then held that every- 
thing pleaded by Mr. Bashford was confessed by 
the default of Mr. Barstow; jet declined to con- 
form to general usage and enter judgment for the 
plaintiff then and there, but ordered plaintiff to 
jirofluce evidence to prove his case. Mr. Bashford 
might have demanded judgment upon the default 
of tlie defendant, but instead proceeded to bring in 
proof of the truth of his allegations. 

The evidence thus produced was so clear in es- 
tablishing the spuriousness of the '^supplemental** 
returns that Mr. Barstow resigned on March 21, 
and Artjjur MacArthur, Lieutenant-Governor, be- 
came Governor instead of Bashford, because the 
Court had not yet rendered a final decision. The 
Sui reme Court now entered judgment in favor of 
Mr. Bashford, declaring him duly and rightfully 
elected to the office of Governor, and entitled to 
the executive chair. On the 25th he called on 
!MacArthur and demanded possession, intimating 
that he '-preferred peaceable measures to force, but 
tliat the latter would be used if necessary." The 
Lieutenanu-Governor thereu[)on vacated the chair, 
and Mr. Bashford became Governor. 

This is a memorable case, and one that will make 
the names of Barstow and Bashford forever promi- 
nent in history. It was a time of intense excite- 
ment, and had it not been for the coolness of both 

principals, bloodshed might have followed. The liv 
publicans proposed, if Barstow should refuse u) 
obey the order of the Court, in case it should be 
against him, to take possession and inaugurate 
Bashford by force. On the other hand the Demo- 
crats claimed that the Court had no right to in- 
quire into whether Bai-stow had been legally or 
fraudulently elected, or whether he had been elected 
at all, and were prepared to resist with force and 
arms any movement the Republicans might mal^e. 
Arms were stored in the basement of the capitol, 
and in some of the hotels in Madison, and for a 
time a reign of civil strife seemed inevitable. But 
as Bashford only asked to have both parties obey 
and abide by the judgment of the Court, and as 
Barstow was opposed to using force to resist carry- 
ing out that judgment, should it be unfavorable to 
him, an armed collision was averted. 

The legal aspect of the case was no less interest- 
ing, Bashford*s attorneys being Edward G. Ryan, 
Alex. M. Randall and Timothy O. Howe; and 
Barstow*s being Harlow S. Orton, Jonathan ^ . 
Arnold and' Matt. H. Carpenter, and the case itself 
the very first of its kind in the United States 
Very little of importance occurred during the i 
cumbency of Mr. Bashford, save the disposal of 
the St. Croix land grant, which disastrously ii: 
volved a large number of prominent men. At the 
end of his term he declined to be a candidate fo 
re-election, and afterward, in 1863, removed v. 
Tucson, Arizona, resuming the practice of law m 
the meantime at Oshkosh. 

In Arizona his upward career was as rapid and 
popular as it had been at Oshkosh. In 1864 he was 
elected to the Territorial Council, and chosen pref 
dent of that body almost without opposition. In 
1866 he was made Attorney General of the Terri- 
tory, and the same year elected delegate to Cot 
gress. After the expiration of a term in Congress 
he was appointed Secretary of the Territory, whicu 
position he held until 1876, when he resigned to 
resume the pmctice of law, in which he became 
very prominent and made a great deal of money. 

Mr. Bashford died, on the 25th of April, 1878, 
of heart disease, posse^ised of an ample fortune. He 
is described by Gen. David Atwood, who knew him 
well, as "able, well-read in the law, genial and pop- 
ular. He was warm in his attachments to friends, 
and would stand by them through any emergency; 
in conversation he was always agreeable and in- 
structive. Ho was even-tempered and cool at all 
times. Even in the excitement of the guberna- 
torial contest he was the coolest man to be found. 
Well do I remember the contest, and nobly did 
Coles Bashford conduct himself through the trying 
ordeal ** 

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ISCONSIN has had some able 
men and some strong men as 
governors; but Mr. Randall 
was able, strong, patriotic and 
honest. He was a man of 
deep convictions, and always 
gave expression to them in an 
unmistakable manner, or put 
them into practical effect with 
a great deal of force. Mr. Ran- 
dall was of Scotch descent, and 
born at Ames, Montgomery Co., 
N. Y., Oct. 30, 1819. After a 
successful course in the village 
school, he completed his education 
at Cherry Valley, Schoharie Co., 
N. Y., and then studied law and 
was admitted to the bar at the 
age of nineteen. Being ambitious 
and thinking a new and growing 
country better for a poor young 
man, he ^^ put his traps into a 
handkerchief* and started for the 
West, finally settling at Waukesha — then Prairie- 
ville — in 1840, at the age of twenty-one. Here he 
at once opened an office, and, being handsome, 
manly, genial, strong and friendly, soon had a 
profitable business. Indeed, so well did he pros- 
per, that in 1842 he returned to New York for a 
bride, Susan Van Vechten. 

Though very successful and popular as a law- 
yer, Mr. Randall gave so much attention to politics 
and general public affairs as to seriously interfere 
with his income. In 1846 he was elected and 
served as a very valuable member of the Con- 

stitutional Convention. He joined the Free Soil 
Democracy, but did not become very active with 
that party on account of the radicalism of some 
of the leaders, and remained nominally a Democrat 
until the formation of the Republican party in 

In 1847 he took a prominent part in furthering 
the interests of the first railroad in Wisconsin, the 
Milwaukee <fe Mississippi, now a part of the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee <fe St. Paul Railway system, draft- 
ing the charter and being one of the first directors 
or commissioners. 

In 1854 he was elected to the Assembly and 
voted for Charles Durkee, the first avowed Repub- 
lican ever elected to the United States Senate as 
such. During the next year he was nominated 
by the Republicans for Attorney-General, but was 
defeated, as were the other nominees except Coles 
Bashford, who secured his seat through legal pro- 
ceedings before the Supreme Court, in which Mr. 
Randall was one of the attorneys. 

In 1856 he was made Judge of the Second 
Judicial District, composed of the counties of Mil- 
waukee and Waukesha, and the next year was 
elected Governor. His administration was firm, 
able and popular, and in 1859 he was re-elected. 

Gov. Randall early foreshadowed the War of 
the Rebellion, and earnestly desired to have Wis- 
consin prepared for it. In his message to the 
Legislature in January, 1861, he said that secession 
was upon the country, adding: '^Secession is revo- 
lution; revolution is war; war against the govern- 
ment is treason. * * It is time now to know 
whether we have a government, and, if so, whether 

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it lias an}' strength. Is our written constitution 
more than a sheet of parchment.^ The nation must 
be lost or preserved by its own strength. Its 
strength is the patriotism of the people. Now is 
the time when politicians must become patriots and 
men, and show their love of country by every sac- 
rifice save that of principle." In closing this re- 
markable rpessage, he urged the Legislature to 
prepare "to respond to the call of the National 
Government for men and means to preserve the 
integrity of the Union." 

Three montlis later Ft. Sumter was fired upon, 
and Lincoln startled the North with his call for 
trooi)s. It was then that the real character of 
Gov. Randall became conspicuous — it was then 
that he was enabled to display his native boldness 
and ability, and his tremendous force of character. 
To him the year 1861 was one of intense activity 
and great responsibility, the State being without 
military organization or an overflowing treasury. 
But he was fully equal to the occasion. Bonds 
were issued, mone}' borrowed from the trust 
funds, authority' granted to place the State on a 
war footing, military appointments made, camps 
established, and general preparations for war car- 
ried on throughout the State with vigor. A good 
ill Uiitration of his mental make-up is this sentence, 
uttered at the extra session of the Legislature 
called after the news came that Beauregard had 
fired upon Ft. Sumter: *'The Rebellion begins 
where Charleston is; let it end where Charleston 

Gov. Randall visited all the camps to address 
and cheer the recruits; made frequent journeys to 
Washington to encourage and advise with Lincoln, 
and amidst his thousand new and pressing duties, 
found time to attend personally to many of the 
details necessary to prepare the soldiers for active 
duty. lie w^as in frequent conference with Gov. 
]\Iorton, of Indiana, and materially aided in con- 
ceiving and carrying out those plans of the ''war 
governors" of the Northwest which were of such 
signal service to the Federal Government. 

At the close of his second term, in January, 
1862, Gov. Randall was made Minister to Rome by 
President Lincoln. In 1863 he was appointed 
Assistant Postmaster General, and in July, 1865, 

on the resignation of William Dennison, was in- 
vited into the Cabinet by President Johnson, as 
head of the Postoffice . Department, in which posi- 
tion he continued until the accession of President 
Grant, in March, 1869. He then opened a law 
ofldce in Washington, and, until failing health com- 
pelled him to retire, enjoyed a very lucrative 

In 1865 Mr. Randall abandoned his residence at 
Waukesha, and later made his home at Elmira, 
N. Y., where he died, on the 26th of July, 1872, 
aged fifty- three. 

One of the diflBcult tasks successfully performed 
by Gov. Randall was that of re-establishing and 
maintaining the postal service throughout the 
States that had been in rebellion. It was not a 
thing that could be done by a mere manifesto or 
proclamation, but one that required genius, tact, 
and a profound knowledge of human nature. 

The experiment of assorting and distributing 
mail on moving cars was begun while he was As- 
sistant Postmaster General, in 1863, and during 
his term as Postmaster General this service made 
its greatest strides. He labored constantly to 
simplify this s^'stem, clearing away, with his strong, 
decisive hand, the red tape and cumbrous regula- 
tions that at first seriously hindered the operations 
of what is now the most perfect and marvelous 
public service in the world. 

As a jovial, fun-loving person, it is not probable 
that Mr. Randall had his equal in the Northwest. 
His jokes and burlesques were famous for years 
throughout the State. He saw and appreciated the 
bright, the ludicrous and the funny in everything; 
and, to lighten the cares and burdens of life, made 
the most of every opportunity that presented it- 
self. He was perhaps the foremost member of 
that unparalleled secret organization, the "Ancient 
Evanic Order of 1001," and was the author and 
promoter of some of the most unspeakable of the 
many unspeakable "initiatory" ceremonies for which 
that institution was famous. He was familiarly 
known throughout the country as "Aleck," and, 
when occupying his highest positions of honor, was 
the same "Aleck" — never an aristocrat, but a man 
of the masses — warm-hearted and generous, genial 
and kind to all. 

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ERE is a man who has not 
been generally appreci 
ated at his full worth by 
the people of Wisconsin, 
owing probably to the 
fact that the few months 
he was permitted to serve as Gover- 
nor did not afford an opportunity 
for him to become familiar to the 
masses, either in person or officially, 
while his unnatural death occurred 
when the mighty tragedies of the 
Rebellion overshadowed all things 
else and almost buried them forever. 
Mr. Harvey was born July 22, 1820, 
at East Haddam, Conn. During his eighth year 
his parents removed to Strongville, Ohio, where, 
'Jie family being poor, he was compelled to help 
earn a livelihood at rude labor. Manual labor, 
however, intensified rather than dampened the 
natural ardor of ambition. He studied as he 
worked, and at nineteen entered the Western Re- 
serve College, at Hudson, Ohio, paying for his 
board by working for it, part of the time as a 
t>ook- binder. 

A lack of books and clothing forced him to leave 
school for a time, and ill health drove him perma- 
nanently from college before he could graduate. 
On recovering his health young Harvey taught 
school &t Nicholsonville, K3\, and then became 
a tutor in Woodward College, Cincinnati. In 

1841 he settled in Kenosha, Wis., and there opened 
an academy, becoming also, two years later, the 
editor of the American^ a Whig newspaper. His 
paper was able and spirited, though courteous, and 
wielded considerable influence. Though several 
times a nominee he was elected to no office in Ken- 
osha, the Whigs being in the minority. However, 
he was appointed Postmaster by President Tyler, 
and made a popular and efficient officer. 

In 1847 Mr. Harvey removed to Clinton, in Rock 
County, and opened a general stove. Still main- 
taining his interest in politics and public affairs, he 
was elected, in 1847. to the second constitutional 
convention, in which he helped to frame the organ- 
ic law of the new State. 

Abandoning the pursuit of a merchant, he bought 
the water power at Shopiere, in Rock County, 
erected a large flouring mill on the site of the dis- 
tillery, opened a retail store, and began generally 
to build up the place. The stone church edifice 
of the Congregational ists was built mainly by him 
and the public schools received his constant aid 
and attention. 

In 1853 he was elected to the State Senate anri 
re-elected in 1855, serving four years. In 1859 he 
was elected Secretary of State and was very popu- 
lar. He was considered one of the ablest men and 
the best debater in the Senate, and was a careful 
Secretary of State. Indeed, he was one of the ris- 
ing men of Wisconsin, and, the war of the rebel- 
lion requiring increased activity and ability on the 

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part of public officials, Mr. Harvey wa« nominated, 
in 1861, by the Republicans, for Governor, and 
was elected by a good majority to succeed Alex. 
W. Randall. On Jan. 10, 1862, he read his inaugural 
message to the Legislature in person, saying: ^^No 
previous Legislature has convened under equal in- 
centives to a disinterested zeal in the public ser- 
vice. The occasion pleads with you in rebuke of 
all the meaner passions, admonishing to the exer- 
cise of a conscientious patriotism becoming the 
representatives of a Christian people called in God's 
providence to pass through the furnace of a great 
trial of their virtue and of the strength of the 

After the battle of Pittsburg Landing, in which 
Wisconsin troops suffered severely. Gov. Harvey 
asked Surgeon-General Walcott for a list of such 
articles and their relative quantities as would be of 
greatest service in the hospitals and on the field. 
In a very brief space of time after receiving the 
desired information, more than one hundred boxes 
of material had been collected, and were with the 
Governor on their way to the front. Major Jonas 
M. Bundy, who was with the Governor, says: 
^'Although pressed with a thousand cares, he made 
it his duty to visit our wounded in the hospital 
boats, taking them each by the hand and cheering 
them more than can well be described. As he 
came round among them, his heart full of kind- 
ness, and his face showing it, tears of joy would 
run down the cheeks of those brave fellows who 
had borne the battle's brunt unmoved, and they 
lost at once the languor that had settled upon 
them. Then, at Mound City and Paducah, in the 
hospitals and on the hospital boats, it would have 
moved a heart of stone to witness the interviews 
between the Governor and our wounded heroes. 
There was something more than formality in those 
visits, and the men knew it by sure instinct. 
W^hen we went asbore at Savannah for a few hours, 
on our way to Pittsburg, these scenes became still 
more affecting. Over 200 of our wounded were 
there, suffering from neglect and lack of kind care. 
The news of the Govemoi^'s arrival spread as if 
by magic, and at every house those who could stand 
clustered around him, and those who had not raised 
their heads for days sat up, their faces aglow with 

gratitude for the kind looks, and words, and acts, 
which showed their Governor's tender care for 
them. At times these scenes were so affecting that 
even the Governor's self-control failed him, and he 
could not trust himself to talk " 

On the 19th of April Gov. Harvey bade farewell 
to the soldiers at Pittsburg Landing, and after visit- 
ing Savannah, ten miles below on the river, retired 
for the night on the "Dunleith," expecting to take 
the ''Minnehaha" on the following morning for 
Cairo. At 10 o'clock that night, however, the 
^'Minnehaha" came alongside, and in the darkness 
and rain, while attempting to step from one boat 
to the other, he missed his footing and fell between 
the steamers. The rapid current swept him down 
and under a flat boat, and Gov. Harvey was never 
seen alive. A few days later the body was dis- 
covered by children sixty -five miles down the river, 
and buried by residents of the neighborhood. His 
remains were immediately disinterred by the author- 
ities and sent to Madison, where, after lying in 
state in the capitol, they were buried with impres- 
sive public ceremonies in the presence of a great 
concourse of people. 

After the death of Mr. Harvey his wife entered 
the army as a nurse, and there carried forward 
as best she could witliout the backing and authority 
which he enjoyed as Governor, the noble work 
begun by her husband and which resulted in mak- 
ing her a widow. It is doubtful whether if he had 
lived, he could have accomplished more for our 
soldiers and soldiers' widows and orphans, than 
stands credited to his indomitable and self-sacrific- 
ing consort. 

Several attempts have been made to induce the 
State to erect a suitable public monument to the 
memory of Gov. Harvey, which, though apparently 
sustained by public sentiment, always resulted in 
failure. He certainly lost his life for his country, 
and while performing a duty not required or ex- 
pected of Governors. 

Besides being a man of good ability and educa- 
tion. Gov. Harvey was large-hearted and philan- 
thropic in an eminent degree. He was a practic&K 
generous Christian, ever eager to right any wrong 
he might have done and to help the poor, the weak^ 
and the suffering. He was truly a good mian. 

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ISCONSIN never had but 
one naturalized German in 
the gubernatorial chair 
— Edward Salomon — and 
he was in every respect a 
credit to his native, as well 
as his adopted, country. He 
was born in 1828, near the city of Hal- 
berstadt, in Prussia, where his father was 
a'prominent civil and military official. 
He was educated in the Lutheran faith in 
his native city and afterward was a stu- 
dent in the University of Berlin. Having 
more than the average share of enterprise 
and ambition, young Salomon emigrated 
to America in 1849, settling at Manitowoc, Wis. 
Here he jumped into instant favor, being hand-- 
some, polished, and of courtly but pleasant man- 

In 1852, after serving as school teacher, County 
Surveyor and Deputy Clerk of tlie Court, which 
3ffices came to him about as rapidly as possible, he 
moved to Milwaukee for the purpose of studying 
Jaw, having already become, by the closest applica- 
tion, a fluent and correct writer and speaker of the 
English language. In 1 855 he was admitted to the 
bnr after a thorough examination by the Justices 
of the Supreme Court and at once formed a part- 
nership with Winficld Smith, wliich continued until 

Mr. Salomon removed to New York City in No- 
vember, 1869. In Milwaukee he soon became by 
his personal qualities as popular as he Jiad been at 
Manitowoc and by conscientious and thorough 
study earned also the reputation of being a sound 
and accurate lawyer. 

On arriving in America Mr. Salomon quite nat- 
urally espoused the cause of the Democratic party, 
but during Buchanan's time was "estranged by the 
palpable truckling of its leaders to the slave 
power," and in 1860 openlj^ declared his conver- 
sion to Republican principles. In 1861 he was 
nominated for Lieutenant-Governor on the ticket 
with Louis P. Harvey, and was elected by a larger 
majority than had up to that time been given to 
any gubernatorial candidate on either ticket. He 
served with dignity and fairness as President of 
the Senate, and on April 19, 1862, owing to the 
death by drowning of Gov. Harvey, was called to 
exercise the functions of chief executive. His 
comparative youth, and supposed unfamiliarity 
with political matters, caused some apprehensions to 
many of his own party, but these were allayed 
within a very short time after he assumed the chair. 
He remained Governor until January', 1864, and it 
is certain that during his time the labors of that 
office were continuously more arduous than they 
ever were before or have been since. The duties ^>* 

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carrying out within this State the war measures of 
the national government, of organizing the regi- 
ments furnished by the State during that time, and 
of the selection of officers, of overseeing their 
equipment and maintenance, which were afterward 
transferred to federal officers, devolved during the 
time largely upon the Governor. His zeal was un- 
tiring, and his industry unceasing. 

For months in succession he was found in the 
executive office at Madison at all hours, from eight 
in the morning until twelve at night; and no labor 
was deemed by him too arduous, no fatigue too 
great to be borne, if it seemed likely to insure suc- 
cess in the great work which he took upon himself. 
His activity necessarily brought upon him the hos- 
tility of many of the opposite party, and espec- 
ially of those individuals upon whom the war 
seemed to impose special hardships. 

The vigorous measures by which he promptly 
subdued the insurrection against the draft in Ozau- 
kee and Washington counties were the occasion of 
much praise, and upon the other hand of the bit- 
terest censure. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of 
War, issued in 1862, what was then known as the 
"stay-at-home order." It prohibited citizens liable 
to military service from leaving for Canada, or any 
foreign country. This order was particularly obnox- 
ious to a certain large class of naturalized citizens 
who proposed to, and did in considerable numbers 
return to their native lands to escape the draft. 
Gov. Salomon having been born abroad, these peo- 
ple were very angry because he took such a decided 
stand in enforcing the terms of Stanton's obnox- 
ious order. He caused a number of people who 
were arrested for participating in the riotous pro- 
ceedings to be brought to Madison, and there con- 
fined in camp prison for some weeks, until, partly 
by the intervention of writs of habeas corpus, and 
partly by the voluntary act of the Governor un- 
der authority of the general government, they were 
discharged. This prompt and energetic action was 
the means of allaying all future dangers of resist- 
ance to the draft, although it made for the Gover- 
nor almost as many enemies as new friends. 

Gov. Salomon's official acts are part of the history 
of the State, but among them may be named the 
calling of an extra session of the Legislature in the 

year 1862, for the purpose of conferring the light 
upon the soldiers to take part in the elections, 
which right was duly conferred; and for the pur- 
pose of empowering the municipalities of the State 
to raise money for the payment of bounties to vol- 
unteers. During his term of office a very large pro- 
portion of the troops who saw active service in the 
field were sent from the State, and each regiment 
and each company carried into the field the evi- 
dences of the conscientious care and the earnest 
forethought of Gov. Salomon. He visited the 
army in order to see with his own eyes how the 
boys fared in the field, and was a great favorite 
among the Wisconsin troops wherever he met them. 
He spared no pains to contribute to their welfare, 
and among the old veterans there will always exist 
the warmest remembrance of Edward Salomon. 

Gov. Salomon was warmly urged by his friends 
to be a candidate for the nomination of Governor 
in the fall of 1863, but declined persistently, until 
at the request of his friends in the army, who made it 
a point of duty with him, he reluctantly consented, 
but so late in the campaign that James T. Lewis, 
then Secretary of State, had become conspicuous as 
a candidate. Gov. Salomon, being prompted by 
his first position from making efforts for his own 
success, failed of the nomination, though by a nar- 
row margin. 

In 1868 Mr. Salomon's friends brought him for- 
ward as a candidate for United States Senator to 
succeed James. R. Doolittle. The campaign was in 
many respects a memorable one, and resulted in the 
election of Matt. H. Carpenter, a resident also of 
Milwaukee. Having received at about this time 
flattering offers to locate in New York City, Mr. 
Salomon concluded to accept and has since made 
that city his home and the seat of his professional 
labors. His practice is very large and profitable, 
and generally of a pleasant though important and 
responsible nature. He has been for some time, 
for instance, the agent of the German Empire, a 
position frequently requiring his personal advice 
presence in Europe. He also takes an active 
part in national politics, more, however, as an inde- 
pendent and reformer than as a strict adherent to 
any party, and in these positions wields a large in- 

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HOUGH quiet and unassum- 
ing in bolli manners and 
method, Mr. Lewis has en- 
joyed an unusual!}' long list 
of honors in his adopted 
State. He was born at Claren- 
don, N. Y., Oct. 30, 1819, his 
father being of New England 
and his mother of Scotch par- 
rents. He thus inherited pa- 
tience, economy, energy and 
integrity. After receiving a com- 
mon-school education, James was 
sent first sent to Clarkson Acad- 
emy and then to Clinton Seminar} , 
in which he pursued the English classical course of 
study. Fond from boyhood of military tactics, he 
early joined the State Militia, and was an active 
and enthusiastic soldier. In 1838 he was made 
Sergeant, and in 1840 Lieutenant of the 215 th 

Having to rely upon his own resources, he taught 
school in Western New York in 1840-41-42, and 
thus earned and saved money enough to enable 
him to pursue the study of law, which he began in 
1842 in the office of Gov. Henry R. Selden, at 
Clarkson. After completing his studies and secur- 
ing admission to the bar, he started for the West, 
without money or law books, and settled at Colum- 

bus, Wis., where he has since continuously resided, 
in 1845. Here he was admitted to the bar of the 
United States District and Territorial Courts, 
and began at once the practice of his profession. 
Before the end of a year he was married and elected 
to his first public office. From that time his pro- 
motion in public favor was steady, being chosen 
successively. District Attorney, County Judge, 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 1847, 
Court Commissioner, Colonel of the 14th Regiment, 
Brigadier-General of the Wisconsin State Militia, 
member of Assembly, State Senator, member of the 
Court of Impeachment that tried Judge Levi Hub- 
bell, Lieutenant-Governor (serving as Governor 
during 1855, in the absence of the Governor), Sec- 
retary of State, Regent of the State University, 
and Governor. While Secretary of State he acted 
as Governor during the extra session of the Legis- 
lature in 1862, that officer being ea?-oj^io Governor 
in the event of death or absence of both Gover- 
nor and Lieutenant Governor. 

As Secretary of State, it was said of Mr. Lewis: 
" He was prompt, methodical and systematic in 
in all the departments of his office, — a true man 
in every sense of the word, — kind and gentle- 
manly in his deportment and possessing great 
executive ability." At the election when he was 
a candidate for Secretary, he received every vote 
cast in the city of Columbus, his home, and in 

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1863 was chosen Governor by a larger majority 
than had ever been given for any other candidate, 

Wisconsin never had a more conscientious and 
self-sacrificing executive. It was literally true that 
whatever he possessed of time, talent, energy and 
means, was devoted to the welfare of the public. 
He secured an order permitting the transfer of all 
sick and wounded Wisconsin soldiers to hospitals 
within the State, and put forth great efforts to es- 
tablish more and better hospitals, and to care for 
soldiers* orphans and widows. '*By personal ef- 
forts he obtained credit from the Government for 
soldiers furnished and reduced the quota at one 
time by 4,000 men, and was especially successful in 
securing the claims of the State against the Govern- 
ment, amounting in all to more than a half-million 
dollars. In 1865, by his wise administration, the 
State tax was reduced by several hundred thousand 
dollars, and during his entire incumbency he did 
not use one dollar of the military contingent fund. 
At his request the Legislature declined to vote the 
usual appropriation of $5,000 as a general contin- 
gent fund for the use of the executive." 

In 1865 Mr. Lewis declined a re-nomination, 
whereupon the Union - Republican . Convention 
passed the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That by his continued adherence to 
the purpose publicly avowed by him on the day of 
his inauguration, not to be a candidate for re- 
election, there is left us no other mode of mani- 
festing our sentiment toward the present chief 
magistrate of the State, Hon. James T. Lewis, than 
by giving expression to our cordial approbation 
of his administration of the executive office. In the 
discharge of his official duties, he has shown a fidel- 
ity, zeal, economy, and untiring watchfulness in 
protecting the interests of the State, which are recog- 
nized and appreciated by an intelligent people; and 
in the voluntary retirement from public life which 
he seeks, he will be followed by their sincere re- 
spect and warm good wishes." 

As far as authentically known, Gov. Lewis enjoys 

the distinction of being the only man who ever de- 
clined a nomination for chief executive of Wiscon- 
sin, when both the calling and election were sure. 
Indeed, he is almost as distinguished for declining 
as for being chosen to public office. He has several 
times declined legislative nominations; in 1865 
refused to accept the tender of a foreign mission by 
the President of the United States; in 1866 decline<l 
to serve as Regent of the State University; returned 
an appointment as Commissioner of Internal Rev- 
enue in 1876, and in 1878 declined the proffered 
appointment of Railroad Commissioneer of Wis- 

One marked feature of Gov. Lewis* character is 
his benevolence. Besides his numerous personal 
gifts he devotes a portion of his annual income to 
the building and support of universities, colleges, 
academies and educational interests — the most ju- 
dicious and lasting fonn of public giving; and in 
1864 Lawrence University conferred upon him the 
degree of LL. D., an honor to which he was liber- 
ally entitled. 

In 1868 Gov. Lewis was made Vice-President of 
the Wisconsin State Historical Society; visited Eu- 
rope during the Franco- Prussian war; went as dele- 
gate to the Republican National Convention in 
1876, which nominated R. B. Hayes for President, 
and in 1882-83 completed a journey around the 
world. On several occasions he has received votes 
in the Legislature for the position of United States 
Senator, but, having made no organized effort in 
that direction through himself or his friends, was 
naturally outstripped by those who make more of 
a business of rallying and marshaling the political 
forces in the usual way. 

A noticeable feature of Gov. Lewis' career is that 
he has not changed his place of residence, his busi- 
ness, his religion, his political principles, his habits 
of life nor his friendships, nor lost the esteem of his 
neighbors, since he first settled in Wisconsin, almost 
a half-century ago. This is all the proof that is 
necessary of his goodness and steadfastness of 

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JHE ninth Governor of Wis- 
consin, Gen. Fairchild, was 
born on Dec. 27, 1831, at 
Franklin Mills, now Kent, 
Ohio, where his father, J. 
C. Fairchild, of English 
descent and more than or- 
dinary natural gifts, lived in his 
own house, owned and managed 
the one store of the village, and 
a tannery; and, being also a Jus- 
tice of the Peace, was generally 
known as the "Squire." The 
mother, Sally Blair, a young 
woman of fine physique, of un- 
mixed Scotch-Irish ancestry, tem- 
pered by three generations in the 
lomantic hills of Western Massachusetts, had great 
executive ability, a far-reaching hospitality, and 
quick, keen, good sense. With a view to the better 
education of their children, the family removed to 
Cleveland, where the boys had the unique promise 
from their father of a gold watch each, when they 
should have committed to memory the dictionary! 
Needless to say the watches were never received, 
though there is a tradition that the book was con- 
quered as far as the D words. 

Having suffered greatly from the financial crisis 
of 1837, the father, now known by rank in the 
militia as Col. Fairchild, removed with his family, in 
1846, to Madison, then a small village whose singu- 
lar beauty had captured him while merely passing 
through the Territory. In Wisconsin the educa- 
tion of the sons, begun in Cleveland, and aided by 
a year at a boarding school near that city, was sup- 
plemented by a year at Carroll College. But the 
impatient spirit of Lucius was not of those who 
take their knowledge at second hand from books. 
He must wring it by personal experience from the 
world; and so, in 1849, at seventeen years of age, 
he started, with a saddle horse and as many luxu- 
ries as could be crowded into a "prairie schooner," 
for California. This was education indeed, and he 
was of the few who returned after six years with a 
creditable "pile" of gold, and with mental, moral 
and physical powers unimpaired. 

The firing on Ft. Sumter found the young man 
occupied as Clerk of the District Court of Dane 
County, in the performance of which duties he be- 
came sufficiently learned in the law to be admitted 
to the bar. His leisure was given to the enjoy- 
ment of "society," with a zest bom of California 
deprivation; nevertheless, he responded instantly 
to Lincoln's call for troops, by offering his services 

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as a private. In gratitude for the moral effect of 
this prompt action, Gov. Randall offered to him 
the Lieutenant- Colonelcy of the 1 st Regiment. His 
knowledge of military matters being only that 
gained by belonging to the "Governors Guard," 
he felt himself insufficiently equipped for assum- 
ing a position so responsible. lie was elected 
Captain of Company K, in the Ist Regiment, how- 
ever, and from that his promotion was rapid. 

His Colonel, a graduate of West Point, knew 
how things should be done, and took the profes- 
sional view that it was a Lieutenant-ColonePs place 
to do them. The young officer eagerly availed him- 
self of so exceptional an opportunity to become 
familiar with the best military methods, and wrote 
home to his mother: " 'The Array Regulations' are 
my Bible and the 'Tactics' my Prayer Book, which 
I study night and day." At Gainesville, Col. 
O'Connor was killed and Col. Fairchild assumed 
full command of the 2d Wisconsin. The vicissitudes 
and heroic deeds of the Iron Brigade are familiar 
to all, and in these are included the history of 
Gen. Fairchild's military career. The battle of 
Gettysburg reduced the 2d Regiment to a handful 
of men, whose field officers were all either killed or 
seriously wounded, and Col. Fairchild was carried 
home minus an arm. 

Here followed a painful crisis in his life. Dur- 
ing this period of enforced inactivity, he found 
that the political party with which he had from 
youth been identified, was lukewarm to the cause 
which had become to him the dearest in the world.. 
Convinced that, while physically incapacitated to 
be in the field, he could fight as effectively under 
the same banner by throwing his influence with 
those who were making a civil struggle to push the 
war to a successful conclusion, he agreed to permit 
his name to go on the Union-Republican ticket for 
the office of Secretary of State. In order to do 
this he was compelled to give up his hard-earned 
rank in the army — Brigadier-General of Volunteers 
for gallantry at Gettysburg, and Captain in the 16th 
Regular Infantry, an honor awarded after Bull 
Run. This last being for life, would, in the regular 
order of promotion, have made him a Colonel only 
a few yeai*s later; yet he resigned them all, left the 
Democratic party, joined the Union-Republicans, 
and was elected Secretary of State on their ticket. 

One term as Secretary of State, three terms as 
Governor — eight years in all — positions given each 
time by the spontaneous will of the people, leave 
his civil as unstained as his military record. 
Devoted to the agricultural and educational inter- 
terests of the State, eager in the promotion of the 
welfare of all classes, he gave unremittingly the 
very best of himself to his work. Of matters con- 

connected with the State University, his ex-officio 
position of regent gave an opportunity to speak 
with no uncertain sound, and this munificent 
provision of the General Government became 
thenceforward more and more an object of pride 
and fostering care to the State. 

In January, 1872, he retired to private life, only 
to be called upon in October, by President Grant, 
to go as Consul at Liverpool. That this very re- 
sponsible position was bj^ him filled acceptably, is 
the universal record. Its duties are largely judi- 
cial — settling questions between captains and sea- 
men, etc., and for this he was fortunately prepared 
by some previous knowledge of admiralty law. 

At the end of five useful and pleasant years he 
prepared to return to his native land — indeed had 
sent his household goods before him — when, to his 
surprise, he received a commission as Consul Gen- 
eral at Paris, where he again had a successful and 
honorable career. Once again, when he had de 
cided to resign and return home, he was called by 
President Hayes to succeed James Russell Lowell, 
as Minister at the Spanish Court. This opened a 
new and delightful field of work and observation, 
but at the end of two more years he felt that he 
would no longer keep his children in exile, and 
peremptorily resigned. 

On his return to Wisconsin, in March, 1882, he was 
welcomed by all parties and classes with an ovation 
of the most enthusiastic description. Since that date, 
while still in the full vigor of manhood, his life has 
been essentially that of a private citizen. Much 
of his time is given for the benefit of the disabled 
and poor comrades of the Union Army. In Feb- 
ruary, 1886, he was elected Commander of the 
Wisconsin department, and, in August of the same 
year, Commander in Chief of the Grand Army of 
the Republic. To the discharge of the duties of these 
offices his whole time was given during nearly two 
years. He is public-spirited and ready to throw him- 
self into every effort, small or great, toward advance- 
ment; and free from the cares of public life, he 
finds leisure for many of the public services which 
belong to the private citizen. He retains his in- 
tense interest in all the political questions of the 
day, and in election campaigns works from Maine 
to Texas, at his own private expense, and with 
greater effect because he has no personal interest at 

He lives in the home built by his father forty 
years ago on the banks of Lake Monona, and there 
dispenses hospitalitj'^ and makes a bright centre of 
cheerfulness, which spreads blessings to a wide 
circle. He has a charming and accomplished wife, 
dutiful and affectionate children, and the wisdom 
to know when be is happy. 

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OV. WASHBURN was alto- 
gether too large a man to 
be sketched in a hasty man- 
ner, or within a limited 
space. It would require a 
great deal of careful study 
to get his true measure. He 
was one of a long line of able, sub- 
stantial and successful men. John 
Washburn, Secretary of Plymouth 
Colony, in England, settled at Dux- 
bury, Mass., in 1631, and became 
wealthy and prominent. Israel Wash- 
burn, the next in line, became a 
Captain in the Revolution, a mem- 
ber of the General Court, and sat in the con- 
vention which ratified the Constitution of the 
United States. Israel Washburn, Jr., father of 
Gov. Washburn, bom at Raynham, Mass., in 1784, 
was equally prominent, and lived until 1876, and 
to see his large family of sons more successful in 
private and public life than any other of equal 
number in the Union. 

The mother of Gov. Washburn was a descendant 
of John Benjamin, who settled in Masachussetts in 
1 632, and was one of the proprietors of Cambridge. 
Her ancestors served the Colonies and the infant 
Union with no less zeal and distinction than those 
of her husband. So there was good stuff in Gov. 
Washburn, who was born at Livermore, Maine, on 
April 22, 1818, where his father owned a farm and 
general store. One who knew him in youth says : 
"He was a quiet, broad-shouldered boy, never in 

trouble, and liked by everybody— observing, 
studious and persistent." He lived at home until 
1835, working on tiie farm and attending the town 
school. In 1 835 he entered a store at Hallowell, 
then a cultured and thrifty town, where he enjoyed 
unusual social and business opportunities. During 
the winter of 1838-39 he taught the chief school at 
Wiscasset, and with the mone}' thus earned set out 
early in the spring of 1839 for the Territory of 
Iowa. His first stopping i)lace was in the village 
of Davenport, where he taugbt a private school for 
three months. On the day following the close of 
school he took a position with David Dale Owen, 
on the Iowa Geological Survey, which Congress 
had just ordered to be made. 

In the winter of 1839-40 young Washburn went 
to Rock Island, III., and began the study of law 
with a former friend in Maine, Joseph B. Wells. 
At the election of 1840 he supported Gen. Harri- 
son, and was himself elected to the office of Sur- 
veyor of Rock Island County. In March, 1 842, at 
the age of twenty-four years, lilr. Washburn estab- 
lished his residence in Mineral Point, Wis., was 
admitted to the bar of the United States District 
Court, '"and began the practice of his profession. 
Mineral Point was then a thriving mining town, 
and Mr. Washburn by close and careful attention 
to whatever was entrusted to him, honesty and 
general trustworthy methods, soon grew into a 
large and profitable practice. In 1844 he entered 
into partnership with Cyrus Woodman, for some 
years agent of the New England Land Company. 
Gradually the firm of Washburn <fe Woodman, 
having now an abundance of capital, abandoned the 

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practice of law, and gave attention exclusively to 
entering, purchasing and selling land, perfecting 
titles, locating Mexican land warrants, and trans- 
acting a general financial and land business. 

In 1852, on the invitation of Gov. Farwell and 
Justice Harlow S. Orton, Mr. Washburn went to 
Madison to assist in framing a general banking 
law, under which, when enacted, his firm opened the 
Mineral Point Bank. This institution stood the test 
of all financial reverses, never suspended specie 
payment, and when finally its affairs were wound 
up, paid every dollar of liability in gold and silver. 

In March, 1855, Mr. Woodman retired from the 
firm, leaving its immense affairs to be managed en- 
tirely by Mr. Washburn, who had, at the previous 
November election, entirely without solicitation 
and against his will, been elected to Congress by 
the Republicans, then just organized. On taking 
his seat he met his brothers, Israel from Maine, and 
Elihu B. from Illinois, both of whom had been first 
elected to Congress, like himself, at the age of 
thirty-six years; and during the ensuing six years 
these three strong brothers, from three different 
States, occupied seats together, and impressed their 
unite<l strength upon the legislation of the country. 

In 1861 the committee of thirty-three on the 
state of the Union, of which Gov. Washburn was a 
member, reported an amendment to the Constitu- 
tion, making slavery perpetual. He joined with Mr. 
Tappnn, of Vermont, in a minority report against 
the proposed amendment, and against any con- 
cessions whatever of liberty to slavery, or in favor 
of secession. Addressing the House on that sub- 
ject he closed with these prophetic words : 

''Sir, I have no special dread in regard to the 
future of this Republic. Whatever may come 
I have an abiding faith in a kind Providence that 
has ever watched over us, that passing events will be 
overruled for good, and for the welfare of mankind 
in this and other lands. If this Union must be dis- 
solved, whether by peaceable secession, or through 
fire, and blood, and civil war, we shall have the 
c<msolation of knowing that when the conflict is 
over, those who survive it will be, what they never 
have been, inhabitants oj a free count7'yl" 

In March, 1861, Gov. Washburn removed to 
La Crosse, but had hard 1}^ settled down to attention 
to his enormous private interests before he saw 
liiat the cause of the Union demanded all the men 
ond means at the command of the North. He 
therefore raised the second regiment of cavalry, 
was commissioned Colonel, and reported for duty 
on Oct. 10, 1861. It is impossible to follow here 
his military operations in detail. He became a 
Major General on Nov. 29, 1862, and until he re- 
signed, in May, 1865, was an active, daring and 

successful commander. One of his notable feats 
was reducing, with an inferior force, the bomb- 
proof works at Esperenza, Texas, and historical 
works on the war declare him to have been one of 
the very best district commanders in the army. 
Like Grant, he never turned back, and never for a 
moment lost faith in the ultimate triumph of the 
Union Army. 

In 1866 Mr. Washburn was again elected to Con- 
gress, and re-elected in 1868. During these terms 
he gave earnest attention to the postal, transporta- 
tion and telegraph service, recommending Govern- 
ment control and ownership of the telegraph as a 
means of transmitting information, as proper and 
essential as any form then in use. At the close of 
his last term in Congress, in 1871, the Republicans 
^^rought him forward as a candidate for Governor, 
and he was elected over James R. Doolittle by 
10,000 majority. His administration was quiet, 
able and economical, and very useful to the people 
of the State. In 1873 he was re-nominated, but 
the high-tide of Grangerism, general dissatisfaction 
with railway charges, and hard times, conspired to 
his defeat by William R. Taylor. This ended Gov. 
Washburn's official career, though, in 1875, as he 
had been in 1861 and 1869, he was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the United States Senate. While gen- 
erally a man's public career more than anything 
else attracts public attention, it was in private life 
and business that the great qualities of Gov. Wash- 
burn were most conspicuously exhibited. He was 
one of the earliest purchasers of pine lands, and held 
them when others were selling similar possessions 
for a song. He was no speculator, but made sev- 
eral million dollars in the manufacture of lumber 
and flour. After the destruction, in 1878, of his 
great mill at Minneapolis, where he was one of the 
early and principal owners of the St. Anthony's 
Falls Water Power, he went to Europe for the pur- 
pose of studying the various processes of making 
flour. As a result he was the first to introduce into 
America the Hungarian roller system, and what is 
known as the patent process of producing flour, and 
made his new mill the largest and best in the 

Gov. Washburn's charities were nobly and mod- 
estly bestowed — Washburn Observatory to the 
Wisconsin State University, at Madison; People's 
Library, in La Crosse; Minneapolis Orphan's Asy- 
lum, in memory of his mother; his beautiful home 
and grounds, at Edgwood, near Madison, to the 
Catholic Sisters, the State having refused to accept 
it for public purposes, and numerous lesser gifts. He 
died of paralysis, superinduced by a complication of 
diseases, at Eureka Springs, Ark., on May 14,1882| 
aged sixty-four years. 

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Scotch descent, bom in 
in Connecticut, July 10, 
1820. His mother died be- 
fore he had reached the 
age of three weeks, and his 
father, an ocean captain, was 
lost at sea, with his vessel, five years 
later. At the age of six years he was 
placed under severe guardianship in Jef- 
ferson County, N. Y., three miles from 
school, in a newly-settled section. Be- 
fore reaching the age of sixteen he was 
awakened to the necessity of securing an 
education, and at once began a course of 
study which, alternating with hard labor in the 
fields and forests, continued until he had secured a 
certificate of admission to the third term of the 
sophomore year of Union College, at Schenectady, 
N. Y. For the want of financial ability he was 
unable to enter college, but went instead into the 
sugar-bush and made 1,100 pounds of maple sugar 
and two barrels of molasses with which to pay 
board and tuition bills already incurred. 

He next taught a select school, and then an 
academy. In 1840 he went to Elyria, Ohio, and 
joined a class of forty -five, preparing to become 
teachers. The authorities of La Porte were offer- 
ing at this time a large salary to any teacher who 
30uld manage their public school, notoriously the 
most rough and ungovernable in the section. Young 

Taylor engaged to teach it, and before the end of 
his third term it became the premium school of the 

He now undertook the management of a grist- 
mill, sawmill and cupola furnace, at which he im- 
paired his health by overwork. He then devoted 
his spare time to reading medicine, and during the 
winter of 1845-46 took a course of lectures and 
clinical insti*uction at the Medical College of Cleve- 

While residing in Ohio he was elected Captain — 
• receiving every vote of the 101 members of his 
'company — and afterward a Colonel of tiie State 
Militia. In 1848 he removed to Wisconsin, set- 
tling on the farm in Cottage Grove, Dane County, 
on which he still resides. 

It was not long before his neighbors began to 
bestow official favors upon him, and for forty 
years he has hardly been without some public 
duty to perform. Several times he has received 
nearly all, and twice all the votes put in the box 
for Chairman of his town; has been Superintend- 
ent of public schools; three times Chairman of the 
County Board of Supervisor, now consisting of 
forty -six members; was County Superintendent of 
Poor for seventeen years; was Trustee, Vice-Presi- 
dent and member of the executive board of the 
State Hospital for Insane from its re-organization, 
in 1860, until he became Governor, in 1874; has 
been elected to both branches of the Legislature ; 

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was seven years President of the Dane County 
Agricultural Society; seven years Chief Marshal, 
and two years President of the AVisconsin State 
Agricultural Association, and during the Rebellion 
was the first man in Dane County to offer a bounty 
for volunteer enlistments. 

In 1873 he was by acclamation placed in nomi- 
nation for Governor by a convention composed of 
''Democrats, Liberal Republicans and other electors 
friendly to genuine reform through equal and im- 
partial legislation, honesty in office and rigid econ- 
omy in the administration of public affairs." His 
opponent was C. C. Washburn, then Governor, 
over whom he was elected by a majority of 15,411. 
It was Mr. Taylor's fortune to belong to the mi- 
nority party when he was elected Chairman of the 
County Board of Supervisors, mem.ber of Assem- 
bly, State Senator and Governor. 

His gubernatorial appointments were more nearly 
non-imrtisan than those of any previous executive, 
his aim being to secure men of peculiar fitness and 
ability for the management of the various chari- 
table, penal and reformatory, and especially the 
educational institutions. And thus some of the 
best men in both parties were commissioned by 
him independent of pressure, importunity or at- 

One of the appointments which will ever re- 
dound to his credit is that of Edward G. Ryan, 
to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court — an ap- 
pointment made upon his own judgment of emi- 
nent qualifications. 

The roost important work of Gov. Taylor's term 
was the enactment of the "Potter law,'* which aimed 
to place railways completely under State control, 
limiting charges for transporting passengers, classi- 
fying freight, and regulating the prices for its 

At the outset the two chief railway corporations 
of the State served formal notice upon the Gov- 
ernor that they would not respect the provisions of 
this law. Under his oath of office to support the 
Constitution, and to '^take care" that the laws be 
faithfully executed, he promptly responded to 
the notification of the railroad companies by a 
proclamation, dated May 1, 1874, in which he en- 
joined compliance with the statute, declaring that 
all the functions of his office would be exercised in 
faithfully executing the laws. **The law of the 
land," said he, "must be respected and obeyed. 
While none are so weak as to be without its pro- 
tection, none are so strong as to be above its re- 

The result was an appeal to the courts, in which 
the Governor and his advisers were forced to con- 
front an array of the most formidable legal talent 

of the country. Upon the result in AVisconsin de- 
pended the vitality of similar legislation in other 
States; and Gov. Taylor was thus compelled to 
bear the brunt of a controversy of national extent 
and consequence. The contention extended both 
to State and United States Courts, the main ques- 
tion involved being the constitutional power of 
the State over corporations of its own creation. 

In all respects the State was fully sustained in 
its position, and ultimately judgments were ren- 
dered against the corporations in all the State and 
Federal Courts, including the Supreme Court of 
the United States, and establishing finally the com- 
plete and absolute power of the people, through 
the Legislature, to modify or altogether repeal the 
charters of corporations. 

It might be stated, in this connection, that 
Gov. Taylor wrote personally to Judge David 
Davis, earnestly requesting him to come to Wis- 
consin and preside at the trial of a test case, and 
he consented. And thus was settled by Gov. 
Taylor and his administmtion, a momentous issue 
between the people and the corporations — an issue 
vitally affecting all the commercial and agricul- 
tural interests of the State. 

Among the creditable acts of his administration 
were those securing $800,000 from the General 
Government for the Fox and Wisconsin River 
Improvement; dividing the State lands into dis- 
tricts, and making each timber agent responsible 
for his locality, b}' which he recovered largely 
increased sums to the trespass fund; compell- 
ing the Wisconsin Central Railway Company, be- 
fore he would sign the certificates of its land 
grant, to give substantial assurance that the pro- 
jected line from Stevens* Point to Portage should 
be constructed; and, by taking such prompt and 
decisive action against what he believed to be a 
fraudulent printing claim, that there was saved to 
the taxpayers of the State the snug sum of $100,000. 
During his incumbency, and at his earnest re- 
commendation, appropriations were cut down, the 
rate of taxation diminished, the number of depart- 
ment employes lessened, the expenses of Govern- 
ment curtailed in many ways, and the total dis- 
bursements for State purposes reduced several 
hundred thousand dollars below what they had been 
in many years. 

Gov. Taylor devoted his undivided attention 
and energies to the public service, attending per- 
sonally to minute details and the manifold labors 
of his office, and, among the long roll of gov- 
ernors, none brought to the discharge of official 
duties a clearer integrity of purpose or a more 
sturdy devotion to the public welfare than Will- 
iam R. Taylor, the ''Farmer (xovernor." 

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^F THE eighteen men who have 
served Wisconsin in tlie ca- 
pacity of chief executive, 
only one ever received from 
the public a sobriquet that 
*^j/i T^CT) ^-'^-^^ became popular and perraa- 
^^i ^^ nent. From his hearty and straight- 
forward manner of expression and 
action, Mr. Ludington earned the 
title of '^ Bluff Hal/' and in local 
campaigns in Milwaukee was known 
to the masses by no other name. 
He was born in Putnam County, 
N. Y., on July 31, 1812, and has 
therefore reached a greater age than any other 
governor save Gov. Dodge, who was almost eighty- 
five at the time of his death. His early life was 
devoted to severe manual labor, relieved by a few 
'* winter" terms in the district school — all the edu- 
cational advantages he was ever permitted to enjoy. 
At the age of twenty -six years he started, on foot 
and by stage, for the West, and became a perma- 
nent settler of Milwaukee in November, 1838. 
Thus the people of the Cream City have had ample 
time to take the measure of Mr. Ludington, as he 
has been active and prominent among them during 
more than half a century. 

On settling in Milwaukee, he at once entered 
upon the business of general merchandising in the 
"Juneau Warehouse," with his brother Lewis, un- 
der the firm name of Ludington <fe Co., at the cor- 

ner of East Water and Wisconsin streets. On this 
corner stands the Ludington Block, to mark the 
spot where he began his successful and honorable 
commercial career in the West. 

In 1851 Mr. Ludington entered as senior mem- 
ber into the firm of Ludington, Wells <fe Van 
Schaick, which concern, in the manufacture of lum- 
ber, soon became one of the most prosperous, as it 
was among the largest, producers in the Northwest. 
It is said that during the entire period of his long 
mercantile and manufacturing career he never 
knew what it was to be embarrassed in business. 

In politics he was in early life a Whig, but be- 
came a Republican in 1854 — as soon as there was 
even a skeleton of the Republican party to which 
he could attach himself. His chief interest in po- 
litical matters consisted in choosing good men for 
office; yet he was twice elected Alderman and 
thrice Mayor of Milwaukee, which was in those 
days — 1871-2-3-4— supposed to be a safe Demo- 
ocratic city. 

Mr. Ludington proved to be an exceptionally 
good Ma^'or, his great business and executive abil- 
ity enabling him to manage the public as he had 
his own finances — with intelligence, economy and 
success. He was ever a man of deeds, and his 
public and private life is known and made up of 
what he has done, not what he has said. 

" The executive capacity attributed to Gov. 
Ludington can hardly be better illustrated than by 
a reference to his prompt and benevolent action, 

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while Mayor, in rendering aid to Chicago during the 
* great fire,* and to the wonderful energy as well as 
generous spirit displayed in collecting and forward- 
ing relief to the suffering people of the stricken city. 
By means of his prompt and energetic action the 
people of Milwaukee were not only enabled to 
furnish valuable aid in subjugating the flames, but 
were also permitted to send successive car-loads of 
clothing and provisions to the flying population be- 
fore the full extent of the awful calamity had been 

This signal action brought to him a special ac- 
acknowledgment of thanks and gratitude by the 
authorities of Chicago, and a complimentary reso- 
lution by the Common Council of Milwaukee. 

In 1873 Wisconsin underwent a marked political 
upheaval. Wm. R. Taylor, Democrat, was at that 
time elected by more than 15,000 majority, so that 
in 1875 the Republicans were anxious to place their 
strongest man in nomination and attempt to regain 
control of the State. With that object in view, 
solely, the convention met at Madison and con- 
cluded unanimously that Mr. Ludington was the 
man, and nominated him by acclamation. The cam- 
paign was ably and persistently fought on both 
sides, the natural advantages being with the Dem- 
ocrats, who elected their entire ticket — with the 
exception of Governor — by fair though reduced 

Mr. Far well and Mr. Bashford were elected in 
the same manner; so Mr. Ludington is the third 
and last to receive the honor of an election while 
those on the ticket with him suffered defeat. He 
resigned the position of Mayor of Milwaukee to 
be inaugurated as Governor, in January, 1876. 
At the end of his term he did not wish to be re- 
nominated, and has since lived in perfect retire- 

His reliable business sense cropped out in the 
opening paragraph of his first message to the Leg- 
ijilature, as follows: " It may not be considered un- 
becoming for me to express some doubt as to the 
wisdom of the provision of the constitution, which 
makes it the duty of the incoming Governor to 
communicate to the Legislature the condition of the 
State, and recommend such matters to them for 
their consideration as he may deem expedient. 
It would appear that such information and recom- 
mendation might more properly come from the 
citizen who had administered the affairs of the 
State during the past year, than from one who isaa 
just been called from other occupations to that 

So quietly and smoothly did he manage the 
affairs of Wisconsin that the people never became 
fully aware of the great executive ability of Gov. 

Ludington. In some respects he had no equal, and 
all public affairs, large and small, were conducted 
on strict business principles. In handling and com- 
prehending masses of figures — financial reports or 
election statistics — no one in the capitol could 
match him ; and he frequently found delight and 
pride in showing the clerks how to add long col- 
umns of figures swiftly and without an error. 

The most perplexing and annoying matters that 
engage the attention of a governor are the " par- 
don cases.*' These are numerous, and sometimes 
sad by reason of surrounding circumstances, and 
appeal so strongly to the heart as to endanger an 
unbiased judgment and the proper administration 
of justice. In these cases, with their adjuncts of 
the appeals, prayers and tears of relatives and the 
trickery of paid advocates. Gov. Ludington would 
sit with extreme patience for hours and listen, but 
not utter a word. Almost invariably, at the con- 
clusion of the argument, he was prepared with a 
final decision, and gave it there and then, thus end- 
ing all suspense. And those familiar with these 
matters declare that he was always right — subse- 
quent investigations disclosing no reason for a 
reversal of judgment. 

One of the secrets of his success was absolute 
freedom from worrying — ability to " shed trouble *' 
as a duck's back sheds water. Frequently, indeed 
generally, in five minutes after deciding a case that 
had occupied several hours with testimony, argu- 
ments and personal appeals, he would be found on 
the sofa in the executive chamber, taking what he 
called *' a snooze." Thus, having decided a matter, 
he put it instantly behind him— devoted no time 
to wondering whether he had committed an error, 
whether he would ever regret it, or to other probable 
consequences. It was with him as with Pilate — 
" AVhat I have written, I have written." 

There is another fact that exemplifles Mr. Lud- 
ington's perfect business instinct, as well as his 
capacity for details. Once every week, as long as 
he was Governor, he went carefully through all the 
books and records of the executive office. The 
executive clerks were the same as they had been, 
and as they are now — capable and experienced, and 
enjoying his confidence; but he must know of his 
own personal knowledge that the public business, 
and all of it, was being promptly and properly 

Though a man, generally, of few words. Gov. 
Ludington is a most genial companion, and in all 
matters, public and private, broad-gauge, kind and 
large-hearted. He rarely gets out of temper, and 
never loses his head. In business he is a safe coun- 
sellor; in social life a generous, true and unswerv- 
ing friend, and everywhere a sturdily honest man. 

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"^mamE. Smith. 

|^t^^;^,^^K^^^t^l^;^^^^^,^;^/^■,^^|^^^■.; t^::j' :.i ^t ^.-t; ^ 

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^ERE is a man distinguishetl 
ns niuL'h for Ijeinij; fiNays 
the snnie oveii-tcmpcTiMl, 
genial kinrily anci cour- 
teaus gentleman, as for 
Ilia real ability and ster- 
ling worth. To him also !>e lungs 
thf? iinusnal honor of heing the only 
citizen of foreigr* birth who was 
ever elected to be t'l uef executive 
of Wisc^onsin; not only so, but he 
received a greater majority than 
was ever cast for an}' other candi- 
date for that oltice. He was bom 
on J tine 18, \H:>i. nrar Inverness, 
in the North of Scotland, where his father was a 
well-educated and prosperous gentleman. His 
m<»ther's family name is Grant. In 1835 the family 
carats* to America, and settled at Commerce, Oakland 
Co. — "County of Lakes" — Mich. His brothers 
having chosen professions, William, after some 
further education in this country, early decided to 
adopt a mercantile life, and after an experience 
of a few years in Michigan in this direction, went 
to New York City and entered the great — at least 
^rreat for those days — wholesale dry-goods house 
;»f Ira Smith & Co., for a period of five years. 

In 1849. at the age of twenty-five years, he 
came to Wisconsin, first settling in Racine County, 
bat a little later moved to Fox Lake, Dodge 

County, and established himself in the mercantile 
tm sinews, which he followed atthiis place for twenty- 
three years, la l8otl he married Mary, daughter 
of the fanum^ Rev. John lk>olli, of Michigan, : nd 
relurnerl to Fox Lake, whercu[>on lie was elected 
to the Stal€ Assembly, In the following year he 
was uu initiated for Assemblyman but declined to 
riiu, und kc[>t ont of politics until 1857-58, when 
he served as a member of the State Senate. Dur- 
intr the same year he was ap]>ointed Regent of the 
State Normal Schools, by liov. Randall, and held 
the position uninterruptedly until he Idmself be- 
came (iuvernor, a period nf twenty years. 

In 1864-65 Mr. Smith a^ain served as State Sen- 
ator, but iu 18d5, before Ids term bad fully ex- 
pired, was elected State I'rea^urer on the ticket 
headed by Lucius Fairchild for (Toveruor, and was 
re-elected in 18€7. Li this office Mr. Smith added 
largely to his already substantial reputation, by the 
exceedingly careful and thrifty manner in which 
he handled the uninvested "trust funds'* of the 
State. The public did not seem to care to give to 
Mr. Smith much time for attention to his private 
business, for in November, 1870, he was elected to 
the Legislature, and in January, 1871, chosen 
Speaker of the Assembly. This position, about 
which apparently the people generally seem to know 
or care but little, is one in which a public man may, 
and very likely will, either "make or break" him- 
self. It is one in which quick, sure and fair judg- 
ment, patient and courteous conduct, accurate 
measurement of men, ability to detect tricks and 
subterfuges, and firmness to do right independent 

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of scores of conflicting interests and contending fac- 
tions are absolutely essential to success. Mr. Smith 
was more than successful ; he largely widened the 
circle and increased tlie strength of his friendships. 
In 1872 he removed to Milwaukee, and formed a 
co-partnership with Judson A. Roundy and Sidney 
Hauxhurst, under the firm name of Smith, Roundy 
<fe Co., and engaged in the wholesale grocery trade. 
In 1 874 he was appointed a Director of the Wis- 
consin State Prison, by Gov. Taylor, and held the 
position, to which he gave a great deal of time and 
thought, until his election as Governor compelled 
him to resign. 

In 1877 Mr. Smith received the Republican 
nomination for Governor. At this time the "fiat" 
money party, styling themselves Greenbackers, 
were very numerous and very talkative. They 
nominated a wealthy manufacturer, named Edward 
I^. Allis, as their candidate for Governor, and went 
up and down the country appealing to those who 
were in debt, and especially to those who were so 
poor they could'ntget into debt, "to vote for cheap 
monc}^ ;" "vote for an increase in the volume of the 
currency;" "vote to dethrone the baron bondhold- 
ers ; " "vote to remove the mortgages from your 
farms 1 " There was a very large number, as the elec- 
tion proved, whose votes were to be caught with 
bait of this kind,and as ihe Democrats had nominated 
a strong, old-fashioned member of their party in 
the person of Judge James A. Mallory, Mr. Smith's 
campaign was one of numerous hardships and per- 
plexeties. The masses, not fully enlightened in the 
problems of a sound public finance, and suffering 
from a general depression in business, were more 
likely to *be aroused by appeals to passion and 
prejudice, and to some extent having been so 
aroused, were more easily led by the seductive 
sophistry of "cheap money," "cheap interest," and 
"no mortgages." But he adopted as his platform, 
instead of the rather uncertain party platform 
conjured up by the convention by which he was 
nominated, an address to the people setting forth 
the fallacies and dangers of the fiat- money theory, 
and the lasting benefits to individuals and to the 
State of a sound and stable currency, a currency in 
which our creditors, as well as ourselves, could put 
confidence and know that none would be cheated. 

The campaign was far more educational in its 
character than any that had preceded it, and there- 
fore of inestimable value to the people, who by a 
plurality of over 8,000 votes, made Mr. Smith Gov- 
ernor. Perhaps it should be mentioned that no 
man before him had been made Governor by a 
plurality vote, in fact, that of 1877 was the first 
triangular gubernatorial contest in the history of the 
State. From the first there was an air of quiet dig- 

nity and conservative respectability about Gov. 
Smith's administration that made it very popular. 
Besides, his appointees were selected from the able 
and honorable men of the State, and public busi- 
ness generally was conducted in a careful and 
thrifty manner. While the people were never 
dazed or amused by any pyrotechnical displays of 
statesmanship, they felt certain that everything 
connected with public^ affairs was in safe and 
honorable hands. It was practically a faultless ad- 
ministration. When, therefore, in 1879, he was 
placed before the people for re-election, they 
showed their appreciation of his qualities by an in- 
dorsement more flattering than was ever accorded 
to any other Governor-^returned him to the ex- 
ecutive chamber by a plurality of 25,455, and a 
clear majority over all of 12,509. Perhaps the 
chief feature of his administrations was the adjust- 
ment of long-pending claims against the United 
States for lands, by which hundreds of thousands 
of acres were secured and recorded to the State. 

On retiring from the office of Governor, in Jan- 
uary, 1882, Mr. Smith returned to Milwaukee, and 
having retired from the firm of Smith, Roundy & 
Co., on his election to the Governorship, in com- 
pany with Henry M. Mendel and his own son Ira, 
established a large wholesale grocery house, under 
the name and style of Smith, Mendel <fe Co. To 
this he gave his time and attention, except such as 
must unavoidably be devoted to the public duties 
of a private citizen at once so popular and well- 
known, and the business prospered largely. 

On the 10th of January, 1883, the Newhall 
House in Milwaukee was destroyed by fire, and 
with it about fourscore human lives. The entire 
city, a house of mourning, was resolved into com- 
mittees, either to honor deeds of heroism, com- 
memorate the dead or relieve the survivors of the 
holocaust. Gov. Smith was made Chairman of the 
Relief Committee, and while in energetic and 
effective service in that capacity, contracted so se- 
vere a cold that it attacked his lungs in the form 
of pneumonia, and resulted fatally Feb. 13, 1883. 

Thus the death of Governor Smith became almost 
as much an actual part of the horrors of that heart- 
sickening morning in January, as if he had been 
burned or mangled with the others, with the addi- 
tional honor, that though occupying a high and 
honorable place in the community, he lost his life 
ii) the service of the poor and humble. His funeral 
was a wide demonstration of sorrow and respect, 
the Legislature and State officers, with other public 
officials and numerous civic societies attending in 
formal bodies for the purpose of testifying the 
public esteem and public loss. William E. Smith 
was in every respect a good man. 

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I'ONE of the strong characters 
and picturesque figures in 
Wisconsin is *'JeRry** Rusk, 
as he is known throughout 
the country, whose public 
and private sayings and do- 
ings and whose rugged personality, 
are familiar to all. He was born in 
Morgan County, Ohio, on June 17, 
1830, in a section, and surrounded 
by circumstances that rendered the 
attainment of a liberal education 
wholly impossible. "The nutrition of 
his early youth," says one writer, 
"was drawn direct from nature's sources of sup- 
ply — from the earth, th^air, and the sun-shine. He 
obtained his sturdy strength from contact with the 
soil; he was hardened by the summer's heat, and 
the cold of winter. Plain foo^ active outdoor exer- 
cise, the absence of care, constant association with 
the free and benignant influences of nature, all 
united to construct for him a sound body — the 
foundation of cheerfulness, patient endurance, 
hopefulness, the ability to labor untiringly, perse- 
verance, and, in fine, all the essential qualities of 
success in life." 

At the age of fourteen he lost his father and was 
thus compelled to put forth extra exertions to help 
support his mother and two sisters. For this pur- 
pose at the age of fifteen, he engaged to drive a 
four-horse stage between Zanesville and Newark, 
and became an ex|)ert in horsemanship, an accom- 
plishment still unimpaired, of which he was always 
proud. In order to earn money with which to pay 
the taxes on his mother's farm he learned the 
cooper's trade, and it is said thet he can still set 

up a "tight" or "loose" barrel as well and quickly 
as ever. 

At the age of nineteen he was married, and in 
1853, settled on a farm in Vernon County, Wis., 
which he still owns and calls his home. In this 
new but rapidly settling country his shrewd- 
ness, good sense and natural aptitude for leader- 
ship at once placed him at the head of local im- 
provements and public affairs. 

Early in 1855, the county oflScers were in search 
of a horse thief. "Jerry," without knowing him 
to be such, had seen the outlaw — given him his 
breakfast in fact. He believed the ofiScers were be- 
ing successfully eluded by the thief, so mounted a 
horse and started in pursuit "on his own hook.' 
After a long ride over an exceedingly rough and 
hilly country, he overtook the thief, and though 
unarmed, effected a capture after a severe per- 
sonal struggle, and returned unaided with horse, 
carriage and desperado, and his own horse. For 
this feat the people made him sheriff at the ensuing 
September election, and he proved to be one of 
the best oflScers that ever served in that capacity. 

In November, 1861, he was elected to the Legis- 
lature, in which he was particularly active and in- 
fluential in furthering war measures of every kind. 
At the close of the session "Jerry" turned his at- 
tention to the war with all the vigor of his power- 
ful and enthusiastic nature and was soon commis- 
sioned Major of the 25th Regiment. He had been 
at the front but a short time when he was pro- 
moted to the Colonelcy and served as such with Gen. 
Sherman from V icksburg to the close of the Rebel- 
lion, and was breveted Brigadier-General for brav- 
ery at the Battle of Salkehatchie. 

From the first Gen, Rusk wf^ a daring and in- 

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trepid soldier and a model oflicer, having the con- 
fidence of his men, and his superiors. He never 
ordered the boys to go, but always led the van and 
bade them "come on." He was cool, fearless and 
determined, but cheerful and hopeful, and from the 
the first declared he would not leave the service 
until the last rebel had laid down his arms. When 
McPherson fell. Rusk's command was at the front, 
and he lost one-third of his men. During the battle 
he was once cut off from his command and sur- 
rounded by Confederate soldiers armed with saber- 
bayonets. His own sword was snatched away and 
he was ordered to surrender, but drawing a pistol 
he used it with such deadly effect that he was 
enabled to break through his assailants and escaped 
with only a slight wound in the leg and the loss of 
sword and horse — the animal being literally rid- 
dled with bullets. In regaining his lines, Kusk*s 
progress was particularly barred by a Confederate 
with a lowered bayonet; but the soldier was killed 
by a shot from the colonel's pistol, and then the way 
was clear. ^ 

In 1 866, Rusk was elected Bank Comptroller, and 
held the office four years during the trying time of 
bank re-organization, at the end of which service he 
was elected to the 42d, 43d, and 44th Congresses. 
In Congress he conceived and promoted some of 
the most important pension laws on the statute 
books, and was otherwise an active and useful mem- 

In 1881, he was appointed by Garfield and con- 
firmed as United States Ministerto Paraguay, which 
office was declined as was also that of Minister to 
Denmark and other important tenders. 

At this time Charles Foster, Governor of Ohio, 
was in Washington. He began to badger Rusk 
about oflSce -getting, and thus taunted him: '*Now if 
you had any standing at home, such as I have, you 
could go back to Wisconsin and be elected Gov- 

'*I can do that," exclaimed Rusk, "and I will, 
or ril come back to Washington and play Lady 
Godiva the whole length of Pennsylvania avenue." 

He started immediately for Wisconsin, and though 
there were several candidates already in the field, 
was nominated for governor by the Republicans 
a few weeks later and duly elected in November. 

He did not have to play Lady Godiva through the 
main thoroughfare of Washington. 

In 1884 he was re-elected, and again in 1886, 
serving seven years — longer than any other man — 
as Governor, the Legislature having extended the 
second term one year, in order to make all lines 
of office to begin with the even numbered years. 

The ability, popularity, and usefulness ol! Go^ 
Rusk's administration are the common property o 
the people of the State, and need no mention 
for the present generation. He accomplished 
more for the agricultural interests of the State than 
had ever been undertaken. Amongst the genera! 
ridicule of that time he manfully stood by Magnus 
Swenson's experiments with amber cane syrup, out 
of which grew more valuable knowledge and ma- 
chinery for sugar-making than we had hitherto 
possessed. Had it not been for the firm and liberal 
backing of Gov. Rusk, it is more than likely that 
we should not have had the splendid process which 
has built up the great amber cane syrup industry 
of the southwest and made it so profitable, for 
Swenson was pdA*, friendless and unknown. 

During his administration farmers' institutes 
were inaugurated, the experimental station made 
effective and useful; the bureau of labor and indus- 
trial statistics established; the office of State veter- 
inary surgeon created with power to control, and 
condemn diseased horses and cattle and preserve 
the general health of domestic animals; a State 
pension agent appointed ; the State militia brought 
to a perfection and effectiveness hardly equaled by 
any other State: the north and south wings of the 
capitol, the State school for dependent children at 
Sparta, and Science Hall of the State University, 
were erected, and the old war claims against the 
general Government settled and collected. 

In 1888, he received the vote of the Wisconsin 
delegation in the Republican National Convention 
as a candidate for President, and on the 4th of 
March, 1889, was called into the cabinet of Presi- 
dent Harrison to be Secretary of Agriculture. 

Gen. Rusk is six feet and two inches in height, 
massive in proportion, bright, active, and the ladies 
say, handsome. On a horse, or heading a process- 
ion, or in a promiscuous gathering, he certainly is, 
with his flowing hair and beard and ruddy com- 
plexion, a man of marked and attractive appearance. 
He loves his children, his horses, and his farm, and 
never ''goes back" ou a true friend. 

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f"^^ '^ ^^J(J.M/.^^ 

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N altogether new character 
in the civil and political 
history of Wisconsin, and 
one which has but few coun- 
terparts anywhere, is William 
Dempster Hoard. He was 
born at Stockbridge, Madison 
Co., N. Y., Oct. 10, 1836, and 
was the son of a Methodist Cir- 
cuit-Rider. His early education 
was derived entirely from the 
common schools, which were 
then none of the best. At the age 
of twenty-one he settled near Oak 
Grove, Dodge Co., Wis., where he 
worked upon a farm, but removed to Lake Mills, 
Jefferson County, in 1 860. 

In May, 1861, he enlisted in Company E, 4th 
Wisconsin Infantry, and served until July, 1862, 
when he was discharged for disability. Soon re- 
gaining his health at his former hoihe in New York, 
he re-enlisted, in Company A, 1st New York Artil- 
lery, and remained in the service as a private to the 
close of the war. There are flippant and careless 
souls who declare that Gov, Hoard and Phil Cheek, 

Jr., are the only private soldiers left in Wisconsin. 

At the close of the war he returned to Wisconsin 
and engaged in the nursery business at Columbus, 
but in 1870 again established himself at Lake 
Mills and began the publication of the Jefferson 
County Union^ receiving during the same year the 
appointment of Deputy United States MarshaUand 
also having to do with taking the Fedeml Census. 
In 1872 he was elected Sergeant-at-arras of the 
State Senate, and the following year removed to 
Ft Atkinson, which has since been the place of 
residence of himself and his newspaper. 

There is far more than is generally under- 
stood in the career of Hoard that is proud and 
creditable. Starting with absolutely no capita', he 
put his paper in the way of accomplishing some- 
thing substantial for the community as well ns for 
himself. From the beginning he devoted consider- 
able space in his pai>er to the discussion of dairy 
and farm matters. Himself an exi)ert in the busi- 
ness of making butter and cheese, his articles at- 
tracted and held attention from the good sense and 
practical knowledge which they displayed. 

It is true that at first the fruits of his effort 
I seemed to be insignificant — certainly unsatisfactory 

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— but he continued unswervingly in the course 
originally marked out, and finally began to rally 
the local farmers around him. Almost entirely 
through his efforts the Jefferson Coiftity Dairyman's 
Association was organized, in 1871, followed by the 
Wisconsin State Dairjrman's Association, of which he 
was also the real founder, and for three years Secre- 
tary, and then the Northwestern Dairyman's Asso- 
ciation, of which he has annually been chosen 
President without opposition, since 1878. 

The value of this State Association in particular 
to the farmers of Wisconsin, can hardly be com- 
puted. It found them turning out but a limited 
amount of dairy products, and those with a de- 
cided reputation for inferiority. In the course of 
a few years it saw the production increase many 
fold, and the reputation for both cheese and butter 
advance to the very front rank, manufacturers 
of Wisconsin carrying off from every competition 
more than her proportionate share of the prizes — 
indeed in some instances taking the grand prize 
over all competition in the nation or world. 

It is certainly true that " Peace hath her victories 
;io less renowned than war." In this view Mr. 
Hoard is conspicuously entitled to the laurels of 
the victor; for himself and his Jefferson County 
Union were prime factors in this great progress, 
which means cash — increased profits — better educa- 
tion and more comfort in life to every maker of 
butter and cheese in the State. 

After a time the demand for the ''Dairy Dejmrt- 
ment" of his paper became such that he was com- 
pelled to issue special editions, and finally to es- 
tablish Hoard's Dairyman on a separate basis, which 
has r. wide circulation, and is an accepted authority 
on dairy matters throughout the Nation. 

When the Wisconsin Farmers* Institutes were 
organized by the State University in 1886, for the 
purpose of holding educational sessions in diflfetent 
portions of the State, Mr. Hoard was selected as 
the leading lecturer on dairy matters. In two sea- 
sons he delivered more than 300 addresses on this 
subject, exposing in a frank and fearless manner 
to tlie slipshod and slovenl}^ farmer the folly of his 
ways, and preaching the doctrines of agricultural 
regeneration through such improved methods as 
were in pace with modern improvements in other 
branches of business. 

These addresses, at once simple and homely, 
were yet so eloquent with incontrovertable facts, 
common sense, and pat illustrations, and so inter- 
spersed with a pathos, humor and drollery not 
equalled by any other speaker in the State, as not 
only to convince, but to captivate his audiences 

When, therefore, in the spring of 1888, without 

any knowledge or consideration on his part, his 
name was brought forward as that of a suitable can 
didate for Governor, it was received not only with 
favor, but with enthusiasm. And so widespread 
and powerful did this enthusiasm become that, 
though remaining quietly at home and '* pursuing 
the even tenor of his way," the Republican masses 
sought him out and made him their nominee for 
Governor, contrary, it must in truth be said, to hir 
own judgment of ability and qualifications. 

In the campaign which followed he was in demand 
everywhere as a speaker, and through his addressee 
demonstrated that the country editor and dairy 
specialist had been a close student and logical 
thinker in many lines of political and philosophical 
inquiry. Indeed, an impromptu address to the 
club of "first voters" in Milwaukee, being steno- 
graphically reported, was widely published and 
favorably reviewed. He was of course elected and 
duly inaugurated. 

In his mental organization Mr. Hoard is essen- 
tially a philosopher. Tliis is known to all who 
have listened to his public addresses or have en- 
joyed a personal acquaintance with him. He never 
appeals to passion or seeks favor by pandering to 
ephemeral whims. In his message to the Legisla- 
ture he says: '*I feel authorized to say in their 
(that is, the farmers') behalf, that they have no 
sympathy, as I have none, with any effort at legis- 
lation on any question which springs from preju- 

All his writings and speeches are conceived and 
framed on the same basis — '" know the truth and 
be guided by reason." In the only authentic bio- 
graphical sketch of Mr. Hoard that is extant, is the 
modest assertion: " He was educated in the com- 
mon schools." He is one of the few who really 
appreciate the value and vital importance of the 
district schools. In the message above referred to, 
in recommending attention to them, he said: '* I 
confess to much solicitude for the common schools, 
and especially for the district schools in rural com- 
munities. I have a profound respect for the high 
school, the academ}^, the college and the univer- 
sity. These, however, are but the fruits of a low- 
lier blossom, and they have many and most earnest 
advocates. But the common district school, the 
'people's college,' is so much everybody's business 
that in many respects it suffers from neglect. It 
is to the little country school that we must look, in 
a great measure, for the inculcation of the true 
principles of American citizenship." 

Mr. Hoard is yet so new in the executive chair 
that it is impossible to speak intelligently of his 
administration, further than that he is careful, con- 
scientious and conservative, 

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HE history of the three 
counties of Green Lake, 
Marquette and Waushara, 
are very closely inter- 
woven, and therefore until 
the first settlement by whites 
and the organization of their re- 
spective county governments, 
no attempt is made to separate 
them. While comparatively new 
in comparison with the coun- 
ties of some other States of the 
Union, each has a history worthy 
of [^reservation. It is to be hoped 
that the reader will find in the 
following pages much to interest and instruct. If 
so, the efforts of the author will be rewarded. 

First Knowledge of This Regriou. 

"As early as 1615," says Butterfield in his brief 
biography of Jean Nicolet, '*a nation of Indians had 
been heard of called the Mascoutins. These savages 
were frequently at war with the tribes near the 
head of Georgian Bay, and with some further east 
ward. Now, the homes of the Mascoutins were 
upon the Fox River, above Winnebago Lake, their 
territory extending southeastwardly, as far, possi- 
bly, as the present city of Chicago, if not beyond. 
A brief reference to certain individuals in this na- 
tion has been preserved ante-dating the year 1634. 
A knowledge of the Winnebagoes was early ob- 
tained at least before the year 1632. They were 
spoken of by the Indians, who gave the French an 

account of them, as the 'Winnipegon.' More was 
learned of this nation than of the Mascoutins. They 
were known as the people who had originally emi- 
grated from the shore of a distant sea, and their 
name had reference to this fact. The settlers upon 
the St. Lawrence had, however, very erroneous 
ideas of the location of these savages. Winnebago 
Lake was supposed to be to the northward of Lake 
Huron, and the Fox River to flow southward into 
it; while the Winnebngoes were known to dwell 
not far from the last mentioned lake. Lake Mich- 
igan and Green Ba}^ had not as yet been lieard of. 
Such was the information that the French had 
gathered of the present Wisconsin before any part 
of it had been explored by civilized man; extend- 
ing, as we have seen, to two of its lakes and one of 
its rivers, also to two of the savage tribes having 
their homes and hunting grounds, whole or in part, 
within its present boundaries." 

Evidences of Pre-Historic Occupancy. 

Historians and scientists who have devoted re- 
search to the antiquities of Wisconsin g3nerally 
concede that the territory was inhabited at one 
time by a race of people superior to that dis- 
covered by the early French missionaries. Many 
and important discoveries in various works of 
antiquity have been made during the past twenty 
years along the Fox and Grand rivers in Green 
Lake County, where hundreds of mounds exist, 
from which have been exhumed pieces of earthen- 
ware or pottery artistically designed. Implements 
which bear the marks of civilization, pipes of vari- 

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ous slmpes and sizes and in several instances hiero- 
glyphic characters have been discovered. It has 
been suggested that the people wlio left these 
monuments were the progenitors of the fast fading 
Indian tribes of North America, and tiiis is made 
to appear probable by the resemblance of the pots 
and vases in figure, etc., to those afterward found 
in all Indian villages and to those still made by 
the women of the Mandan and other tribes. Mar- 
quette County is rich in the evidences of the pres- 
ence within its borders at some remote time of 
the race, long since extinct, which is the delight of 
antiquarian research and the object of curious con- 
sideration by intelligent persons of all classes. The 
Mound Builders have left innumerable tumuli near 
the river and lake. The mounds possess the varied 
forms peculiar to this class of pre-historic works. 
Most of them are conical or oblong, some are cru- 
ciform and others resemble birds or animals. The 
age of the mounds is attested by huge trees which 
have grown on their summits and by the remains 
of other large trees which have lived, died and de- 
cayed since the germ was first implanted in the 
upturned soil by the ordering of that economy of 
nature which is at once a source of admiration and 
marvel to the thoughtful mind. These mounds, 
like all others constructed by this mystic people, 
are of surface soil, yet the immediate vicinit}' 
shows no disturbance of the surrounding alluvium. 
In view of this fact emphasis is given to the queries 
as to when, how and why they were built. Excep- 
tional ones on the bluffs at the bends of the liver 
or on the promontory on the lake were, perhaps, 
for defense; some, possibly, for tombs, as bones 
would seem to indicate. Excavations usually yield 
meagre results, though they sometimes disclose 
pieces of coarse pottery and rude implements. 
Moundville, as its name implies, abounds in these 
antiquarian puzzles. 

There are many mementoes of the past scattered 
over the town of Berlin, Green Lake County, says 
a writer, John fi. Gillespy, 1860: " In their for- 
mation there is great similarity. That the great 
portion are graves or monuments raised to the dead 
there can be but little doubt. There is so far as I 
have seen only one embankment or mound in this 
town or county that a person would be in any 

doubt as to its purpose or use or to what necessity 
in Indian life it owes its erection — a circular mound 
about twenty rods in diameter and sixty-five rods 
in circumference. It might have been a place of 
worship or of recreation or gladiatorial combats; 
from its peculiar structure one can easily imagine 
it was used for one or the other or them all. Here 
the court of some mighty chief or renowned war- 
rior might have been held in all the pomp and 
circumstance of savage and barbaric splendor. 
High potentates may here have met the assembled 
wisdom of the land in grave and portentous coun- 
cil suggested for future action; the nation's welfare 
cared for and legislation for future contingencies 
adoi>tcd; here might have been debates and dispu- 
tations, and no doubt with as much order and de- 
corum as is so often witnessed in our legislative 
halls, as to what would or would not conduce to 
the prosperity and happiness of the people, doubt- 
less resulting in as much benefit as the orations and 
debates of an}^ demogogue in these days, who in 
his superhuman efforts saves the Union as often as 
twice a year. Here may have been high and holy 
purposes consecrated to the welfare of ail. Pat- 
riotism may here have dared to combat the false 
theories and maxims of crafty politicians who, car- 
ing naught for anything but self and personal am- 
bition, would make a burial of all the noble 
impulses of our nature for supremacy and extended 
rules." The same writer suggests that Dartford 
'* must have been long years ago famous in the 
traditions and history of the Red Man. There is 
no place in the county if in the State, where the 
memorials of ancient warfare and Indian customs 
are more striking ai.d riiarked than at this place, 
situated on a very narrow valle}^ or more properly 
a cape, extending east for one-half mile, bordered 
by marsh on the north and creek on the south. 
Packayan here runs for about half a mile between 
high banks, the point from which it takes it name 
making an elbow into the valley; some thirty feet 
high from the creek, must have been, from all the 
remains clustering here in a very little space, a for- 
tification of no little magnitude. Here are mounds 
and embankments for nearly the whole length of 
the north side of the valley; but the most worthy 
of note is one upon the top of the bluff in the form 

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of a Latin cross; its greatest lent^th is about 105 
feet lying northwest and southeast; crossing this 
embankment at right angles is one sixty feet in 
length, all about three feet high, and at the junction 
tajjering and falling eacli way to a level with the 
land on which it is bnilt. Beauhien himself,with all 
his scientific skill, could not more completely have 
laid out a fortification which, although so simple 
yet in the rude warfare of ancient times was an ef- 
fectual protection and at the same time commanded 
and controlled the navigation of the creek either up 
or down; this no doubt was its design; placed upon 
the highest ground it was a perfect defensible posi- 
tion, let the enemy come from which quarter he 
might, its defendants onl}' moving from one of its 
sides to the other would be protected from any 
missiles thrown by the enemy, whilst at the same 
lime it afforded every advantage for defensive 
warfare. Some fifty rods west of this, what may 
truly be called a fort, are three several embank- 
ments lying as regards the compass like the fort; 
these are parallel to each other and four rods apart, 
ten rods long, two feet high and about the same in 
breadth. These embankments arc crossed by the 
road from Ste. Marie to Berlin. There are several 
others, small and large, of all shapes; one very 
large round one immcMJiately east of the fort; this 
no doubt was a burial place; that it is the grave of 
the defenders, who might in some destructive bat- 
tle have been slain, and then and there where they 
had ensanguined the soil with their life's blood 
were laid to rest after life's fitful dream, is as prob- 
able as any other theory that might be adopted. 
This place for aught we know, may have been con- 
sidered of as much importance and as fully impreg- 
nable as Gibraltar. There m days long gone by 
might have been feats of arms and personal courage, 
successful combat with invading foes intent upon 
sul)jugation and extended rule.'* 

Mounds have been opened near the village of 
Marquette similar to others in these counties, from 
which such ornaments as are usually worn by In- 
dians have been taken, such as a silver bracelet on 
which was engraved '*ontreal, 1775," (prol)ably a 
partof "Montreal,") and likely brought to the place 
by a Frenchman or by an Indian who had pro- 
cured it from a Frenchman, and bark cloth, and an 

ornament of silver resembling a small button. 
These discoveries would lead to the belief that these 
i-epulchers. if such they are, are of more recent date 
than has been generally supposed; but the Indians 
living near tlie place when white occupation began 
avowed their ignorance of their age and had no 
tradition of their erection. 

Nicolet*s Exploration of the Fox River. 

Jean Nicolet was, without doubt, the first white 
man who set foot upon ground now included in 
Marquette, Green Lake and Waushara Counties or 
their surrounding territory. **0n the Istof July, 
1634," wrote Henri Jouan, [Jean Nicolet, *'Inter. 
preter and A'oyageur in Canada,** 1618-1642 — 
translated from the French by Grace Clark, and 
published in the ''Collections of the State Histori- 
cal Society of Wisconsin," 1888.] *^two fleets of 
canoes left Quebec and ascended the St. Lawrence 
River; one to build a fort on the place where 
to-day stands the city of Three Rivers; the other, 
under the direction of Father Brebeuf, to explore 
'the upi>er country" — to day the Canadian Prov- 
ince of Ontario — by ascending the Ontario River. 
Nicolet was in the second fleet, and when the two 
expeditions met at Three Rivers, he, putting the 
stakes in with his own hands, helped in the founda- 
tion of the cit3' where he was to i)ass the last years 
of his life. Allumette Island was reached after a 
thousand sufferings had been endured by these trav- 
elers, who were accustomed to the life of the woods 
and who were, moreover, hostilely received on the 
road by the natives; but this was no obstacle to a 
courier des hois, a demi-savage tuch as Nicolet." 
[•'Jean Nicolet in the journey which he made with 
us to the island, sustaine<l all the hard work of one 
of the most robust savages," Relation of 1635. — 
II. J.] ^'Leaving Brebeuf at Allumette Island, he 
went first among his old friends of Lake Nipissing 
to make preparations for his voyage. Then, des- 
cending the French River, which issues from Lake 
Nipissing and empties into the Georgian Bay 
(northeastern part of Lake Huron), he visits the 
llurons, who inhabit this region, and with whom i.i 
all probability he came to execute some commission 
given him by Cham plain. From this place he sets 
out for unknown lands in a birchbark canoe — a 

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forerunner of ^the many steamers and ships that 
now plow the great lakes in all directions — with 
only seven savages, Hurons, for his entire crew and 
escort into a region where now arise agricultural 
and industrial settlements and populous cities, 
but which were then the exclusive domain of tribes 
of redsltins whose number or names no one knew, 
and where the traveler could depend only upon 
the hunting and fishing for his daily subsistence. 
He begins bj' coasting along the north shore of 
Lake Huron, then, following the strait that leads 
into Lake Superior, he pushes to the place called 
Sault-Sainte-Marie, where he remains for sometime 
to rest his men; then crossing" [not crossing, but 
ascending] *'the Straits of Mackinaw, he enters 
Lake Michigan: Sailing" [paddling] "up the large 
rivers in the northeastern" [northwestern] "portion 
Green Bay, he comes among the Menomonies at 
the mouth of the river of the same name*' [not 
known as the Menomonee River until long after] 
"not far away from the Men of the Sea, better 
known afterward by the name of Winnebagoes." 
["More correctly, Ouinipigou, from the word 
Ouinipeg, by which the Algonquins meant bad- 
smelling water, as salt water was by them desig- 
nated. Ouinipigou, signified to the Algonquins 
'Men of the Salt Water,' ^Men of the Sea' » ^ "— 
H. J.] They were the chief objects of his expedi- 
tion, and he went into their midst while ascending 
the Fox River. But here I will let the "Relation 
of 1643" speak for me; I think the explorer will 
be better understood as thus described by a con- 
temporary: "While he was occupying this office 
(clerk and interpreter) he was chosen to make a 
journey to the tribe called the People of the Sea, 
to conclude peace with them, and with the Hurons, 
who are about 300 leagues farther west [east] than 
they. He embarked for [from] the territory of 
the Hurons with seven savages; they encountered 
a number of small tribes in coming and going; 
when they arrived there" [the country of the 
Winnebagoes] "they drove two sticks into the 
ground and hung presents upon them to prevent 
the people from taking them for enemies and mur- 
dering them. At a distance of two days' journey 
from this tribe he sent one of his savages to carry 
them the news of peace, which was well received, 

especially when they heard that it was a European 
who brought the message. They despatched sev- 
eral young men to go to meet the manitou, that is, 
the wonderful man; they come, they escort him, 
the}' carrj' all his baggage. He was clothed in a 
large garment of China damask strewn with flowers 
and birds of various colors. As soon as he came 
in sight all the women and children fled, seeirg a 
man carry thunder in both hands. They called 
thus the two pistols he was holding. The news of 
his coming spread immediately to the surrounding 
places; four or five thousand men assembled. 
Each of the Chiefs gave him a banquet, and at one 
of them at least 120 beavers were served. Peace 
was concluded ^ ^." The Chinese costume that 
Nicolet wore in his first interview with the ^People 
of the Sea' in<Ucates that he expected to see some 
mandarin come to meet him, to whom rumor 
might have announced his arrival. As was ascer- 
tained later the so-called Asiatics were no other 
than the redskins since known as the Dakotas and 
the Sioux." [The Sioux are a branch of the Dakota 
fiimil}'.] "Nicolet had arrived something like 400 
leagues from Quebec; it was there that he became 
acquainted with the Mississippi, if not de visa at 
least by hearsay. Crossing the portage which 
separates the Fox from the Wisconsin River, and 
descending the latter, he proceeded as far as its 
confluence with the Mississippi, being thus the 
first Frenchman to greet the Great Water. Or 
indeed, when, having returned to Quebec, he 
asserted that if he had sailed three days longer 
upon a great river, he could have found the sea." 
[Relation of 1640 — H. J.] "Was this great river 
of which he spoke the Mississippi or merely the 
Wisconsin River, whose course would have eon- 
ducted him to the Mississippi ?" [It is abundantly 
proven in Butterfield's "Discovery of the North- 
west," p. 67, et seq., that Nicolet did not discover 
the Wisconsin River, but only proceeded as far up 
the Fox, as the village of the Mascoutius, — prob- 
ably in what is now Green Lake County, Wis. — 
and then departed southward for the Illinois coun- 
try.] "Under the influence of preconceived ideas, 
did he not take what was designated to him by the 
name of *Great Water' for the Pacific Ocean, or at 
least for a great water-course Umt emptied into it ? 

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Tlie Winnebagoes spoke a language that differed 
radically from that of the Hurons and Algonquins; 
it is certain that he fully understood his inter- 
locutors." [For a long while it was believed that 
the Mississippi emptied into the Paci6c Ocean; the 
contrary was made known only in 1682, by the 
explorations of the Chevalier La Salle, and indeed 
it was necessary to wait seventeen years for the 
question to be fully decfded by LeMoyne D* Iber- 
ville finding the mouth of the river by water. 
(Benj. Suite, loc ciL)—Yl. J.] '^These are doubtful 
points, the discussion of which would carry me too 
far beyond the limits that I have drawn for myself; 
still one may ask why it was that Nicolet, believ- 
ing himself only three days' journey from the sea, 
should not have gone and verified the fact; was it 
because he was so far convinced that he deemed 
this verification needless? It appears quite cer- 
tain, however, that he did not limit his journey to 
the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, but that he pro- 
ceeded southward into the territory inhabited by the 
Illinois. The ''Relations," written after 1636 by 
Fathers Le Jeune and Vincent, contain indeed 
much information given by Nicolet upon the coun- 
try and the people southwest of Lake Michigan. 
He was the first Frenchman" [and the first Euro 
pean] "to penetrate so far in that direction. Re- 
tracing his steps, he re- entered Quebec at the 
beginning of the autumn of 1635 with a rich store 
of observations of every sort, having acquired for 
French influence and by peaceful means only, 
large populations until then unknown. It is prob- 
able that he would not have ceased his adventurous 
travels had not the death of Cham plain, which oc- 
curred soon after his return, suspended for a time 
this kind of undertaking." 

Explorations of the Fox by Radisson aud 

Pierre d* Esprit, Sieur Radisson, and his sister 
Margaret's husband, Medard Chouart, Sieur des 
Groseilliers, were among the most daring and suc- 
cessful explorers known in North America during 
the third quarter of the seventeenth century. 
Their earlier voyages, though attended with danger 
and adventure and prolific of influence upon the 
subsequent history of the continent, have no direct 
bearing upon the histoty of the small part of the 

State of Wisconsin, of which this work treats. 
About the middle of June, 1658, Radisson aini 
Groseilli$irs, who had now formed a friendly part- 
nership "to travell and see countreys," began a 
journey up the Ottawa River to Lake Huron and 
beyond. They started in company with twenty- 
nine other Frenchmen; but being attacked by the 
Iroquois, all returned except Radisson and Grosel- 
liers, who pushed on with the Huron "wild men" 
who served as their guides to the upper country. 
Upon arriving at the mouth of the French River, 
the Indians divided their party; "seven boats went 
toward west northwest and the rest to the south." 
The two Frenchmen proceeded with the southbound 
fleets, and, after making nearly the entire circuit of 
Lake Huron, stopped with their Indian companions 
at the village of the latter — apparently on one of 
the Manitoulin Islands. From here they went on 
a neighboring visit to the "nation of ye stairing 
haires" — theOttawas, who were on the Great Man i- 
toulin. Urged by visitors— "Ambassadors" Radisson 
grandiloquently styles them — from the "Pontona- 
tenick," or Pottawattomies, the travelers pushed 
westward through the Straits of Mackinaw, and 
visited their new friends who were then located 
upon the Islands at the mouth of Green Bay and 
upon the main land to the southward, along the 
western shores of Lake Michigan. They passed 
the winter of 1658-59 with the Pottawattomies, — 
thus being the first white men known to have set 
foot within what is now Wisconsin after the t^yent 
of Nicolet in 1634. While with the Pottawatto- 
mies, they met with visitors from the Mapcoutins, 
or the famous "Fire Nation" whom Nicolet had 
discovered on the south side of Fox River, proba- 
bly in what is now Green Lake County, Wis., twent}*- 
Gve years before. In the spring of 1659 the 
Frenchmen passed up the Fox to visit the Mascou- 
tins. The latter told them of the "Nadoneceronon" 
nation, or Sioux, their neighbors to the West; also 
of a wandering tribe, the "Christenos," who lived 
on the shores of Hudson's Bay in the summer, and 
in Wisconsin and along the south shore of Lake 
Superior in the winter. They appear to have had 
excellent treatment at the hands of the Mascoutins. 
and it is undoubtedly to this period of the voyage, 
in the spring and early summer of 1659, thjit R;u 

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disson refers, when, upon his homeward journey 
down the Ottawa, he writes, by way of reminis- 
cence, the words commencing with: "We weare 
four months on our voyage without doeing any- 
thing but goe from river to river." In this para- 
graph, — apparently unconscious of the great his- 
toric importance of the discovery — he alludes to 
the fact that his companion and himself accom- 
panied some Indians ''into ye great river." which 
from his description was undoubtedly the Upper 
Mississippi. This discovery antedates that claimed 
for LaSalle by not less than eleven years and that 
of Joliet and Marquette fourteen years, and forms 
one of the most notable records of early American 
exploration. There can be no doubt that Radis- 
son's reference is to the Mississippi, and that the 
event occurred during his visit to the Mascoutins 
who, as has been stated, were probably located 
within the present borders of Green Lake County. 
The season Radisson and Groseilliers spent here was 
the only time they could have made the visit to tlie 
Mississippi, for Radisson's narrative fully explains 
their movements during the rest of this voyage 
and leaves them no other opportunity to reach the 
great river. It is, therefore, reasonable to conclude 
that the notable discovery was made in the spring 
or early summer of 1659, and that the approach to 
the Mississippi was made up the Fox River and 
down the Wisconsin, the route pointed out by the 
Mascoutins to Nicolet twenty-five years before. 
This account is condensed from papers published 
by the Wisconsin Historical Societ}', based on the 
original manuscript of Radisson, who describes the 
Mascoutins as "a faire proper nation." Continuing: 
"They are tall and bigg and very strong. We 
came there in the spring. When we arrived there 
weare extraordinary banquetts. There they never 
have seen men with beards, because they pull their 
hairs as soon as it comes out; but much more as- 
tonished when they saw our arms, especially our 
guns, which they worshipped by blowing smoake 
and tobacco instead of sacrifice. I will not insist 
on their way of living, for of their ceremony s 
heere you will see a patern." 

AlloueZy Joliet, Marquette, Du Lliiit, Henne- 
pin, Perrot and La Hontau. 

Father Allouez made a voyage up the Fox River 

to the present limits of Green Lake County in 
1669. In 1673 Louis Joliet and Jacques Mar- 
quette left Mackinaw, with five other Frenchmen, 
reached the Wisconsin River by the Fox and a 
portage and descended to the Mississippi. In 1679 
Daniel Graysen Du Lhut (Duluth) ascended St. 
Louis River, held a council and concluded a peace 
with the natives west of Lake Superior. In the 
following year he voyaged from Lake Superior to 
the Mississippi River by ascending the B(ns Brule 
and descending the St. Croix; and Father Louis 
Hennepin ascended the Mississippi to the Falls of 
St. Anthony, returning, in company with Du Lhut, 
over the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, to Green Bay. 
In 1683 Le Seur made a voyage of the Fox and 
Wisconsin Rivers to the Mississippi. In 1685 
Nicholas Perrot, who had been at Green Bay as 
early as 1669, and who had been appointed *'com- 
mandant of the West," proceeded over the Fox- 
Wisconsin Rivers route to the Upper Mississippi, 
spending the winter at a point near the present vil- 
lage of Trempeleau. In 1686 and in later years, 
he established port« on Lake Pepin and at the 
mouth of the Wisconsin. Four years later Baron 
la Ilontau claimed to have penetrated the Wiscon- 
sin wilds, by the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers and 
to have made extensive discoveries on the Upper 

Historical Importance of these Early 

Such, in brief, is the history of the voyages of 
the intrepid explorers who were the forerunners in 
this then wild country of the civilization to-day. 
The records they have left are so meager and so 
general in their application that it is not possible 
to obtain from them much data of strictly local 
interests. It is sutficient that the Fox River, flow- 
ing through this territory, bore upon its bosom the 
frail barques of these venturesome pathfinders, and 
that it was by way of the Fox that the first of 
them came near discovering and another later actu- 
ally did discover the Mississippi, that great stream 
which has exerted an influence more powerful than 
any other upon the assimilation and advancement 
of the various interests of a vast continent, con- 
necting the North and the South and supplying a 
common market to the Ea^t ^nd tbQ West. 

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Voyage of Captain Carver. 

Captain Jotiatlian Carver, of the English army, 
ascended the Fox River in 1766. Arriving at the 
Island, now the site of Neenah and Menasha, tie 
found a great Indian town — Winnebagoes. Tiie 
tribe was ruled by a queen, who received him with 
great civility and entertained him sumptuously 
during the four days he remained there. ''The 
town contained fifty houses. The land,'* he says, 
'*was very fertile, grapes, plums and other fruits 
grew abundantly. The Indians raised large quanti- 
ties of Indian corn, beans, pumpkins, squashes 
watermelons and some tobacco." On the Wiscon- 
sin River he found the largest and best built Indian 
town he ever saw. ''It contained about ninety 
houses, each large enough for several families, 
built of hewn planks, neatly jointed, and covered 
so completely with bark as to keep out the most 
penetrating rains. The streets were both regular 
and spacious, appearing more like a civilized town 
than the abode of savages. The land was rich, 
and corn, beans and melons were raised in large 
quantities." Many of the planting grounds on the 
banks of the lakes were lovely spots, and in the 
corn husking time, or in the wild rice harvest, 
when multitudes of canoes were engaged in gath- 
ering the grain, presented a cheerful scene. The 
voyageur's camping ground was frequently adjoin- 
ing, and many a festive summer night has echoed 
with the song and mirth of the backwoods frolic, 
in which both races have enjoyably participated. 

Resources, Physical Features, Etc. 

Lying between the counties of Waushara, Green 
Lake, Columbia and Adams, is the county of Mar- 
quette. The surface is undulating and the soil a 
sandy loam which becomes clear sand in certain 
localities. Marshes are found near the streams 
and these produce hay in abundance, while with 
proper attention thc}^ might easily be redeemed from 
wildness to a condition of profit by the introduc- 
tion of cranberry culture. The county may be 
generally described as one of oak oi)enings. The 
native timber has been removed from large areas, 
and considerable land is under cultivation. The 
region is well watered and supplied with power. 
Neenah Creek runs through Oxford, Douglas, 

Center and Briggsville, with improved mill privi- 
leges in each town. The Montello furnishes power 
for mills and factories at Laurence, Westfield, Har- 
risville and Montello. The Meehan drives one 
mill atGermania and White Creek supplies a mill 
and foundry at Neshkoro. The only elevation is 
in the northwest corner of the county, called Lib- 
erty Bluff, It is several acres in area and rises on 
three sides abruptly fifty to eighty feet with a 
ragged wall of sandstone. Norway pines grow 
upon its summit and are not found elsewhere in the 
county. The village of Montello, the county seat, 
has a charming location upon the shore of the 
placid Buffalo Lake, with towering bluffs and en- 
circling rivers. A marked geologic feature of the 
place is the huge outcropping of granite rock, 
projecting boldly upon the side of one of the main 
business streets. Some of the surrounding lands 
are sandy. Most are oak openings, while perhaps 
one-fourth of the county is marsh or rich alluvium. 
The chief exports of the county are wheat, corn, 
U^i l>ork, butter and cranberries together with the 
products of the various factories. A large amount 
of fish, mostl}'^ pickerel and bass, are annually 
caught in the rivers and lakes within the county 
limits, and the region round about Montello is 
said to be one of the best hunting grounds in this 
part of the country. The water power furnished 
by the different streams is but partially employed 
in a profitable manner, and suflficient water runs to 
waste to turn the wheels of scores of mammoth 
factories. The county contains fourteen towns 
named as follows: Springfield, Newton, Crystal 
Lake, Neshkoro, Westfield, Harris, Shields, Meehan, 
Oxford, Packwaukee, Montello, Douglas, Mound- 
ville and Buffalo. There are sixteen postoflfices in 
the county: Briggsville, Douglas Center, Germa- 
nia, Grover, Harrisville, Jeddo, Liberty Bluff, 
Merritt's Landing, Midland, Montello, Mound ville, 
Neshkoro, Oxford, Packwaukie, Roslin and West- 
field. It is twenty-four miles from the northern to 
the southern border of the county, and from 
eighteen to twenty-one miles from its eastern to its 
western limits. 

Green Lake County is bounded on the north by 
Waushara County; on the east by Winnebago and 
Fond du Lac Counties; on the south by Columbia 

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and Dodge Couuties, and on the west by Marquette 
County. Its greatest length north and south is 
twenty-seven miles; its greatest breadth east and 
west eighteen miles. Of the 247,658 acres com- 
prising the county, 20,000 are water, divided into 
lakes and clear winding streams, which form the 
most prominent feature of this wonderfully formed 
region. Gushing springs may be found at the foot 
of almost every elevation, and water is readily 
found in all localities by diggi'^g and boring from 
ten to ninety feet. The general face of the coun- 
try is undeleting, neither hilly nor extensive plains, 
with the exception of high broken lands around 
the marshes in the south part of the county. A fine 
stretch of prairie extends along the eastern part. 
In this section may be found some of the richest 
farms in the State. The soil is the rich brown 
mould of the prairies, the sandy loam of the val- 
leys, or the clayey loam of the high lands. Even 
the poorest lands produce fair crops. Limestone, 
with its attendant sandstone, is abundant, cropping 
out at almost every hillside in the towns lying east 
of the Fox River. Doubtless it underlies the 
whole surface of the county, varying in depth 
from ten to forty feet. The wonderful outcrop- 
ping of granite at Berlin receives extended notice 
elsewhere. Wheat, rye, corn, oats, all the various 
products of the latitude, as well as fruit, berries, 
grapes, etc., and varieties of vegetables raised in a 
more southern climate are cultivated with success. 
Wheat is the chief reliance. Corn is grown with 
little labor and is at times a more profitable crop 
than wheat. Sorghum is cultivated with success, 
and is a not unimportant article of commerce. The 
cranberry crop is heavy and the sales are very 
large. The farmers are well-to-do and independ- 
ent as a class. Marshes abound on both sides of 
Fox River, from half a mile to four miles in width, 
bordered generally with a prolific growth of wild 
rice which annually feeds innumerable flocks of 
blackbirds and ducks. In addition to these are 
extensive pastures and haying fields along all the 
tributaries of the Fox, making Green Lake one of 
the finest stock-growing counties in the State. The 
county, though largely dependent on its agricultu- 
ral products by which to make a showing to the 
outside world, has manifested considerable enter- 

prise in the way of utilizing what few natural ad- 
vantages are afforded by tlie tributaries of the Fox 
River. The Fox itself, owing to its slight fall, 
which is barely a foot to the mile, is perfectly use- 
less as a means of power and serves only as a great 
natural canal and a fertilizer of the grand valley 
through which it silently wends its wa}'. Steam 
mills and manufactories to suppl}' the needs of the 
population are extending and increasing as the 
wants of the community demand. The manufac- 
ture and export of granite from the quarries at 
Berlin is probably the most extensive single indus- 
try in this section. The county comprises ten towns 
named as follows: Berlin, Brooklyn, Green Lake, 
Kingston, Mackford, Manchester, Marquette, Prince- 
ton, Sejieca and St. Marie. There are nine post- 
offices, thus named: Berlin, Dartford, Green Lake, 
Kingston, Manchester, Markesan, Marquette, Prince- 
ton and rtley. This territory is equal to any other 
portion of the State of like extent. Big and Little 
Green Lakes are prominent features of the count}'. 
The former is a remarkably fine sheet of water of 
a greenish hue. The lake takes its name from the 
color of the water, and in turn gives its name to 
the county. It is ten or twelve miles in length, 
and has an average width of two to three miles. 
The water is very clear and generally deep, hav- 
ing been plumbed in places to the depth of 100 
feet. The shores are high and wooded and are 
irregular, being indented by fine bays. It is only 
within the past few years that this gem of a lake 
has attracted the attention of pleasure seekers. 
Green Lake is unrivalled in beauty of scenery, 
fine fishing and hunting, and is now regarded as 
one of the finest resorts in the West. Small steam 
yachts make trips around the lake to accommodate 
excursionists and pleasure seekers. The several 
watering places are provided with fleets of sail and 
rowboats and when filled with their merry crews 
these boats, as they flit across the green waters of 
the lake, add a charm to scenes of unsurpassed 
loveliness. Little Green Lake is situated in the 
southern part of the town of Green Lake, and has 
some of the characteristics of its larger namesake. 
It is a mile and a half in length and a mile wide 
Lake l^ackaway, in the western part of the county, 
an expansion of the Fox River, is navigable. It 

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is about eight miles in length, east and west, and 
about a mile wide from north to south. The 
Indian name signifies wild rice. This lake is bor- 
dered by large marshes, and is noted for its numer- 
ous fields of wild rice and the great number of 
wild ducks that frequent its waters. During the 
duck season the borders of the lake are lined with 
huntei*s from the large cities and surrounding 
country, while an occasional Indian puts in an ap- 
j)earance. Fish are caught in abundance during 
the season, fine specimens of lake trout, pickerel, 
bass and perch being taken. 

Waushara County is in the form of a parallelo- 
gram, thirty-six miles long and eighteen miles wide. 
There are embraced in this county 414,000 acres of 
land. It is estimated that nearly fifty per cent, of 
this may be called openings, thirty per cent, marsh, 
fifteen per cent, timbei and five per cent, prairie. 
The soil is extremely sandy. The timber is oak, 
hickory, maple, bass and ash. The eastern part of 
the county has the most productive soil, and the 
marshy portions are admirably fitted for cranberry 
culture and for hay raising. Immense crops of 
cranberries are gathered in the southeastern part. 
Wild fruits grow in great profusion, which argues 
the successful production of the cultivated kinds. 
Large deposits of marl are found whicu has value 
for fertilization. There are considerable beds of 
the quality of clay that produces cream colored 
brick, and which is adapted also to the manufac- 
ture of stoneware. The principal crops are wheat, 
rye, oats, corn and hops. About 15,000 acres of 
wheot are sown annually. The character of the 
surface is generally level, though there are some 
bluffs in the northern and central parts. The re- 
gion is well watered, lakes varying in size from one 
acre to a section of land being scattered profusely 
over it. Noteworthy among these lakes is Silver 
Lake, a beautiful sheet of water which has begun 
to attract cottage builders, and promises in time to 
l>ecome popular with tourists and summer sojourn- 
ers. Lake Poygan encroaches on the eastern 
boundary of the county and covers about four 
sections of land. The Fox cuts off the southeast- 
em corner and is the largest river watering or 
draining the county. It flows in a northeasterly 
direction and no stream flows into it within Wau- 

shara's boundaries. Pine River, which drains the 
northeastern half and enters Lake Poygan, is a 
stream secon<l in size. It aflfords fair water power 
at diflferent points. Willow. Creek, which performs 
the same oflfice for the central and southeastern 
sections, and has its outlet into Lake Poygan, but 
a short distance from the Pine, is third in import- 
ance. White River and Pine Creek are tributary 
to the Fox and drain the southern portion. 
All these streams oflfer facilities for manufacturing. 
Both lakes and rivers abound in fish. It is said that 
at one time there were so many fish below the dam 
at Poysippi that people took them away by wagon 
loads, catching them in their bare hands and tossing 
them up into their wagon boxes. By the boring 
of artesian wells water can be obtained at depth of 
from fifty to 100 feet. Almost every farm has a 
fountain or flowing well. Waushara County has 
eighteen towns as follows: Plainfield, Hancock, 
Cocoma, Oasis, Deerfield, Richford, Rose, Wauto- 
ma, Dakota, Springwater, Mt. Morris, Marion, 
Saxeville, Leon, Warren, Bloomfield, Poysippi and 
Aurora. There are twenty- three postoflSces within 
the county limits: Auroraville, Brush ville, Cedar 
Lake, Colebrook, Coloma, Coloma Station, Da- 
kota, Hamilton, Hancock, Mt. Morris, Oasis, Pine 
River, Plainfield, Poysippi, Richford, Saxeville, 
Spring Lake, Springwater, Terrill, Tuston, Wau- 
toma. West Bloomfield and Wild Rose. The 
county is bounded north by Portage and Waupaca 
Counties; east by Winnebago county; south by 
Marquette and Green Lake Counties, and west by 
Adams County. 

No section of the State can surpass these counties 
in richness of soil and adaptation to profitable farm- 
ing. From the ease of cultivating the land and 
the certainty of bountiful harvests, it has been 
comparatively easy for the farmers to become a 
well-to-do and really independent class. Men who 
but a few years ago expended their last dollar in 
paying for their lands are now in possession of a 
competency. A feature in favor of the settler in 
this region has been the facility and cheapness of 
marketing farm products, there being railway and 
water transportation within a short distance of 
every well-settled locality. A growing little city 
and several prosperous villages afford good trading 

Digitized by 




facilities. Mills and manufactures to supply the 
needs of the population have extended eommen- 
sui'ately with the demands of these rapidly develop- 
ing counties. School-houses are numerous in every 
town, and church spires may almost he said to be 
in view from any point within the territory. All 
the varieties of small birds and fowls peculiar to 
the latitude are abundant. Trapping for small an- 
imals is pursued with some success. The larger 
wild animals, such as moose, deer, etc., arc banished, 
and nothing short of an occasional verification of 
the fact by some pioneer would lead a new-comer 
to believe that the territory now embraced in these 
counties was" ever famous as an Indian hunting 
ground. Noxious wild animals are about extinct. 
The favorable latitude of these counties renders 
their climate healthful and pleasant. So diversi- 
fied are they in soil, scenery and general resources 
and advantages that one may find a home whether 
his desire be to follow the plow, to engage in trade 
or manufacture, or, like Abraham of old, to in- 
crease his substance in flocks and herds of cattle. 


When the territory now embracing these counties 
first emerged from the ocean, it doubtless pre- 
sented an essentially plain surface, having a slight 
inclination to the east and southeast. The irregu- 
larities which it now presents are due to subsequent 
changes, the result of three classes of agents acting 
at different times and under different conditions. 
The following account of this transition is con- 
densed from Prof. T. C. Chamberlin's and other 
reporU on the geology of Eastern Wisconsin. 

During the ages between the emergence of the 
land and the drift period the streams were cutting 
their beds deeper and deeper into the rocks and 
rendering the former level surface more irregular. 
The softer rocks were more readily eroded than 
the harder ones, and this helped to inciease the un 
evenness. There was a tendency of the streams to 
follow, as far as the sloixi favored, the less resisting 
belts of soft rock, and as these run in a northerly 
and southerly direction in this region, the main 
streams had that direction. The little streams gath- 
ered into the larger ones in a manner not unlike 
that by which the branches of a tree are united to 

the trunk. The uuevenness of surface produced 
by erosion of this natuie possesses a certain kind 
of system and symmetry readily recognizable. As 
this erosion occupied the time preceding the glacial 
period, the features produced by it have oeen 
termed Pre-Olacial. 

The modifications of the surface constituting this 
first class of topographical features were produced 
by running water. Those of the second class, 
which were produced next in order of time, were 
formed by ice in the form of glaciers, it is believed^ 
and by the agencies brought into action through 
their melting. The wock of the ice was two-fold — 
first in the leveling of the surface by planing down 
the hills and filling up the valleys; and second, in 
the creation of a new uneven surface, by heaping 
up in an irregular and promiscuous manner the 
clay, sand, gravel and boulders it had formed, thus 
giving the surface a new aspect. Among the fea- 
tures produced by the action of the ice are parallel 
ridges, sometimes miles in length, having the same 
direction as the ice movements; hills of rounded, 
flowing contour, sometimes having a linear arrange- 
ment in the direction of glacier progress; mounds 
of drift promiscuously arranged on an otherwise 
plain surface; oval domes of rock; sharp gravel 
ridges, some of them having a tortuous, seri>entine 
course, transverse to the drift movement; peculiar 
depressions, known as '* kettles," and half-sub- 
raergei rock gorges, known as " fiords." The melt- 
ing of the ice mass gave rise to swollen lakes and 
flooded rivers, which eroded at some points and 
filled up at others, and so still further modified the 
face of the country. All these peculiarities, being 
the result, directly or indirectly, of the ice action, 
have been called Glacial features. 

After the glacial period the wearing action of 
the streams was resumed, but under somewhat dif- 
ferent conditions. In addition to this there oc- 
curred a depression of land toward the north of 
several hundred feet, attended by an increased 
volume of water in the lakes, by which nearly one- 
half the district was submerged. The advancing 
waters of this [)erio(l leveled down man}' of the 
surface irregularities, and while the land was sub- 
merged the red clay was deposited, which still 
further leveled the surface. After the land arose 

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again from the water, the streams resumed their 
cutting, and as the clay was soft they rapidly 
eroded deep, wide gorges, leaving abrupt terraces 
on either side. The features thus produced have 
been named Post-Glaeial. 

To the three agencies, lake action, ice and run- 
ning, water, assisted slightly by winds, the topo- 
graphical peculiarities of the district are chiefly 
due. There is no evidence of violent eruptions, 
upheavals or outbursts. There was, indeed, the 
gradual elevation and depression of the surface, 
and probabl}^ some little flexure of the crust, and 
there are at two or three points indications of fault- 
ing; but in general the region has been free from 
violent agitation, and owes none of its salient to- 
pographical features to such causes. This district 
contains the more level portions of the State, but 
presents at the same time much of diversity and 
mp.ny interesting topographical features. Setting 
aside minor details, the State possesses two general 
slopes — a short, abrupt declivity northward to Lake 
Superior, and a long gentler incline southward. 
Through the center of the southward sloi)e there 
extends a moderate elevation, giving a southwest- 
erly and southeasterly inclination to the strata on 
either side. This part of the State is wholly within 
the southeasterly slope. 

Green Bay and the Fox- Wisconsin Rivers. 

The symmetry and simplicity of this system is 
traversed in a peculiar manner by a diagonal val- 
ley occupied by Green Bay and tiie Fox -Wisconsin 
rivers. This feature of the general surface of the 
State enters in an interesting way into the topog- 
raphy of this district, and from its commercial 
importance demands attention. This valley, in- 
eluding its extension into Michigan, is occupied by 
the waters of Green Bay for about 100 miles, with 
an average breadth of twelve miles. The bay 
projects into Wisconsin about seventy miles be- 
yond the extremity of the peninsula and about 
forty-five miles beyond the mouth of the Menomi- 
nee. The valley of the upper Fox is an extension 
of this, and, like it, has its more abrupt slope on 
the south side, though less conspicuously so, and 
the same broad, level tract is not seen on the oppo- 
site side. These diflferences are due partly to the 

fact that the valley in this portion crosses the 
geological formations obliquely, whereas in the 
lower portion it followed their trend, and partly to 
the fact that here the drift movement was across 
the valley from eastward to westward to a consid- 
erable extent. This valley undoubtedl}^ had its 
existence before the glacial period, during which 
it was probably more filled than eroded. The Fox 
River, at this portion of its course, has a much less 
rapid descent than between Lake Winnebago and 
Green Bay, a circumstance greatly favoring its 
improvement and navigation. The upper Fox de- 
scends forty feet in an air-line distance of about 
sixty miles, while the lower Fox descends 169^ feet 
in half that distance. The valley leading south 
from Lake Winnebago, which has been alluded to 
as an extension of the Green Bay valley, rises 140 
feet in fifteen miles. These facts, supported as 
they are by many others of similar import, show 
that the diagonal valley under consideration is a 
well-characterized if n(»t obvious fact. The com- 
mercial importance of this valley, in presenting 
suitable conditions for the establishment of water 
communication between the Mississippi and the 
great lakes, has awakened a deep interest among 
citizens of this and adjoining States, and public at- 
tention has been so thoroughly turned toward it 
that the prospects of realization are good, if not 
immediate. The attention of capitalists has also 
been invited to the water power of the lower Fox, 
bearing in mind that grain- bearing vessels will oflfer 
return transportation at the most reasonable rates, 
thus placing manufacturing establishments in the 
most advantageous relations to the thousands of 
miles of rich territory along the Mississippi and its 
tributaries, and the still other thousands of miles 
of shore line around the great lakes. The enter- 
prise for the improvement of this channel of 
communication is already far advanced under Gov- 
ernmental auspices. [See chapter on " Fox-Wis- 
consin River Improvements."] Another extension 
of the Green Bay valley is in the Rock River basin, 
but with that the historian of these counties has 
nothing to do. 

The Rock Classes in this District. 

The rocks in the district under consideration con- 

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sist of two great classes, widely distinguished in age 
and character. The more ancient one consisted 
originally of sedimentary materials, which were 
subsequently metamorphosed into quartzites, gran- 
ites, porphyries and similar rocks and were folded 
and tilled at various angles. These, formerly known 
as the Azoic or Eozoic, constitute the Archean 
formations. Upon these were afterward deposited 
a series of sandstones, shales and limestones that 
have remained essentially unaltered and undis- 
turbed to the present day, which constitute the 
Paleozoic formations. The following table exhibits 
the formations in their natural order: 


Lower Helderberg, 





St. Peters, 

Lower Magnesian, 






I Upper Sir 

>• Lower Silurian, 

y Paleozoic. 


Within this district and within the area of the 
Silurian formations, are projecting portions of the 
here buried Archaean formation. These isolated 
masses are made up chiefly of quartzites and dark 
colored quartz-porphyries, and are scattered widely 
over Marquette, Waushara and Green Lake Coun- 
ties, and are seen in Columbia and Sauk Counties, 
preserving in their positions a sort of rough pnral- 
lelism to the southern and eastern borders of the 
main Archaean mass. 

The Berlin Forphyi'y. — At Berlin is an out- 
standing Archaean mass consisting of three large 
elongated domes arranged en *echelon^ bearing 
northeast. The rock is composed essentially of 
small crystals of orthoclase feldspar dissem- 
mited through a peculiar cryptocrystalline base of 
felsite and quartz,forming a quartz-porphyry. The 
crystals of feldspar are usually grayish before 
weathering, becoming reddish afterward. The 
base in its unweathered state very much resembles 
quartzite and is of dark grayish cast with a very 
slightly reddish tinge, so modified by its trans- 
lucency as to give to the whole what may be called 
a water hue. Very thin splinters may bo fused 

before the blow-pipe with difficulty forming a 
transparent glass-like bead. The effect of weather- 
ing is marked and peculiar. The color changes to 
a light reddish, pinkish or grayish white and occa- 
sionally to a bright red, while the mass becomes 
opaque and finely granular and so soft as to be 
easily cut. There are occasionally spots, streaks 
or leaves of dark material in the base, sometimes 
called "interlaminated hornblende and mica." The 
rock is very uniform in character at all points ex- 
posed. It presents an obscure, parallel struct- 
ure giving rise to a somewhat definite system of 
cleavage, but traces of distinct bedding are not ob- 
served. The mass is traversed by extensive fis- 
sures which are readily arranged in three groups, 
the predominant one of which bears northwest and 
the smaller ones east of north and north of east, 
respectively, thus dividing the horizon into nearly 
equal areas, but none seem to be dependent on the 
cleavage structure of the rock. On the south slope 
of the hill and within a few rods of the exposure 
porphyry, occurs a sandstone in which are embed- 
ded masses of porphyry of various sizes. The 
sandstone also contains several species of Potsdam 
fossils, demonstrating the presence of the porpliyry 
as an island or reef during the desposition of the 
sandstone. These facts entirely negative the view 
that these hills were either ejected as an igneous 
mass or thrust up as such by upheaval. They are 
simpl}' projecting points of an eroded formation. 
The Pine Bluff Quartz- Porphyry. — Seventeen 
miles south of Berlin there rises out of the flood 
plain of the Grand River a conspicuous mass of 
quartz-porphyry known by the above name. It 
ascends by steep and even precipitous acclivities 
to a height of 100 feet, and being entirely isolated 
from surrounding elevations and nearly bare of 
soil and vegetation, is a conspicuous object. The 
rock consists of white, gray and flesh-colored crys- 
tals of orthoclase, and of glassy feldspar set in a 
very hard gray and black quartz-felsite base. The 
crystals of feldspar var}^ in size from three-tenths 
of an inch in length, downwards, but are rendered 
conspicuous by contrast of color. The rock is sus- 
ceptilble of very high and beautiful polish, but 
it is wrought with difficulty on account of its hard- 
ness. The dip is about 20^ to the east of south. 

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Obscure glacial striae, still preserved, testify to its 
endurance. Their direction is south 45® west. 
The greatest extension of the hill is in an east and 
west direction. It is largely rocky, but there are 
no abrupt rock ledges, the exposures being almost 
entirely surfaces conforming to the general contour 
of the liill and on the level with the surrounding 
sod. In places the slopes of the hill are covered 
with angular fragments apparently split off by 
frost. This is a peculiarity not noticed on any of 
the other porphyry outcrops and appears to be due 
to the large content of comparatively coarse^ 
cleavable feldspar. The surrounding country is 
marshy and drift covered and shows no outcrop 
of horizontal rocks. The loose fragments are 
many of them smoothed on one side and some sur- 
faces are beautifully striated. Nearly all the 
rock shows signs of weathering. This outcrop- 
ping is in the town of Seneca, Green Lake County, 
only about two miles south of the granite hills of 
Spring Lake, Waushara County. 

The Quartz- Porphyry of Marquette. — Near Mar- 
quette, Green Lake County, a little more than 
twelve miles west of Pine Bluff, very similar 
quartz-porphyries display themselves in more con- 
siderable force, constituting a group of prominent 
hills. A portion of the rock is precisely identi- 
cal in character with that of Pine Bluff and the 
greater mass is but an unimportant variation from 
it, but certain portions depart from the porphyritic 
character and become almost or entirely crypo- 
crystalline. One variety of this kind very closely 
resembles the more homogeneous of the red Hu- 
ronian quartzites, and another is a compact, close 
textured rock, usually of dark color but some- 
times greenish, neither of these varieties occupies 
exclusively any one horizon, but the quartzite- 
like variety is found in the more southerly out- 
crops, the last-mentioned kind, immediately north 
of that,the darker porphyrites next and the coarser, 
lighter colored ones in the more northerly expos- 
ures. The bedding is very obscure, but the lam- 
inations of certain portions and belts of particu- 
lar varieties of rock show the strike to the north- 
eastward. The dip is made out with much less 
certainty, but appears to be to the northward and 
vary from IS'' to 45®. Though the Berlin por- 

phyry differs from that of Pine Bluff and of Mar- 
quette in the absence of glassy feldspar, yet the 
close lithological alliance of the three is very ap- 
parent and they doubtless all belong to the same 
group of the Archaean series. The general strike 
of these formations projected westward, encounters 
several similar orelliers that are described by Prof. 
Irving and still farther southwest he found similar 
porphyry overlying the Barahoo quartzite. There 
seems to be sufficient reason for regarding the 
latter as Huronian, so that the porphyries must be 
regarded as a newer portion of that formation. 
All these masses present the rounded contour of 
glaciated surfaces and still bear the glacial groov- 
ings and in some cases even remnant polished 
spots, and from all these trains of porphyry bould- 
ers stretch away in the direction of the striae. In 
the Marquette outcrops the prevailing rock has a 
black, compact, flinty matrix which is streaked 
with white non-continuous lines. These lines arc 
for the most part, very prominent, and are fre- 
quently much contorted, the whole rock having a 
very evident parallel grain. The general course 
of the contorted laminae points to the same north- 
cast strike direction as observed on the Observa- 
tory Hill and Moundville outcrops. 

The Observatory Hill Quartz- Porphyi*y — In the 
Town of Buffalo, Marquette County, a knob of 
quartz-porphyry rises 250 feet above the general 
level. On the flanks of the hill and up to a ver- 
tical distance above the base of 125 feet, are hori- 
zontal sandstone ledges. Above, to the top, are near- 
ly continuous outcrops of porphyry,with a not very 
plain north 32'* east strike, and 60** northwest dip. 
The porphyry has a dark, grayish to black com- 
pact matrix, in which are thickly scattered quite 
large, brownish to pink facets of feldspar, the whole 
presenting a very dark colored appearance. The 
silica content is 78.56 per cent., and the specific 
gravity of 2.60. Numerous close joints occur 
throughout the exposure, causing the rock to split 
into small, irregularly shaped, smooth-faced angular 
fragments. The surrounding country shows every- 
where the Pottsdam sandstone as the surface rock. 
A high bluff of this sandstone, some 100 feet lower 
than the top of the observatory, lies on the south- 
west quarter of the same section. 

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The Moundville Quartz- Porphyry, — On the 
edge of the Fox River marsh at the head of Lake 
Buffalo, Moundville, Marquette County, are three 
low, rounded outcrops of quartz porphyry. These 
are five miles in a direction a little north of west 
from Observatory Hill, which is the nearest Ar- 
chsean outcrop. No other rock shows in the 
neighborhood, the country beinof heavily drift- 
covered. The largest outcrop is on the east end of a 
low bluff thirty-five feet high, and several hundred 
feet in length. There are quite marked appearances 
here of the same northeast strike, and north 60" dip, 
as seen at Observatory Hill. The rock has a dark 
brown matrix, and shows throughout traces of 
crystalline structure, and, quite thickly scattered, 
large brownish feldspar surfaces. A few crystals 
are white and translucent. The weathered surface 
is often of a bright pink color. Fine magnetic 
particles are abundant, though their existence is 
not rendered evident by the use of ordinary lens, a 
powerful microscope being necessary to distinguish 
them. The silicia content is 72.76 per cent. 

A comparison of the rocks of these several por- 
phyry areas shows that though all present the same 
general kind of rock, no two of the areas are ex- 
actly alike. The Observatory Hill porphyry has a 
black, flinty matrix with numerous large, brown- 
ish feldspar facets, and contains 73.56 per cent, of 
silica. The Moundville porphyry has a brown to 
black matrix and contains much brownish feldspar, 
some magnetite, and only 72.76 per cent, of silica. 
The Seneca porphyry is altogether different from 
the others, in having a light-colored, nearly white, 
somewhat granular and distinctly quartzose mat- 
rix, and in containing much white, glassy feldspar, 
the percentage of silica being 76.39. The Mar- 
quette porphyry has a black, flinty matrix, in this 
regard resembling closely the Observatory Hill 
rock, from which, however, it differs in being al- 
most without feldspar facets, and in having its mat- 
rix streaked with white, and thus presenting a very 
marked laraination,the silicia content being 70.29,or 
less than that obtained from any other of these rocks. 
The Berlin porphyry resembles that from the Mar- 
quette outcrop in having a marked lamination, but 
differs in the color of its matrix, in containing 
plenty of feldspar facets, and in having a larger 

percentage (74.37) of silica. Its peculiar fine 
granular matrix is also a very distinguishing char- 

The Montello Gh'anite. — In the. village of ^Mon- 
tello, Marquette County, is an ellipitical shaped, 
rounded mound of pink granite, about a third of^a 
mile in length and forty feet high. Over most of 
the hill the rock is quite uniform on a fresh frac- 
ture, though presenting a weathered surface from 
bright pink to dull grayish pink in color. The 
weathering is very slight, however, and the rock 
shows almost no tendency to decompose. It has a 
medium grain, close; texture, is of a bright pinkish 
color, and without sign of the arrangement of the 
ingredients in lines. These are, rather large flaked, 
pinkish, cleavable feldspar predominating; some- 
what granular, fine, pinkish, translucent 'quartz, 
abundant; and greenish black mica sparsely scat- 
tered, in blotches made up of very fine flakes. In 
places, then, light green epi dote -colored seams 
occur. Somewhat irregular northwest joints tra- 
verse the rock which is, however, for the most 
part structureless, and is quarried by firing, the 
pieces that crack off presenting a conchoidal frac- 
ture. On the north side of the west end of the 
mound occurs a vertical layer three feet wide, 
trending north, 55'' east, of a soft, greenish, highly 
schistose, decomposing chloritic rock. The least 
weathered specimens show a blackish color and 
some tendency to a crystalline texture. The vein 
is weathered down for two or three feet below the 
enclosing granite walls, both of which are seen. 
The schistose laminte are parallel to the walls. 
Greenish epidote seams in the rock near by have 
the same trend as the vein. Though this gran- 
ite was at first somewhat difficult to obtain in 
desirable masses, as the quarry is now worked, it 
makes very handsome and durable stone. 

The Marion Granii^ Areas, — In the town of 
Marion, Waushara County, are three low granite 
knobs. Two of these, Stone and Pine bluffs, are 
in a north northwest direction about two miles 
from the quartz-porphyry hill of the town of 
Seneca, Green Lake County, and the third, a larger 
and bolder hill, lies on the eastern border of the 
marsh and stretches to some extent over the line 
into the town of Warren. On all of these areas 

Digitized by 




the rock observed is nearly the same, a pinkish, 
felspatbic granite, mottled with gray and green, 
closely resembling the Montello granite, from which 
it differs, however, in having a coarser grain, looser 
texture and a marked tendency to decompose. 
Reddish cleavable feldspar is the principal ingredi- 
ent occurring in facets up to one-eighth and one- 
fourth inch in diameter; quartz is abundant, fine, 
granular and translucent; mica is sparse and scat- 
tereci in small greenish-black blotches. Large 
whitish porphyritic feldspar occurs. There is no 
sign of any arrangement of the ingredients, or of 
any parallel grain to the rock. No definite bed- 
ding plains were observed on any of the outcrops, 
though numerous crossing joint planes occur, and 
quite regular flat slabs are sometimes obtainable, 
veins of white quartz occur. The most marked 
characteristic of the rock is its tendency to weather 
and shell off in crumbling masses. Some of the large 
flat surfaces are so far crumbled as to be penetrated 
readily by a horse's hoof. The rock from these out- 
croi>s would polish easily, but its tendency to crum- 
ble renders it less valuable than the Montello granite. 
As indicated by their common character and 

strike direction as well as their relative positions, 
the quartz porphyry and granite patches of Green 
Lake. Waushara and Marquette Counties just 
described, are doubtless to be regarded as but pro- 
jecting points of one northeastward trending belt, 
the rest of which is buried beneath the Silurian 
sandstone and later superficial deposits. All, both 
granites and porphyries belong evidently to the 
same formation. The entire width of the granite 
and porphyry belt, at right angles to the trend, is 
not less than twenty-flve miles, the Mackford area 
lying on the extreme east, that of Montello on the 
extreme west. The length from the Marcellon 
(Columbia County) area on the south, is in a 32° 
east direction, thirty miles. Regarding the belt as 
continuous, as it undoubtedly is, with the Baraboo 
ranges, it is evident that it must make a great bend 
northeastward in the region about Portage. The 
parallelism of the belt thus made out with the 
edge of the main archaian area to the northward, is 
striking, and strongly suggests that we have here 
part of a once continuous band of Huronian sur- 
rounding the old northern core after the manner 
of the later Silurian formations. 

Digitized by 




MfeFi ®SQUi«W^ 


EN the French first came 
to this country, the In- 
dians of tins vicinity 
were the Mascoutins, on 
the Upper Fox, their vil- 
lage occupying the site of 
liiiues des Morts (Hills of the 
Dead) ; the Winnebagoes, inhabiting the 
tract south of th 3 Upper Fox, and also 
whut is 11 aw Doty's Island and the site 
of Mermsha and its vicinity ; the Outa- 
gainies, or Foxes, at the foot of Lake 
Winnebago and on the Lower Fox. their 
principal village on the western shore 
of Little BiUtes des Morts, near the site of 
the Sauks, at the mouth of the Lower 
Fox ; and the Menominees, occupying the tract 
from the moutb of the Lower Fox to the Menomi- 
nee and the land adjacent to it. These tribes were 
all, except the Winnebagoes, originally from Can- 
ada. The original occupants of Wisconsin were 
the Sioux, who were dispossessed of this territory 
by the Chippewas and other Algonquin tribes and 
driven across the Mississippi. The Sauks and Foxes 
were united by so close an alliance as to be practi- 
cally one nation. In the early days of the French 
traders they were the strong tribes in this section, 
warlike and hostile to th(s whites, resisting all the 
allurements of civilization and continually making 
predatory incursions on the Menominees and other 
tribes. Their warlike and marauding habits kept 
the country in constant disturbance ; for they 
boasted themselves the dominant power and seemed 

determined to compel all others to yield to their 
supremacy. One of their principal villages was at 
Little Buttcs des Morts, on the handsome rise of 
ground on the expansion of the Fox below Doty's 
Island. Some time after Allouez's visit to the 
Mascoutins at the Buttes des Morts, they seemed to 
have come into possession of that place ; for in 
1716 they were fortified at that i)oint in resistance 
to the French and were in possession of the Upper 
Fox. They were the only Algonquin tribes against 
whom the French ever made war. The French 
expelled them from this valley and their country 
came eventually into possession of the Menomi- 
nees. The Foxes and Sauks seem to have affiliated 
with no other tribes. For over a century they were 
known to have been continually on the war path. 
The other tribes held them in great awe. Their 
children for generations may be said to have been 
born on the battlefield, with the sound of the war- 
whoop ringing in their mothers* ears. No In- 
dians ever surpassed them in bravery or devotion 
to the cause of the red man in resenting the en- 
croachments of the whites. The Black Hawk War 
was the closing scene of the strife of the Sauks 
and Foxes, who had been so long the dominant 
tribes of this valley which will be forever associa- 
ted with their fame, bearing as it doe^ one of their 
tribal names. The Menominees, who succeeded 
these tribes in this territory, were the firm allies of 
the French and pursued a peaceable course in their 
relations with other Indian nations. They rapidly 
increased in numbers and power and when the 
Americans began the settlement of this country 

Digitized by 




the Menominee lands embraced the tract betv^een 
lakes Michigan and Winnebago, the Lower Fox 
country and the Wolf and its tributaries. The 
French intermarried with them. That great "'good 
Indian," Tomah, was their chief about seventy or 
eighty years ago. The Menomonees became partly 
civilized at an early period in their known history, 
through the Christianizing 'influence of missiona- 
ries and intimate association with the French. 

The Winnebugoes and Menomonees were the 
only Indian tribes holding possession of this terri- 
tory when white settlements began, about sixty 
years ago. They gave some attention to the cul- 
vation of Indian corn, but derived their principal 
subsistence from fishing and hunting. They cher- 
ished a friendly disposition toward the whites, 
whoni they annoyed only by desultory stealing 
ana persistent mendicancy. Considerable jealousy 
existed between the two tribes and a rivalry sprang 
up as to which should hold the highest place in 
the esteem of the whites. It is said that, when on 
a begging excursion, the Winnebago would ap- 
proach the settlers with the utmost assurance, 
often saying: *^Me Winnebago — good Indian. Me- 
nomonee bad — he steal from white brother." The 
Menomonee possessed equal self-complaisance, 
often declaring : " Mc good Indian — Menomonee. 
Winnebago bad — he steal. Menomonee ask his 
white brother when he want provisions. " During 
the early territorial days of Wisconsin, the Gov- 
ernment had arranged to supply the Indians with 
provisions, and a trading post was established on 
the Bellefontaine farm, in the town of Kingston, 
Green Lake County, and Poquette, a half-breed, 
was apix>inted to take charge of the post because 
of his thorough familiarity with the Indians and 
their ways. "It was decided," says one historian, 
'* that the head of each family should receive two 
bushels of shelled corn, and to provide against is- 
suing to any one Indian double rations, Poquette 
was stationed to keep watch of the Indians as they 
procured their sacks. The half-breed is said to 
have been a powerful man, possessing the strength 
of a giant. One of the Indians had succeeded in 
securing the second sack of corn and had proceeded 
with it some twenty yards before Poquette discov- 
ered the trick. He made no attempt to bring the 

Indian back, but quietly picked up another sack 
of corn and hurled it with all his force, striking 
the Indian on the head, knocking him senseless." 
Big Soldier, a chief, who made his home in the 
town of Brooklyn, Green Lake County, near Green 
Lake, was prominent among the Winnebagoes. He 
is described as a man of much intelligence, and it 
is said that he displayed great bravery during the 
Black Hawk War, rendering the United States sol- 
diers valuable assistance, for which he was awarded 
a silver medal by the Government. This medal 
Big Soldier was very proud of, wearing it sus- 
pended to a string of beads which encircled his 
neck. Some few of his tribe lingered long in the 
country and twice a year regularly visited a rela- 
tive of the chiefs who had the medal in his pos- 
session, who showed them with much pride the 
relic left by the brave old warrior. In Marquette 
County the Indians found a home on Bufifalo Lake. 
At an early day this widening of the Fox river, 
extending for over fourteen miles through this 
county, abounded in fish and was a favorite resort 
for ducks. The facility with which food could be 
obtained induced the indolent savage to pitch his 
wigwam here and less than forty years ago hundreds 
of Winnebagoes and Menomonees fared sump- 
tuously on the wild rice and game of the region. 
Many Indian graves are still distinguishable in both 
counties by their decaying palings. The pioneers 
of forty years ago remember the burial scenes and 
dance orgies of the tribes which were the final ab- 
original occupants of the territory. Some few of 
them owned land and cultivated small patches of 
corn and other vegetables, and, as is characteristic 
of their race, they adhered to the inclinations with 
which nature had endowed them, refusing to imi- 
tate the whites in any of the ideas of advanced 
civilization and leaving their women to perform 
all of the arduous labor incident to their primitive 
mode of life. 

About a mile northeast of the now city of Ber- 
lin was, years gone by, an Indian dancing ground 
— a handsome plat surrounded by high lands ex- 
cept to the northeast. ^* Here," says Gillespy, 
'* since the settlement of the white man, took place 
an exciting occurrence. At that time the settlers 
believed it was the intention of the Indians to 

Digitized by 




massacre the inhabitants ; they had assembled for 
a grand powwow in very large numbers. As the 
gathering had been going on for some number of 
days, it naturall3^ raised an excitement with the 
few settlers as to what could be the intent of s\ich 
a numerous collection. Being unacquainted with 
the customary rites held, no doubt, from year to 
year at this favorite spot, they took this festivity 
as a gathering preparatory to a savage outbreak 
and warfare. Rifles were brought forth, old fowl- 
ing pieces — in fact, the people armed themselves 
as fnr as they were able and for some three or four 
days were in a state of anxiety that only those can 
sympathize with who have had any experience 
with the subtlety and secrecy with which the sav- 
age hides his purpose till ready for the conflict, 
when with the yells of demons and shouts of mur- 
derous purpose he falls upon defenceless settle- 
ments; but this gathering had no such bloody 
purpose — ^a grand jollification was the intent and 
they had it. Whisky, as much beloved by the 
savage as by the white man, gave life if not enjoy- 
ment to their carousal. How they had obtained it 
was a great mystery ; but like all other cute oper- 
ations it finally leaked out that what had evidently 
been the cause of arousing the fears of ttie white 
men in seeing so many kegs of powder being car- 
ried toward the meeting was no more or loss than 
whisky put up in powder kegs to escape the vigi- 
lance of the whites. Whether this sagacious ruse 
was the ingenuity of the Indians or the reckless 
disregard of the white man for the laws of the 
land has never yet come to light." It is probable 
that there are few places in tlie State where the 
memorials of ancient warfare and Indian customs 
are more numerous and striking than in the vicinity 
of the village of Dartford. 

One of the terms of the treaty of August 3, 1796, 
was the relinquishment of title by the Government 
to all Indian lands northward of the Ohio River, 
eastward of the Mississippi, westward and south- 
ward of the great lakes, and the waters united by 
them, excepting certain reservations. The title to 
the whole of what is now Wisconsin, subject to 
certain restrictions, became absolute in the Indian 
tribes inhabiting it. The Indians acknowledged 
themselves under the dominion of the United 

I States, and pledged themselves to sell their lands 

j only to the United States. Settlement on their land 

' was prohibited bv white men. 


I The several treaties with the Indians by which 

the domain of Wisconsin was transferred to the 
Government are cited here: The treaty made at wSt. 
Louis, Nov. 3, 1804, between the Sacs and Foxes, 
and the United States — William Henry Harrison. 
Commissioner — ceded a large tract both east and 
west of the Mississippi, and included the lead re- 
gion of Wisconsin. The validity of this treat}^ was 
questioned by certain vSac bands, and became the 
cause of the Black Hawk War in 1832. The treaty 
at Portage des Sioux, now St. Charles, Mo., be- 
tween certain Sacs and the Government, Sept. 13, 
1815; that of vSept. 14, 1815, by certain Foxes; and 
that of May 13, 1816, at St. Louis, were pledges of 
peace not affecting land titles, excepting those in- 
volved in the treaty of 1804. The Winnebagoes 
of the Wisconsin River, signed a treaty at St. 
Louis, June 3, 1816, confirming all previous In- 
dian cessions, and attirming their own indepen- 
dence. This act was followed by the Menomonees, 
March 30, 1817. Aug. 19, 1825, the several tribes 
in Wisconsin defined the boundaries of their re- 
spective lands by council at Prairie du Chien. The 
Chippewas held a meeting on the St. Louis River, 
Minnesota, Aug. 5, 1826, and specified their bound- 
aries, and also ratified previous treaties. The Chip- 
pewas, Menomonees and Winnebagoes, again de- 
fined their boundary by council, at Butte des Morts, 
Aug. 1, 1827. The treaties of Aug. 25, 1828, at 
Green Bay, and July 29, 1829, at Prairie du Chien, 
determined disputed points in the lead mine ces- 

An imix>rtant treaty was made at Green Bay, 
Feb. 8, 1831, between the Menomonees and the 
United States. The va^t territor}', the eastern 
division of which was bounded by the Milwaukee 
River, the shore of Lake Michigan, Green B.w, the 
Fox River, and Lake Winnebago; the western 
division by the Wisconsin and Chippewa Rivers on 
the west, on the north by the Fox River, on the east 
by (ireen Bay, and on the north by the highlands 
throuLrh which flow the streams into Lake Superior, 
all came within the range of this treaty. The east- 
ern division, estimated at 2,500,000 acres, was ceded 

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to the Tnitecl States. The tribe was to occupy a 
large tract \yii\g north of Fox River, and east of 
Wolf River. Tlieir territory further west was 
reserved for their hunting grounds until such time 
as the Government should desire to purchase it. 
Another portion, amounting to 1,000,000 acres, ly- 
ing between Green Bay on the east, and Wolf 
River on the west, was also ceded to the Tnited 
States, besides a strip of country three miles wide 
from near the [)ortage of the Wisconsin and Fox 
Rivers north on each side of the Wisconsin River, 
and forty- eight miles long — still leaving the tribe 
in possession of a country about 120 miles long, 
and eight}' broad. The treat}- provided for two 
New York tribes, granting them two townships on 
the east side of Lake Winnebago. The treaty of 
Sept. 15, 1832. at Ft. Armstrong, ceded all the 
AV'innebago Territory lying south and east of the 
Wisconsin and Fox Rivers, and (ireen Bay. The 
Indians were excluded from that tract after June 1, 
18:33. The treaty of Oct. 27, 1832, at Green Bay, 
ceded to the New York Indians certain lands on 
Fox River. The treaty at Chicago, Sept. 20, 1833, 
with the Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawatomies, 
completed the United States title to the lands in 
Southern Wisconsin. 

On Sept. .3, 183C, the Menomonees ceded lands 
west of Green Bay, and on the Upper Wisconsin — 
aggregating 4,185,000 acres. July 29, 1837, at Ft. 
Snelling, the Chippewas ceded all of their lands 
lying south of the divide between Lake Superior 
and the Mississippi. While on a visit to Washing- 
ton, Sept. 29, 1837, the Sioux nation of the Missis- 
sippi, relinquished their claim to all their lands 
cast of the Mississippi and the Islands in that river. 
The Winnebagoes, Nov. I, 1837, at Washington, 
gave up their rights to lands east of the Mississippi, 
and agreed to retire to their reservation west of 
that river, within eight months. Feb. 3, 1838, at 
Washington, the Oneidas or New York Indians, at 
Green Bay, ceded the lands granted them in 1831- 
32, excepting 62,000 acres. Sept. 3, 1839. the 
Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of New York In- 
dians ceded the east half of the tract of 40,080 
acres which had been laid off for their use on the 

east side of Lake Winnebago. By treaty at La 
Poiute. Oct. 4, 1842, the Chippewas ceded all their 
lands in Northern and Northwestern Wisconsin. 
The Menomonees ceded all lands in the State, 
wherever situated, Oct. 18, 1848. Six da^^s later a 
sui)plementary treaty was made with the Stock- 
bridges, b}' which they were to sell the town of 
land on the east side of Lake Winnebago. By an- 
other supplementary treaty May 12, 1854, this tribe 
received townships 28. 29, and 30, of ranges 13, 14, 
15, and 16, lying on the Wolf River. The Chippe- 
was of Lake Superior ceded their joint interest with 
the Chippewas of the Mississippi in lands in Wis- 
consin and Minnesota Sept. 30, 1854. Feb. 5, 
1856, small grants were made by the Stockbridge 
an<l Munsee tribes, at Stockbridge, for which they 
received two townships ceded for them by the 
Menomonees. Thus ended the Indian title to all 
lands in Wisconsin, excepting some minor local 
grants, and the title to the last domain became 
vested in the general Government. Meantime, Oct. 
18, 1848, the Government obtained the Indian title 
to all of the lands claimed by the Menomonees 
within the State of Wisconsin. This treaty was 
male at Lake Poygan, and the purchase included 
the tract lying north and west of the Fox River 
between the Wolf and Wisconsin Rivers, including 
nearly all of Waushara Count}', much of Marquette 
County, and some of Green Lake County, long 
known as "the Indian Land.*' In return the In- 
dians accepted a grant of land previously ceded by 
the Chii)pewas of the Mississippi and Lake Superior 
and by the PiUogu band of Chipi)ewas. It was 
stipulated in the treaty that the Indians might re- 
main on **the IndiaiY lands" for two years, or until 
notified by the Government that the lands were 
wanted. In the fall of 1852 they were so notified, 
and removed to Wolf River, their principal village 
being at Keshena, whence they intended soon to 
remove to the C-hippewa country, to which they 
held the title. Hence the first settlers on ''the In- 
dian Lands" were only squatters, with no legal title, 
and the settlement and development of that parte f 
these three counties embraced within their borde s 
was considerably later than on the other side of tl c 

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^ 'r^-^'f^*^ v'+'^-n? %*%'%'%' ^%'%*%' %-^rf^*:^ •%' %'t 



HE tract of country from 
which Wisconsin was taken 
was first claimed by the 
French, who exercised pro- 
tectorate power over it un- 
til the close of the French 
:md Indian war, after which, by 
the treaty of Paris in 1763, it 
went formally and absolutely to 
<heat Britain. It became a 
part of the United States terri- 
tory at the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war, by the treaty of 1783, 
ri>t J firmed by the treaty of 1795. 
Ill the meantime Virginia and 
otlier States ceded to the Govern- 
ment their claims to the territory 
- ,-, northwest of the Ohio River, and 
^y C<nigress, by the '^Ordinance of 
1787," provided for its govern- 
ment. It was enacted that there 
sliuTild be neither slavery nor in- 
l voluntary servitude in the terri- 
tory and that there should be formed from its lim- 
its, as its population should justify, not less than 
three nor more than five States. 

Nearly all of what is now Wisconsin, was includ- 
ed in Indiana Territory, which was organized in 
1800; then in Illinois Territory, organized in 1809; 
and in 1818, when Illinois was admitted to the 
Union as a State, it was attached to the Territory 
of Michigan. 

In 1823, Wisconsin was made part of a separate 

judicial circuit, and in 1836, was organized as a 
Territory, with Henry Dodge as Governor. The 
first Legislature met at Belmont, now in La Fayette 
County, Oct. 25, 1836, tiie second at Burlington, 
now in Iowa, Nov. 6, 1837. The seat of govern- 
ment was permanently located at Madison in 1836, 
and the Legislature first convened there Nov. 26, 
1838. The Territorial Governors were: Henry 
Dodge, July 4, 1836, to Oct. 5, 1841; James Duane 
Doty, Oct. 5, 1841, to Sept. 16, 1844: Nathaniel P. 
Tallmadge, Sept. 16, 1844, to May 13, 1845; Henry 
Dodge, May 13, 1845, to June 7, 1848. 

In April, 1846, the people voted for a State gov- 
ernment. On the 16th of December, a constitu- 
tion was adopted in convention, which was re- 
jected by a vote of the people. Feb. 4, 1848, a 
second constitution was adopted in convention. 
It was ratified by the people March 1 3, following, 
and May 29, Wisconsin became a State of the 
Union, being the seventeenth admitted and the thir- 
tieth in the list of States. Under the State organi- 
zation the following named Governors have 
served during the periods designated : Nelson 
Dewey, June 7, 1848 to Jan. 5, 1852; Leonard J. 
Farwell, Jan. 5, 1852, to Jan. 2, 1854; William A. 
Barstow, Jan. 2, 1854, to March 21, 1856; Arthur 
McArthur, March 21,1856, to March 25, 1856; 
Coles Bashford, March 25, 1856, to Jan. 4, 1858; 
Alexander W. Randall, Jan. 4, 1858, to Jan. G, 
1862; Louis P. Harvey, Jan. 6, 1862, to April 19, 
1862; Edward Salomon, April 19, 1862, to Jan. 4, 
1864; James T. Lewis, Jan. 4, 1864, to Jan 1, 1866; 
Lucius Fairchild, Jan, 1, 1866, to Jan. 1, 1872; 

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C. C. Washburn, Jan. 1, 1872, to Jan. 5, 1874; 
William R. Taylor, Jan. 5, 1874, to Jan. 3, 1876; 
Harrison Ludington, Jan. 3, 1876, to Jan. 7, 1878; 
William E. Smith, Jan. 7, 1878, to Jan. 2, 1882; 
Jeremiah M. Rusk, Jan. 2, 1882, to Jan. 7, 1889; 
William D. Hoard, Jan. 7. 1889, (present incum- 

Wisconsin Territory originally embraced the 
area of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota and part of 
Dakota. The counties were Brown, Milwaukee, 
Iowa, Crawford, Dubuque, and Des Moines, with a 
portion of Chippewa Michilimackinac. The four 
last mentioned were set off in the partition of Iowa 
and Mioliigan. At the first session of the Legisla- 
tare the counties of Walwortli, Racine, Jefferson, 
Dane, Portage, Dodge, Washington, Sheboygan, 
Fond du Lac, Calumet, Manitowoc, Marquette, 
Rock, Green and Grant, were bounrled and estab- 
lished. The other counties of the State have been 
created from time to time as the advance of civil- 
ization and the convenience of citizens have de- 

In 1818, when Illinois was admitted into the 
Union as a State, and Wisconsin was attached to 
the Territory of Michigan, Governor Cass issued a 
proclamation organizing Brown County. Its ter- 
ritory then extended as far south as the Illinois 
line, as far east as Lake Michigan, and as far west 
as the Wisconsin River and Ft. Winnebago. In 
1836, eleven townships belonging to the southern 
tier were detached to form Milwaukee County. 
Wisconsin became a territory in this year, and 
Brown County lost that portion of her original 
possession north of the Menomonee River and 
gained the remainder of the eastern peninsula. By 
Territorial Act, December 7, of that year. Portage, 
Marquette, Calumet, Fond du Lac, Manitowoc, 
Sheboygan and portions of Washington and Dodge 
Counties were set off. In 1837 and 1838, four 
eastern townships were taken by Portage County. 
In 1849 and 1850, Brown County contributed fur- 
ther to Portage, Marquette and Manitowoc. In 
1851, Oconto, Outagamie, Door and Waupaca 
Counties were organized from her original terri- 
tory; in 1852, Kewaunee, in 1853, Ozaukee and 
Shawano. It was not until the latter year that her 
present limits were reached. Such, presented in a 

somewhat fragmentary manner, is the history of 
the parent of the counties treated of in these pages. 

Marquette County was formed from Brown by 
an act of the Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin, 
approved Dec. 7, 1836. It embraced twenty-one 
townships, including a portion of the present limits 
of the county. The county seat was established at 
the village of Marquette and the county was at- 
tached to Brown for judicial purposes. By an act 
approved Jan. 22, 1844, to take effect the 1st of 
March, the county of Marquette was organized for 
county purposes. It was organized for judicial 
purposes in 1848. and made part of the Third Dis- 
trict. The boundaries of the county were enlarged 
in 1849 by the addition of thirty-five townships, 
including most of the present Marquette and 
Waushara Counties with a, small part of Green 
Lake County. As at present constituted, this 
county contains twelve full and two fractional 
townships, embracing 266,442 acres. 

Waushara County was organized by an act of Leg- 
islature approved Feb. 15, 1851. It was organized 
into one town, bearing the same name as the county, 
and the county seat was temporarily located at 
Sacramento. It was attached to Marquette for ju- 
dicial purposes. In 1852, the county was organ- 
ized for judicial purposes and in September, 1854, 
the county seat was removed to Wautoma. There 
has been but one change in the boundary of the 
county, and by that two sections — one containing 
the old county seat, Sacramento — were made a part 
of Green Lake County. Waushara comprises eight- 
een townships and has an area of 414,000 acres. 

The last division of Marquette County was in 
1858, whereby Green Lake County was detached. 
This was effected under an act of Legislature ap- 
proved May 12, that year. The county seat was 
originally located at Berlin. After several remov- 
als, it was finally located at Dartford in 1866. The 
county comprises ten towns and 247,658 acres of 



The following have served Marquette County 

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in the offices designated. The records are in such 
shape that the County Clerk could render little as- 
sistance in the preparation of this list, and we are 
indebted for it to the memories of Hon. John 
Barry and others. 

Sheriffs, — Thomas Noycs, 1851-52; James C. 
Potter, 1853-54; E. R. Stevens, 1855 56; John W. 
Carhart, 1857-58; A. P. Life, 1859-60; Milton Tif- 
fany, 1860-61; James Graham, 1863 64; J. J. Shi- 
bely, 1865-66.; S. Fallis, 1867-68; Neil Diamond, 
1869-70; John Stimson, 1871-72; William Warm- 
bier, 1873-74, August Leek, 1875-76; Sam. W. 
Stimson, 1877-78; Philo Lockey, 1879-80; F. A. 
Hotchkiss, 1881-82; Thomas O'Connor, 1883-84; 
P. Croiirken, 1885-86; Thomas O'Connor, 1887-88; 
L. S. Guptil, 1889-90. 

County Clerks,— S&t, Clark, Jr., 1845; K. A. 
Wilder, 1846; E. B. Smith. 1848; George A. Pom- 
eroy, 1848. David R. Shailer, 1840; S. M. Wol- 
cott, 1850; W. H. Butterfield, 1851; John S. 
Wood, 1852; L. R. Davis, 1855; D. R. French, 
1857; Samuel McCrocken, 1858; Caleb F. Fuller, 
Richard Drew, A. H. German, M. 0. Ellison, C. F. 
Roskie and P. Croarken, the present incumbent. 

Members of Assembly: — Neil Diamond, D. De- 
vaney, Samuel Tanner, Francis Russell, B. F. 
Goodell, Samuel Crockett, Robert Cochran, S. A. 
Pease, W. H. Peters, William Murphy, J. W. 
Murphy, C. F. Roskie, J. W. Perkins, the present 

Registers of Deeds. — Henry C. Jewell, 1845; 

F. P. Catlin, 1846; W. G. Markham, 1847; Paul D. 
Nayward, 1848; Isaac H. Comstock, 1851; J. E. 
Millard, 1853; G. De WittEllwood, 1857; Lorenzo 
Padgham, 1860; E. B. Chapman, 1862; Michael 
Finnegan, 1867, John Barry, 1869; C. H. Pierce, 
1873; J. F. Weseloh, first elected in 1881 and still 
in office. 

Treasurers, — James C. Potter, 1855; S. A. Pease, 
1858; S. R. Rood, 1859; H. P. Lipe, 1861; John 
Maxwell, 1863; Mark Derham, 1867; S. Fallis, 
1873; C. F. Roskie, 1877; C. Tagatz, 1881; M. G. 
Ellison, 1889, now serving. 

Clerks of the Circuit Court, — West Johnson, 
1851-52; D. Devany, 1853-56; John Townley, 

G. W. Robinson, John Maxwell, John Barry. 1877- 

78; J. J. Wall, 1879-82; F. J. Dodge, 1883 to 
present time. 

County Jud/jes. — W. H. Peters, S. R. Rood, H. 
S. Thomas, Neil Diamond. 

Green Lake. 

Sheriffs.— AMv(i^ W. Brown, 1859-60; Willis 
Gardner, 1861-62; Isaac W. Morris, 1863-64; S. 
I). Olin, 1865-66; Samuel Messervy, 1867-68; 
James A. Biggert, 1869-70; F. W. Cooke, 1871- 
72; D. A. Ostrom, 1873-74; Samuel J. Ellis, Sr., 
1875-76; D. M. Green, 1877-78; E. C. Miller, 
1879-80; S. J. Ellis, Sr., 1881-82; F. W. Cooke, 
1883-84; E. C. Smith, 1885-86; Delos Morris, 
1887-88; F. S. Merrill, 1889-90. 

Ee/jister of Deeds.— T>e Witt G. Ellwood, 1858; 
Clark A. Millard, 1865; Henry B. Lowe, 1867; 
Ziba C. Hamilton, 1889, and now in office. 

Treasurer, — C. M. Phelps, 1859; Henry Thomas, 
1869; Clark A. Millard, 1872; Homer Nelson, 
1873; GustaveTeske, 1876; W. I. Sherwood, 1880; 
Richard Miller, 1882; W. L Sherwood, 1884; T. 
W. Miller, 1886; W. L Sherwood, present incum- 
bent, 1888. 

Members of Assembly. — (Partial List) — Homer 
Nelson, 1876; O. W. Bow, 1877; S. Barter, 1878; 
Richard Pritchard, 1879; William Paddock, 1880; 
(). W. Bow, 1882; L.J. Brayton, 1884; Charles 
McConnell, 1886; E. C. Smith, 1888, present 

County Clerks. — Chase L. Sargent, 1859; O. P. 
Carman, 1871; O. F. Silver, 1873; H. S. Comstock, 
1876; H. S. Hunt, 1878; J. A. McDowell, 1882; 
Alvin Clark, 1884; Sam. Scholes, (present clerk) 
1888. . 

County Judges. — (since 1862) — Franklin B. Hall, 
1862; A. H. Myers, 1870; Thomas C. Ryan, 1874; 
J. E. Millard, (present judge) 1878. 

Clerks of the Circuit Court,— J, C. Catlin, 1858; 
T. C. Comstock, 1859-60; A. Long, 1861-66; O. 
N. Russell, 1867-70; A. P. Carman, 1871-74; 
Scott P. Rogers, 1875-76; J. Volney Swetting, 
1^7-80; E. A. Dunlap, 1881-84; J. Volney S wet- 
ting, 1885-88; D. P. Blackstone, 1889-90. 

The records do not afford a full list of the county 
officials of this county, and many names and dates 
have been supplied by Judge J. E, Millard and 
Other old officials. 

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The following lists of officers are as complete as 
the3' can be given from meager records and the 
recollection of old citizens, and it is believed to be 
pretty nearly correct, though for obvious reasons, 
it has been thought best not to give dates. The 
first election occured in 1851. 

Sheriffs,- -Yernon Edwards, Alva Nash, George 
W. Smith, F. W. Warner, F. Coggswell, W. W. 
Beach, P. A. Porter, N. W. Milliken, Thomas 
Fearne, Ira P. Coon, C. A. Davenport, F. L. Berray, 
and Peter Mitchell, now in office. 

District Attorneys, — George Babcock, A. B. Hol- 
man, B. A. Cady, L. L. Soule, H. L. I). Porter, T. 
H. Walker, the present incumbent. 

County Clerks. — Joseph Garland, A. B. Noyes, 
Asa B. Swain, C. H. Stowers, George Sexton, and 
John Clark, now serving. 

County Judges. — Thomas H. W^alker, William C. 
Webb, James Horford, John Hall, N. L. Gill, D. 
L. Bunn and J. S. Bugb, the present judge. 

Treasurers, — James Saunders, Palmer Daniels, 
G. H. Gill, John Hall, John A. Williams, N. W. 
Milliken, J. B. Mitchell, A. S. Mclntyre, E. E. 
Terrill and J. E. Tilton, now in office. 

ReconWs of Deeds.— ^i. S. Bugh, S. R. Clark, 
B. S. Williams, J. J. Hawley, Gilbert Tennant, and 
Ilalbert Hanson, present incumbent. 

Circuit Clerks.— AWqh Boardman, G. H. Gill, N. 
W. Milliken, II. II. Olson, A. S. Rogers, William 
Jeffers, B. S. Williams, J. N. P. Bird and E. R. 
Humphrey, now serving. 

Members of Assembly. — William T. Chipman, 
Charles White, George Hawley, W. M. C. Webb, 
S. Bard well, J. K. Walker, C. H. Stowers, II. S. 
Sacket, J. N. P. Bird, John H. Thomas, N. W. 
Milliken, Oscar Babcock, J. S. Bugh, C. W. Moors^ 
S. R.Clark and W. B. Laselle, present representative. 

In these lists, where persons have held office for 
two or more terms, their names are mentioned but 

State Senators. 

The following residents of these counties have 
been elected to the Senate of the State of Wisconsin : 

Green Lake. — James Field. DeWitt C. Ellwood, 
Waldo S. Flint, George D. Waring, II. S. Sacket, 
George Fitch. 

Marquette. — C. S. Kelsey, L. E. Pond. 

Waushara, — James F. Wiley, R. L. D. Porter, 
H. G. Webb, A. M. Kimball. 

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HE importance of the part 
played by the Fox-Wiscon- 
sin River route, in the dis- 
covcr}*, exploration, settle- 
V ment and developement of 
\he large extent of country, of 
which Green Lake and Mar- 
tjuette Counties is a part, is so 
ubvious to every student of 
the history of this section, that 
rta claims require no advocacy 
LIT tlu^se pages. Cham plain's map 
of 1G^J2 is a fair outline of lakes 
liiimn and Superior and the Sault 
Sie. Marie ; while the general fea- 
tures of the Fox-Wisconsin water-course are also 
given, although, of course, from hearsay, and 
l)laced north of Lake Superior instead of south of 
it. Two years later (1634^ Jean Nicolet explored 
the country from Lake Michigan for a considerable 
distance up the Fox River. Radisson and Groseil- 
liers, two French fur traders, visited the Green Bay 
region, and wintered among the Pottawattomies in 
1658; and in the spring of 1659 they spent four 
months in explorations along Wisconsin streams, 
and it is thought they descended the Wisconsin 
River and saw the Mississippi. In 1670, Father 
Allouez made a voyage up the Fox River to Green 
Lake County's present limits. Three years later 
Fathers Marquette and Joliet visited this section and 
discovered the upper Mississippi at Prairie du Chien ; 
and ten years later, Du Lhut (Duluth) voyaged 

from Lake Superior to the Mississippi River by 
way of the Bois Brule and St. Croix. In 1683 
Le Sueur made a voyage to the Mississippi by way 
of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. In 1685, Nich- 
olas Perrot, who had been, as early as 1G69, at 
Green Bay, was appointed ^^Commandant of the 
West." He proceeded over the Fox-Wisconsin 
River route to the upper Mississippi, spending the 
winter at a point near the present village of 
Trempealeau. In 1686 and in later years he estab- 
lished posts on Lake Pepin and at the mouth of 
the Wisconsin. In 1689, Baron La Hontan claimed 
to have penetrated the Wisconsin wilds by the 
Fox- Wisconsin route, and to have made extensive 
discoveries on the upper Mississippi. 

The First Map of this Section. 
During the first quarter of the present century a 
considerable traffic grew up with the Indians by 
means of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. As early 
as 1826, or 1827, Pierre Poquette liad established 
himself at the Portage, transporting boats with 
teams of horses and oxen; perhaps trading as well. 
Francis LeRoy had a trading-house there also at 
that time. Some of the Indian trading- posts in 
those days were of a permanent character. The 
trader would build a log house for his family, 
should he chance to have one, and log buildings 
for store and warehouse near by. Here, if trade 
warranted, he would return each fall, and pass the 
winter with savages and wild animals for com- 
panions. Milwaukee, Fond du Lac and Fox River, 
below Winnebago Lake, were such stations, being 

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supplied from Green Bay ; but at Butte des Morts, 
the Portage and Prairie du Chien tbe traders lived 
all the year round. As a rule, however, the Indian 
trade was conducted in the wilderness with but 
temporary quarters and but little care for perma- 
nent locations, although some of the operators 
had a preference for familiar districts. Barter was 
at that time the only form of exchange in the 
frontier trade — ^money was never used — ^and the 
Indians had become quite shrewd in bartering for 
those products of civilization which had grown to 
be a necessity of their being. 

From the narrative of Morgan L. Martin, pub- 
lished in the Collections of the State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin (vol. XL) the following para- 
graphs of interest in this connection are extracted: 

"In 1828, I went upon a canoe voyage from 
Green Bay to Prairie du Chien up the Fox and 
down the Wisconsin Rivers. I was in company 
with Judge James Duaue Doty, his marshal, Thomas 
Rowland, and the deputy marshal, William Mel- 
drum — all of Detroit, except myself. The year 
before had occurred the Winnebago outbreak at 
Prairie du Chien, and the murderers. Red Bird and 
his friends, were now to be tried at a special term 
of court. Judge Doty had appointed me United 
States District Attorney, pro iem.^ hence my pres- 
ence with the judicial party. Our conveyance was 
a large birch-bark canoe, manned by four voya- 
geurs, picked up at the Bay; and our time of leav- 
ing, the 1st of August. 

"At Kaukauna Rapids we found Augustin Grig- 
non. The Menomonees had a planting ground on 
the south side of the stream, but there 'was no vil- 
lage there. On Doty's Island, very near the mouth, 
on the west channel was the village of Hooschope, or 
Four Legs, the well-known Winnebago chieftain. 
There were from 150 to 200 lodges covered with 
bark or mats. We found Four Legs a very ordi- 
nary-looking Indian, and only stopped at his town 
for a few minutes while the voyageurs were taking 
our craft over the Winnebago Rapids. Garlic 
Island was the next stopping- place. There was a 
Winnebago village there of about the same size as 
that over which Four Legs presided. The lodges, 
however, were larger and neater. We purchased 
a supply of vegetables of the Island villagers. 

"At Butte des Morts w«s a iarge vlllMge of the 
Menomonees. Their chief, I think, was Oshkosh. 
It was difficult — impossible, in fact — to correctly 
estimate the population of these villages we passed 
on our way, for the females and the children of 
both sexes were exceedingly shy, and kept out of 
view. Pierre Poquette was at the Portage, and 
helped us across with one of his teams. Poquette's 
log house was on the west bank of the Fox. Francis 
LeRoy lived in the neighborhood, on the opposite 
shore, near where Ft. Winnebago was afterward es- 
tablished. We were entertained at Poquette's, going 
and coming on our tour. The next Indian com- 
munity was on the Wisconsin River, possibly where 
Prairie du Sac now is. We could see a few lodges 
near the steep bank, but not the entire village, for 
we did not stop. 

"The settlement of Prairie du Chien consisted 
of but a dozen or twenty houses. The principal 
man was Joseph Rolette, the fur trader. At the 
house of another trader, John B. Brunet, we found 
entertainment after the fashion of the country. I 
remember that there was a French sewing-woman 
at this quasi hotel who had escaped from the Red 
Bird massacre; her daughter, a little girl of five or 
six, was going minus her scalp, and was shown to us 
as one of the curiosities of the place. On arriving at 
the Prairie, I met Lucius Lyon, then a United 
States surveyor and afterward United States Sena- 
ator from Michigan, who had just completed his 
survey of the private French land claims there. 
Having found, on reaching the end of my canoe 
trip, that President Adams had appointed John 
Scott, the Congressman from Missouri, as Prose- 
cuting Attorney, and that my services in the Red 
Bird case were not needed after all, Lyon and I 
planned for a tour through the lead mines. I had 
known Lyon in Detroit; and in the spring of 1828 
he had passed through Green Bay in his canoe en 
route to Prairie du Chien. There were no maps of 
this county then; but Lyon had a small pocket com- 
pass with him, and took the courses and distances of 
the Fox- Wisconsin route and made the first ap- 
proximately correct map of that water highway; 
later, on my return from Galena to Prairie du 
Chien, I did the same for the Mississippi; we then 
put our notes together, and gave the result to a 

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prominent Eastern map-maker, who adopied it as 
part of the geography of the country. It was pub- 
lished in 1829, or 1830, and was the first real map 
of the country between Green Bay and Galena. I 
was much gratified, afterward, to see that later 
official surveys of the Mississippi corresponded ex 
actly with mine. 

Later Explorations by Water and Laud. 

Messrs. Martin and Lyon went down the Missis- 
sippi, and visited Galena and vicinity. 

''After our inspection of the mining country," 
Martin continues, 'we returned liome from Galena 
the way we had come — via Prairie du Chien and 
Portage. On the Fox River, at about Buttes des 
Morts, we met Major David E. Twiggs, with 
three companies of soldiers in boats, on their way 
to establish a garrison at Ft. Winnebago. Jef- 
ferson Davis, just graduated from West Point, was 
one of his lieutenants. Both parties stopped, and 
we had some conversation. All of us knew Twiggs, 
who bore a bad character. He had a private named 
William Prestige in his boat securely chained ; 
this Prestige, exasjierated b}' brutal treatment, had 
attempted to take Twigg's life, and the latter, by 
way of revenge, kept him in irons, and under the 
harshest treatment allowable by the code until his 
term of enlistment expired in the year following. 

*'The jurisdiction of Michigan extended west of 
the Mississippi, and, with the exception of the two 
trading-posts at Green Bay and Prairie du Chien, 
was exclusively an Indian country west of Lake 
Michigan. Hostile tribes wandered over it at will, 
casting an evil eye upon any encroachments upon 
their extensive and beautiful domain. The Red 
Bird War culminated in opening the mineral region 
west of Blue Mounds to miners in search of its 
hidden treasures. East of that landmark was an 
unexplored wilderness. Having now visited the 
mining country, I had a natural desire to extend 
my explorations through the remainder of the ter- 
ritory now known as Wisconsin. 

"Judge Doty and I — in company with Wist- 
weaw (Blacksmith), a Menomonee Indian, and 
Alexander Grignon, a young half-blood Menomo- 
nee, as helpers — left Green Bay on horseback, in 
the spring of 1829, and traversed the region 

hitherto little known south of the Fox and Wis- 
consin rivers. We were the first i)arty, so far as I 
can ascertain, to make the trip by land between the 
extreme outposts of this section. Green Bay and 
J^aairie du Chien. Proceeding along the summit 
of the high ridge which hems in Lake Winnebago 
on the east — the line afterward adopted for the 
Government road — we headed for Fond du Lac. 
At Calumet, on the way, we saw a small Meno- 
monee village, resting on the lake shore, but did 
not go down to it, keeping steadily on our way 
along the ridge and through the prairie which lies 
to the east of the I k^. At Fond du Lac there 
was a Winnebago village, but we crossed the river 
without visiting the savages, for whose company 
we were not over anxious. Wistweaw, however, 
was sent back there to engage a guide to pilot 
us to the Four Lake Countr}^ These lakes, to- 
gether with the Green and Fox Lakes, were land- 
marks more or less familiar in name to the old 
traders through their employes engaged in collect- 
ing furs from the Indian villages of the interior. 
But no white man, it may be conlidently stated, 
had ever yet visited the country with the view of 
ascertaining its adaptability for becoming the abode 
of civilized life. There was then scarce an open- 
ing in the forest west of Detroit. 

*' After some waiting our Menomonee returned 
in company with a Winnebago mounted on a 
scrubby pony, who volunteered to show us the 
way across the country. The guide did very well 
for five or six miles, then pushed ahead for a mile 
or two and flung himself an the grass. When we 
had caught up, we asked him to remount and go 
ahead; but he made no sign of moving and sulkily 
exclaimed, ' that he had never been the slave of a 
white man and never would be.' He was finally 
induced to put us on the trail for Lake Horicon, 
and then, giving the lash to his pony, started back 
to his village on a lope. Lake Horicon we found 
to be only a marsh. At its head there was a clus- 
ter of Winnebago wigwams. The Indians there 
essayed to put us on the trail to Four Lakes, but 
w^e brought out at the Green Lake Prairie, where 
we struck another village of the Winnebagos. To 
seek information there was impossible, for the 
women and children hid themselves and the bucks 

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were assembled in tlieir lon« medicine lodge gam- 
bling, and would pay no attention to us whatever." 
Thus left to their own resources, tlie party set 
off due south across the prairie, until, to tlieir great 
joy, they found a deep cut trail which they fol- 
lowed until it brought them into the woods east of 
the Four Lake country. This section embraced 
the site of Madison, but no one, at that early 
period could have thought of establishing there 
the capitol of a great State. They crossed the out- 
let between the Second and Third lakes, and pro- 
ceeding westward, just south of Blue Mound, they 
followed the road from Sugar River to McCrary's 
Furnace, a few miles southwest of the mound. There 
they met the first whites they had seen since leav- 
ing (ireen Ba}'. From McCrary's they went on to 
Dodgeville, where they |)aused for the night, and 
the next- day th^y crossed the level country to 
Prairie du Chien. Returning, they followed a 
slightly different course. Arriving at Fort Winne- 
bago, they crossed over to the south bank of the 
Fox. At Butte des Morts they were ferried over, 
their horses swimming behind, and proceeded along 
the west bank of Lake Winnebago and the lower 
Fox to Green Bay. They were the first white men 
who had attempted and accomplished the land 
journey from Green Bay to the Mississippi — a jour- 
ney which, like that by water, was through what is 
now Green Lake and Marquette Countiis, and which 
in going and coming consumed about two weeks' 
time. With its extensive oak openings and almost 
limitless prairies, the country through which they 
passed, after reaching a distance of thirty miles 
from Green Bay, was more charming than any they 
had ever beheld. It is not strange that a few years 
after witnessed its rapid settlement and improve- 
ments by hardy frontiersmer). 

River linproveiueiits. 

More than sixty years ago the general attention 
of the pushing pioneers was called to the necessity 
of improving the navigation of the Fox and Wis- 
consin Rivers. The way was easy to a free com- 
munication with all th^ lake ports, and as it was 
certain that railroads would not reach this country 
for years to come there seemed only one vvay to 
open up the territory to the west and south of 

Green Ba}* — that being to cut the portage of a little 
more than a mile which separated the head waters 
of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, and thus throw 
open the Mississippi Valle}' to northern and north- 
eastern Wisconsin. 

To Morgan L. Martin belongs the credit of origin- 
ating the scheme of the improvement of the Fox 
andW'isconsin Rivers, and to his arduous, protracted 
and almost unaided efforts is due the beginning of 
the work which he lived to see a reality and the 
route a national highway under government pro- 
tection. The idea was first suggested to his mind 
by the fact that in the j'ear 1 828 the 5th Regiment 
United States Infantry came to Ft. Howard on 
Durham boats, from Jefferson barracks, below St. 
Louis. Their baggage was loaded on. the boats at 
that point and not unloaded before reaching here. 
The water at Portage happened to be high that 
year. In 1829, soon after he came to Green Bay, 
he calied a meeting at his office to agitate that pro- 
ject, lie has left the following account of his 
efforts and their fruition, in which additional facts 
ore here interpolated: 

•' In October, 1829, the (irst public meeting in 
the history of Green Bay was held here. Louis 
Grignon was cliairman, while I officiated as secre- 
tary. We petitioned Congress to build a road from 
the Bay to Chicago, and also to improve the Fox 
and Wisconsin Rivers. In 1830 a shot-tower com- 
pany was organized, composed principally of gen- 
tlemen living here and in Detroit, with one from 
Oswego. The firm name was Daniel Whitne}', 
Platte ct Co. They built a tower on the face of a 
cliff at Old Helena or Pine Bend, on the south 
bank of the Wisconsin River, twenty miles north- 
west of Blue Mound.'' The remains of this tower 
can still be seen, near the south end of the new 
Spring Green wagon bridge, which was erected in 
1887. '' Considerable shot was made here. Daniel 
Whitney was the superintendent and had a man 
named Greene working the concern for him. Greene 
was shot near the fort, at Blue Mound, in the Black 
Hawk War, in 1832. W^hile I was a member of the 
Michigan tenitorial legislature, in session at De- 
troit, this same company got me to obtain a charter 
for them to build a canal between the Fox and 
Wisconsin Rivers. A ditch was dug across the 

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prairie, about on a line with the old portage trail, 
farther down the Wisconsin than the present canal. 
But the trench was never filled with water except 
when the Wisconsin was high and proved to be of 
no use." 

So earnest became the plea for the practical pros- 
ecution of such an enterprise, that Governor Dodge 
in his first message to the Territorial Legislature 
(1836) recommended that a memorial be sent to 
Congress asking for the means to carry on the sur- 
vey and improvement of the Fox River from its 
mouth to Fort Winnebago. In 1838 he also re- 
commended that the Legislature memorialize Con- 
gress for a grant of land to aid in the improvement 
of both the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers." The first 
movement by the General Government toward the 
improvement of the Fox-Wisconsin River highway 
was made in 1839 while I was in the Territorial 
council. Capt. Thomas J. Craur, of the topograph- 
ical engineers made under the direction of the War 
Department a preliminary survey of the rivers and 
an estimate of the cost of their improvement." 
[In September, 1845, Mr. Martin was elected as a 
delegate to Congress as a special cliampion of the 
proposed measure.] " In 1846, while in Congress, 
I secured by dint of very hard work the passage of 
an act, approved August 8, making a grant of land 
to the State, upon its admission into the Union, for 
the improvement of the Fox River alone, and the 
building of a canal across the portage between the 
two rivers. The grant covered every odd -num- 
bered section within three miles of the canal, the 
river and the lakes en rout(» from the portage to 
the mouth. When the second Constitutional Con- 
vent.ion was held, this proposition on the part of 
Congress was endorsed and at the first session of 
the State Legislature, the latter body passed an act, 
approved August 8, 1848, appointing a board of 
public works and providing for the improvement 
of the river. The members of the board were 
elected in joint session of the Legislature, the same 
day, as follows: H. L. Dousman, Curtis Reed, John 
A. Bingham, Albert 3. Story, and James B. Estes." 
The State constitution forbidding the creation of 
debt, the expenditures of the board were confined 
to the proceeds of the land sales. '• By the year 
1850, the board had used up all the money they 

could raise by selling the land. They had, in fact, 
anticipated the sales and the affairs in their charge 
were in bad shape. On the 1st of January, 1851, 
they reported to the Legislature that the work 
would have to stop unless some device for more 
rapid sale of land could be originated. While the 
affair was in this condition, I made a proposition to 
the Legislature, through Governor Dewey, to do 
the work from Green Bay to Lake Winnebago, ex- 
cept what the board of public works had finished 
or was already under contract for. The board had 
dug the canal at Portage before there was any 
steam navigation possible on the lower Fox. One 
of the chief features of its mismanagement was 
that the board allowed itself to be influenced by 
members of the Legislature each of whom wanted 
a portion of the money spent in his district without 
regard to the general need. My proposition was, 
in effect, that the State should not be held liable for 
expenses attending the completion of the improve- 
ment, but that the tolls and the sale of lands should 
supplj' the means to reimburse me. The Governor 
in his message to the Senate, said: ^It is believed 
that the proposition of Mr. Martin is a very favor- 
able one for the State and if accepted will ensure 
the final completion of this important work at a 
much earlier day than the State can possibly accom- 
plish it in any other constitutional manner.* The 
Legislature of 1851 accepted my proposition and 
I went to work with about 500 men, commencing 
at Kaukauna. Operations were carried on through- 
out that season along the entire distance from Green 
Bay to Lake Winnebago. By the terms of my 
contract, the Governor was to give me scrip to be 
paid from the sale of lands and from the tolls on 
the work," according to the following proposition 
and provisions: " I propose to complete the whole 
work on or before the 1st day of May, 1853, the 
same to be accepted as fast as completed. The 
work to be paid for from the sales of land granted 
(and to be granted) in aid of the improvement, so 
far as the funds can be raised from that source. 
The amount due for the whole contract, when com- 
pleted, and remaining unpaid, to constitute a debt 
against the improvement, the interest of which, at 
12 per cent, shall be paid from the tolls to be col- 
lected on the work, and whenever the State shall 

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realize funds, either from the sale of lands or any 
other source, and pay the balance due on the con- 
tract, debt to be discharged." Governor Farwell 
came into otfice on the 5th of January, 1852. On 
the 16th, in his message to the Legislature, the 
Governor reported that 126,000 had been paid to 
me for the season's work, in State scrip, and inti- 
mated that my contract was unconstitutional. He 
afterward refused to give me any more of the scrip 
that had been lawfully earned; and I was obliged 
to secure the passage by the Legislature of an act 
authorizing the Secretary of State to give to me 
certificates of indebtedness, instead of the Governor. 
This was vetoed April 9. Governor Farwell laying 
great stress on the claim that the bill treating with 
me was in violation of the spirit of both the act 
of Congress making the l^nd grant and the Con- 
stitution of the United States. Attorney General 
Experience Estabrook, however, gave it as his 
opinion that the scrip issued to me was constitu- 
tional, and a joint committee of the Legislature 
reported unanimously that the work had been con- 
ducted well and honorably. The Legislature, 
therefore, passed the bill over the veto, and I re- 
sumed work. The trouble with tlie Governor, 
however, had greatly shortened my season, for the 
uncertainty of the issue had obliged me to lose the 
advantage of early preparation, and it was not until 
July 14 that the Governor consented to have certifi- 
cates issued under the act.'* 

More than $400,000 had now been expended on 
the improvements. "At the session of 1853, the 
Governor proposed in a message to tJje Legislature 
dated Feb. 9, to submit the works to private enter- 
prise, and have the skirts of the State cleared from 
all financial responsibility. It was urged by the 
Governor that the moneys realized from the sale 
of lands were InsufiScient to meet the State obliga- 
tions. I, therefore, had a company formed, styled 
the Fox and Wisconsin Improvement Company, 
of which Mason C. Darling, Otto Tank, Edgar 
Conklin, Benjamin F. Mooie, Joseph G. Lawton, 
Uriah H. Peak, Theodore Conkey, I and others 
were members. The Articles of Association were 
dated the Ist of June, 1853. Tiiis company was 
incorporated by the State, under act approved 
July 6, and to it was transferred the entire work. 

under condition that it fulfilled the obligations of 
the State to all claims of contractors on the im- 
provements," the company placing itself under 
$200,000 bonds to complete the work in twenty 

The Improvement Company went on with the 
work, under this act, until, Oct. 1, 1855, the first 
boat passed from Lake Winnebago to Green Bay, 
and June 19, 1856, the "Aquila," a steamer pur- 
chased by Green Bay parties, started from Pitts- 
burgh and came via the Ohio, Mississippi, Wisconsin 
and Fox Rivers, to discharge its cargo at Green 
Bay. There was great rejoicing, the banks of the 
Fox between Depere, Green Bay and Ft. Howard 
being crowded by an excited people celebrating 
the completion of an arduous undertaking. The 
'*Aquila," with the '*Pioneer," made regular trips 
between Green Bay and Fond du Lac [Mr. Martin 
owned the latter, and an interest in the first-men- 
ticned boat]. '^By act of Congress approved Aug. 
3, 1854, (constructed by resolution of March 3, 
1855), we had obtained an increase in our land 
grant, for the work was broadening out, as the years 
went on, and the depth of water sought was greater 
than at first. We thereupon located a large body 
of fine land." The area of the whole grant on the 
Fox River, under this construction, was estimated 
at 684,269 acres. Later an act was passed which 
conveyed the lands to three trustees appointed by ' 
the Governor. ''The Legislature, under chapter 
64, general laws of 1855, authorizing us to increase 
our capital stock to $250,000, and that same year 
we were compelled to seek outside capital to swing 
the growing enterprise. The new comers were 
New York capitalists, of whom Horatio S^mour, 
Erastiis Corning and Hiram Barney were the lead- 
ing spirits. The New York men deranged all our 
plans, and the upshot was that they got us into a 
position where we were obliged to submit, in Feb- 
ruary, 1866, to a foreclosure of the bonds and sale 
of the whole concern to the New Yorkers. The 
big imported fish swallowed the little natives." 
The proceeds of this sale, with the receipts of the 
land yet remaining on hand, paid up the indebted- 
ness and completed the Improvements. "^On the 
15th of August, 1866, the purchasers at the Feb- 
ruary sale became incorporated as the Green B:iy 

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and Mississippi Canal Company. But the surveys 
were thercafler conducted by Government engin- 
eers, under instructions issued from the engineer 
department in July, 1866. In 1871 the Secretary 
of War, acting under act of Congress approved 
Juljs 1870, secured an appraisal of the company's 
plant— improvements, water-powers, and personal 
property. By act approved June 10, 1872, an ap- 
propriation was made by Government to purchase 
the improvements alone, and in October tlie com- 
pany deeded the works to the United States." 

The home company had been hampered by con- 
tinual wrangles at Madison over its affairs. Jeal- 
ousies, sectional and official, were ever hatching 
up new troubles for it. The Legislature had issued 
scrip at 12 per cent, interest to other contractors 
than Mr. Martin, thus bringing his contract into 
discredit. For a large amount of work performed 
he was not paid. This loss, with heavy obligations 
incurred, entailed a crushing tax upon his finan^-es 
and great and long-protracted mental distress. But 
the public has the Fox- Wisconsin River Improve- 
ment, and it has done much toward the settlement 
and development of these counties. 

Kavisration of the Fox. 

Mention of desultory and primitive navigation 
of the Fox River by early explorers and traders 
has been made in preceding pages. It is intended 
now to give some account of its later and more 
regular navigation by steamers in the carrying and 
passenger trade. 

The first steam propeller to navigate the Fox 
River was the '•Black Hawk" in 1841, Capt. Peter 
Hotaliog, master. She was drawn over the rapids 
at Depere by means of machinery and ox-teams. 
Another early boat was the '^Badger State," com- 
manded by Capt. Steve Ilotflling. The following 
account of an excursion on an early steamer called 
the "Manchester,'' the pioneer boat of the Fox 
River, was written by a pioneer. It only fair to 
say. however, that another pioneer, referring to a 
similar occurrence, which must, in fact, have been 
the same, says that the boat in question was the 
"Badger State." 

"A noble ship she was, the steamboat "Manches- 
ter," the pioneer boat of the Fox River, com- , 

manded by the gallant Capt. Steve Ilotaling, with 
his daring crew and squaw Stewardess. The 
^'Manchester" was none of your new-fangled boats, 
all daubed over with gay colors; she had once been 
painted, but that was long, long ago, and paint was 
scarce in those days. Her 10x12 cabin was not 
furnished with vain mirrors, carpets and pianos. 
Wooden benches fastened against the walls answered 
ail purposes; the machinery did not glisten like 
polished gold and silver, but looked venerable in 
its rust}' condition; what cared the Captain and his 
daring crew if steam escaped through the leaks of 
the boiler. Did tiiey not have a supply of rags on 
board to caulk them? Did they not have cords and 
nails to mend the machinery and boat.-^ And above 
all did they not have a good supply of whisky.^ 

"Such was the boat and crew advertised one fine 
day in September, 1848, to the good people of Ber- 
lin, then called Strong's Landing, by Thomas 
Noyes, who went from house to house ringing a 
dinner bell and notifying the inhabitants that the 
steamboat "Manchester" would start on a pleasure 
excursion up the river at 10 o'clock next morning. 
The boat came, 10 o'clock came, and we all went 
on board, ready for a pleasure trip. One half of 
our expectations was realized, who had a good deal 
more trip than we expected, but where, oh! where 
was the pleasure.^ If it was pleasant to go aboard at 
10 o'clock and wait until 1 o'clock, P. M, on ac- 
count of repairs before we started, then pole the 
boat against the current to keep it from drifting 
back, and over sand banks, to go on and on, with- 
out a mouthful to eat until we arrived at Shaw's 
Landing, near St. Marie, at 12 o'clock at night, be- 
ing almost smothered b}^ escaping steam, then we 
had lots of it. Some of the passengers were bound 
to overcome all these difficulties. The Captain 
and others retired, soon after we started, to have a 
social game. Nathan Strong screwed his flute to- 
gether and they had a dance, partly on the cabin 
floor, and partly on the corns and toes of those 
occupying the benches in the cabin, who were will- 
ing to be trampled on rather than give up their 
seats. Mrs. Shailer, a delicate lady, fainted from 
exhaustion. When inquiries were made for supper 
the squaw Stewardess told us there were no pro- 
visions on board except some tea and crackers, and 

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no habitation between Berlin and St. Marie, where 
Col. Shaw lived. 

"On that memorable night the Colonel slept the 
sleep of the righteous in his log house, and in the 
bosom of his family, consisting of his squaw and 
divers little half-breeds, when a thundering knock 
at his door convinced him that the Winnebagoes 
were after his venerable scalp. He was greatly re- 
lieved, and the more willing to part with some salt 
pork, when he learned that those who sought ad- 
mission were only half-starved Berlinites. His 
cornfield and potato patch were near the river, and 
had been visited, in the meantime, by a foraging 
party from the boat. 

"At I o'clock we were homeward bound, going 
down the river, and supper was ready, but besides 
two or three tin cups and some plates, no dishes, 
spoons, forks or knives were to be had, and pocket 
knives were then in great demand for the ladies; 
the men bad to get along with the implements na- 
ture had furnished them. At 8 o'clock the boat 
ran on a sand bar, or rather, the current washed it 
on. A rope was passed out and we went ashore to 
tow the boat. The high marsh grass was wet with 
dew, but as we all had had enough pleasure to last 
us some time, we worked with a will, rather relying 
on our own strength to get home ihan on the 
questionable horse-power of the rusty old machine 
on board, which enabled us to reach bome at about 
8 o'clock in the morning, tired, hungry, dirty and 

Among other early boats were the "Petonia," 
"Eureka" and "Winnecome." The steamer "Berlin 
City" was built at Berlin, in 1856, by Thomas Rud- 
dock and Philander H. Phelps, at a cost of $1 0,000. 
She was a side-wheeler, 06-foot keel, with engines 
having 12-inch cylinders and 3-foot stroke. The 
first season she plied between Berlin and Menasha, 
making three round trips weekly. The second sea- 
son she made daily trips between Berlin and Fond 
du Lac, and was making money rapidly for her 
owners when, July 3, 1857, she was "blown up," 
entirely destroying her, and killing several persons 
and wounding others. The owners rebuilt her, and 
she ran a good many years on the river, passing 
through various proprietorships, and finally burned 
up at her moorings in Oshkosh. The following 

account of the explosion of this historic steamer 
appeared in the Marquette County Mercury^ and will 
be read with much interest by all who preserve this 

"This city was thrown into the wildest excite- 
ment by the arrival of the steamer "Pearl," with 
the information that the new and elegant side- 
wheel steamer "Berlin City," while on her up trip, 
had exploded her boiler, and now lies a sunken 
wreck, at the head of Lake Butte des Morts. Three 
people were instantly killed, one fatally injured and 
others more or less bruised. The "Pearl" brought 
home the survivors, and in an incredibly shurt time 
the streets were filled with excited men and women 
anxiously inquiring for missing ones, or eagerly 
listening to the particulars of the casualty. 

"Those known to be killed are: 

Sam Anthony, the engineer. 

Pat O'Brien, deck hand. 

Capt. Brown, passenger. 

Fatally injured: Miss Carhart, a passenger, sis- 
ter of our fellow citizens, David and Albert Car- 
hart, so baldly scalded that she cannot live. 

Injured : Stillman Wright, clerk, whose escape 
reads like a romance, bruised about the body, able 
to be about. 

Lew Stone, lineman, quite painfully scalded; will 
soon recover. 

Charles Merritt, blown from boat into water, 
badly bruised. 

Henry Jordon, deck hand, who jumped over- 
board; Jerome Crow, the cook; Capt. Lynch, and 
others report slight injuries. 

"The explosion occurred about 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon, at a point about two or two and a half 
miles from Butte des Morts, near the mouth of the 
Fox, where the bar crosses the course. The day 
was bright and calm, and the "Berlin City" left 
Fond du Lac on time, well loaded with freight and 
passengers for up river points. Arriving at Osh- 
kosh, the Wolf River steamer "Pearl," plying be- 
tween that port and New London, was lying at the 
dock. There is a good natured rivalry between 
the two boats, and there was a period of lively 
hustling to see which could clear the port first, for 
the boat that started first would usually give the 
other a stern view from Oshkosh to the head of the 
lake, 'ihe "Pearl" sounded her whistles a few 
minutes in advance of the "Berlin City" and passed 
tlie bridge, soon followed by the unfortunate 
steamer. Whether the two steamers raced up the 
river and imperiled the lives of their passengers by 
crowding on an extra pressure of steam is a mooted 

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point. Those who ought to know say not, while 
others claim that there was an undue exertion made 
to increase the speed of the boats, which resulted 
the terrific explosion that followed. The two boats 
made a beautiful appearance as they steamed along, 
almost within talking distance of each other, the 
•"Pearl" leading at least twenty rods. The ''Berlin 
City" had been gaining, and by continuing her rate 
of speed would soon have passed the ''Pearl," 
when suddenly there was a terrific explosion, a 
blinding flash, followed by a frightful rush of 
steam, agonizing screams, a crushing of timbers, 
and the noise of falling debris. The extent of the 
calamity seems to have been grasped in an instant. 
While all was confusion in the wreck of the ''Ber- 
lin City," and the water for rods about was strewn 
with remains of the boat, among which could be 
seen the struggling forms of human beings battling 
for life, the "Pearl" turned promptly to the rescue 
and soon had the survivors aboard, and as well 
cared for as the limited facilities would permit. 
The hull of the "Berlin City," surrounded by a 
tattered fragment of upper works, soon sunk, and 
all that can be seen above water is a portion of her 
wheelhouse bearing the golden letters of the ill- 
fated steamer's name. 

" The Pearl came to Berlin with her cargo and 
passengers, and it is from them that the details of 
the casualty are learned. There were many mirac- 
ulous escapes. Mr. Al Carhart stated that he had 
just left the side of the engineer with whom he 
had been conversing not two minutes before the 
explosion, and had taken a seat near his mother, on 
the cabin deck on the stern of the boat. His sis- 
ter was lying on a sofa in the cabin, almost over 
the boiler; when the explosion occured it seemed 
to him as though they were all going to be hurled 
into eternity. It was a shock that cannot be de- 
scribed; the deck broke under their feet, the boat 
surged and cracked, and there was that awful roar 
of escaping steam and gurgling water, mingled 
with the cries of distress that would appall the 
stoutest. It was all over in an instant. He saw 
that he and his mother were safe. The shell of the 
boiler had torn everything away in front of them, 
and passed harmlessly over their heads. Ilis sister 
had not escaped. She was found on the toiler 
deck with her body horribly scalded. When the 
boiler went through the cabin there was not enough 
of the floor left to support the sofa, and she rolled 
into the awful vortex of superheated steam. They 
were soon on board the Pearl, whose crew did ev- 
erything they could under the circumstances. Mr. 
Carhart states that he looked at the steam gauge 
when talking with the engineer, and there was only 
about ninety pounds of pressure. He asked why 

they did not use more steam, and the answer was 
that they had enough. 

"The escape of Stillman Wright is still more 
providential, and is related by Ike Dickey, the 
fireman. He states that he had just tried the water 
in the boiler, and found that there was full three 
gauges. There was a good fire under the boilers, 
and he was sitting with one leg hanging down in 
the pit in front of the fire box and the other up 
on the deck, his hands clasping his knee. He had 
just reported the stage of water to the engineer, 
.Sam Anthony, and had advised stopping the 
pumps for a while, but Anthony said " no, keep 
them agoing." The boys were scattered about the 
boat and everything was apparently running as 
smooth as oil, when suddenly there came a sharp 
cracking sound followed by escaping steam, and 
then a terrific explosion. He was hurled violently 
aside, and when he picked himself up found that 
he was in one of the little closets that range along 
the engine room, near the bow of the boat. He 
realized that the boat had blown up and that he 
had escaped with but little injury. Struggling out 
on the splintered deck, the first man he saw was 
Pat O'Brien. He was lying stretched out appa- 
rently dead. He tried to rouse him but could get 
no response. A little further along was the clerk, 
Stillman Wright, who took Jim Heaslitt's place. 
When he shook Wright he partly opened his eyes 
and he knew that he was alive. He tried to drag 
both men up the stairs to the cabin deck, as the boat 
was sinking, but they were too heavy, and lie 
dropi>ed Pat and carried Stillman Wright. Pat's 
body rolled off the boat and was afterwards found 
near the wreck. Mr. Dickey is positive that 
O'Brien was dead when he found him. W^rightand 
himself were taken aboard .the Pearl, where the 
former recovereci consciousness, and had the pleas- 
ure of thanking his lucky stars and Ike Dickey 
that he was among the living. 

" Charles Merritt, lineman, was on the bow of the 
boat when the explosion occurred. He was blown 
out into the river quite a distance, but although a 
splendid swimmer, found that his legs were tangled 
up in the rope that lay near him before the deck 
was so suddenly swept by the explosion. He was 
nearly powerless and was about going down when 
he saw a small piece of timber floating near him. 
He made a strong efifort to reach it and succeeded, 
but his good luck was purchased at the expense of 
another death, that of Captain Brown of this city, 
nearly seventy years old, a passenger on the boat, 
who was returning home from Oslikosh. He was 
an old sea captain and had faced all kinds of dan- 
gers on the salt water, but had retired from active 
life to settle down in Berlin and spend the emainr- 

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der of his days. Captain Brown was liurled out 
into the lake and fell within a few feet of Charles 
Merhtt, who was, as before stated, doing his best 
to extricate himself from the rope which impoded 
his movements. By one of those peculiar incidents 
in the awe-inspiring annals of a divine providence 
the two men saw the life-saving beam at the same 
time. Both struggled for its possession and Mer- 
ritt reached it first. It sunk under liis pressure, 
but had sutficient buoyant force to keep one man 
afloat. The dreadful alternative presented itself 
to allow Brown to seize hold of the beam and thus 
jeopardize both lives, or to keep sole possession of 
this almost sure chance of rescue. Like a flash the 
reasons, pro and con, ran through Merritt's brain — 
Brown was old and feeble, had outlived his use- 
fulness. Merritt was young and ambitious, with 
life before him and aged parents to support. Is it 
any wonder that the 3'oung man pushed the beam 
out of reach of the old sea captain and turned his 
face away. Merritt says that when he looked that 
way again only a few broken ripples marked the 
place where the old man went down. Ten minutes 
later he was safe aboard the Pearl. The body of 
Captain Brown was recovered the next day, 

*'*The body of the engineer, Sam Anthony, was 
found crusi.ed beneath the fire box, and mangled 
almost beyond recognition. He was an able and 
skillful man in his calling and will be sadlj' missed 
on the river. The theory advanced to explain the 
explosion, admitting that there was a good supply 
of water in the boiler, and that the steam pressure 
was under 110 pounds, the amount allowed by the 
government inspectors for the "Berlin City," is that 
the fault lay in the steam chest, one side of which 
gave away, hurling the engineer forward, and that 
the sudden reaction of steam and atmospheric pres 
sure caused the boiler casing to burst. The fact 
that Anthony's body was found under the fire box 
on the deck, shows that he must have been thrown 
there first, and then buried under the debris which 
followed the second explosion." 

The day after the explosion Mr. Phelps and 
others visited the wreck with the *'Lady Jane'* and 
two barges. The bodies of the engineer and Capt. 
Brown were recovered, and the sunken hull raised 
and towed back to Berlin, where it arrived on the 
night of July 29. Among the persons mentioned 
in the above account, Stillman Wright and James 
Heaslitt are still in Berlin, well-known and pros- 
perous gentlemen. Ike Dickey, of the well remem- 
bered Dickey family, of Berlin, is living at or near 
Oconto, reputed to be quite wealthy. Phelps and 
Ruddock, who were then partners in lumbering and * 

steam-boating, are both living and prosperous. A 
man named Smith and a brother of the late Harry 
C.Cooley, had purchased a half interest in the ''Ber- 
lin City" just before the explosion, but had delayed 
paying for their interest in full, and Phelps and 
Ruddock failed to collect anything of them after- 
ward. The owners had to pay freight loss, doc- 
tors bills, and funeral exi>ense8, but no action was 
brought against them for loss of life. No investi- 
gation was ever held — not even a coroner's inquest 
— but the Oskosh and Berlin papers became in- 
volved in a war of invective and recrimination 
over the event which continued for some time. 
Government inspector Lewis, of Buffalo^ N. Y., 
looked into the matter carefully, unolficially, how- 
ever, and conclude<l that no one was to blame. 

The ''Lady Jane," mentioned above, was a tug 
built by Phelps <fe Ruddock. At different times 
she plied between Marquette, Montello and Prince- 
ton. Commanded by J. T. Whicomb, she^ran be- 
tween Packwaukee and Montello in 1858-59. 
Other crafts of different kinds, and at different 
times, have been the'»Cambria,"the* '76," both built 
at Berlin by Phelps and Ruddock ; the" Weston," for- 
merly the ** '76" and later changed to a barge; the 
Diamond, the Shoe Fly, the Aquila, the Ellen 
Hardy, the W. A. Knapp, the C. S. Morris, the 
Hero, the I. X. L., the Fox and several tugs owned 
by Priest, of Princeton, and by othei*s at other 
points along the river. The Gussie Gurden was 
bought on the Mississippi and brought to the Fox 
where it was run by Hiram Stedman until he put on 
the now well-known ''Fashion," which was built in 
1881, for the Oskosh and Berlin trade. She is a 
passenger steamer, ninety feet long and twenty 
foot beams with cabin accommodations for fifty 
passengers, and an excursion capacity of 300. The 
*^Fashion" leaves Berlin every morning, Sundays ex- 
cepted, at six o'clock, touching at Eureka, Omro 
and Butte des Morts, arriving at Oskosh at ten 
o'clock, where connections are made with the Wis- 
consin Central Railway for St. Paul and intermedi- 
ate points; with trains north and south on the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern Railway and Milwaukee, 
Lake Shore and Western Railway, for. points north 
and west; with the Wolf River Line of steamers for 
all points on the Wolf River, and with the steamer 

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'* Evelyn," for Neenah, Appleton and Green Bay. 
Returning, she leaves Oskosh at one o'clock P. 
M., arriving at Berlin at 6 o'clock. In company 
with his brother Haliis, Mr. Stedman built the 
steamer '* City of Berlin" in the spring of 1889, 

and it is run as a freight and passenger boat be- 
tween Green Bay and Portage City, and at times 
as an excursion boat, as exigencies may re- 
quire. "The City of Berlin" measures 120 feet 
long and twenty -six feet beam. 





sflREE important railways 
have branches crossing or 
])enetrating the territory 
comprised in Green Lake, 
Marquette and Waushara 
Counties. One of these is 
the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and 8t Paul Railway; another 
the Wisconsin Central Railroad, 
and the third the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railway. Brief 
Uirttories of these three systems 
are given, as showing the gradual 
development of the railway in- 
terests affecting these counties. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul Railway Company was 
organized May 5, 1863, under the name of the 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company, by the 
purchasers at foreclosure sale, April 25, 1863, of a 
portion of the La Crosse and Milwaukee Railroad. 
Subsequently itacquired by purchase the Milwaukee 
and Western, the Milwaukee and Horicon, and the 
Ripon and Wolf River Railroads and the eastern 

division of the La Crosse and Milwaukee Railroad. 
On February 14, 1874, under authority of an act 
of the legislature of the State of Wisconsin, the 
name was changed to the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul Railway Company. At that time the mile- 
age had been increased by the absorption of vari- 
ous lines and the constru.lion of sundrj^ links. In 
addition to this, the compan}*^ owned a majority in- 
terest in the Wiestern Union Railroad. In the suc- 
ceeding 3'ears there was no considerable increase of 
mileage until 1878, when it increased to 1539 
miles. During the year 1879 the company 
acquired 535 miles of line by construction and pur- 
chase, of which 143 miles were in Dakota. A full 
title was acquired to the Western Union Railroad 
by an exchange of the 7 per cent, bonds of 
that company for an equal amount of the 6 per 
cent, bonds of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. 
Paul Company. The Viroqua branch was com- 
pleted in September, 1879. The Davenport and 
Northwestern Railroad, of which 162 miles was 
completed and sixt}' miles graded, was purchased 
August 1, of the same year, and paid for by an 
issue of $1,750,000 of 5 per cent, bonds. In May 

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of the same year, the Minnesota Southern Railway 
and the Minnesota extension were purchased. In 
1880 the company purchased the Hastings and 
Dakota extension, the Southern Minnesota Rail- 
way, the Chicago, Chnton, Dubuque and Min- 
nesota Railroad, the Wisconsin Valley Railroad, 
the Mineral Point Railroad, the Pine River Valley 
and Stevens Point Railroad, the Chicago and Pacific 
Railway and the Sioux City and Dakota Railroad. 
Daring the same year 350 miles of road was con- 
structed. During 1881 the company constructed 
branches in Illinois. Wisconsin, Dakota and Iowa, 
which brought its mileage up to 4217 miles. 
In 1882 the mileage was increased to 4,520 
miles. In 1883 the company purchased the 
line extending from Iron Ridge to Fond du Lac, 
and constructed other lines which increased its 
mileage to 4,760 miles. In 1884 forty-four miles 
were constructed, including the branch from Fox 
Lake Junction to Fox Lake. Subsequent purchases 
and construction have brought the mileage up to 
about 5,000 miles. It was on Aug. 8, 1857. that 
the first train of cars came into Berlin. This occa- 
sion was celebrated by a dinner and a dance. The 
road was incorporated and built under the name of 
the Milwaukee and Horicon Railroad. The depot 
at Berlin was then on the fiat near the Ripon road. 
It was not until six years later that the present 
depot was built and the road extended to near 
Huron Street. On Oct. 29, 1863, a passenger train 
for the first time ran down to the end of the track. 
A large concourse of the citizens of Berlin and the 
surrounding country had gathered to welcome the 
train, and those on board with music and bonfires, 
and as the train approached they sent up cheer 
after cheer, and the locomotive responded with its 
most piercing shriek. The branch from Brandon 
to Markesan, with stations in Green Lake County, 
at Utley and Markesan, opened five years ago, has 
done much toward the development of the country 
round about those towns. 

The Wisconsin Central Railroad was chartered in 
1853. The main line was opened in 1871. The 
Portage branch was constructed in 1875-76. In 
Marquette County there are stations at Packwau- 
kee, Westfleld and Crawford, and in Waushara 
County at Coloroa, Hftucock and Plainfleld, It 

was completed to Ashland, Dec. 17, 1877. During 
1880 the Wisconsin and Minnesota Railroad, an 
auxilliary line running from Abbottsford to Chip- 
pewa Falls, was opened. In 1884, a further exten- 
sion of this road from Chippewa Falls to St. Paul 
was built under the corporate name of Minnesota, 
St. Croix and Wisconsin Railroad Company. On 
July 31, 1882, the company surrendered the lease 
of the Milwaukee <fe Northern Railroad. A new 
organization was formed to build the Milwaukee & 
Lake Winnebago Railroad, which on.its completion 
was leased in perpetuity to this company. The to- 
tal mileage of this road and its branches is about 
829 miles. The first train of cars passed over the 
Portage branch to Stevens Point, Nov. 15, 1871, 
and was hailed by crowds at all intermediate sta- 
tions, including those mentioned above. The Pack- 
waukee and Montello line was completed and opened 
in 1882. It is leased to, and is practically owned 
by the Wisconsin Central Railroad Company. This 
corporation has recently been re-organized, and has 
entered into a favorable alliance with the Northern 
Pacific Company. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company 
operates the line running from Ripon, through 
Dartford to Princeton, Green Lake County. Feb. 
12, 1851, the Illinois <fe Wisconsin Railroad Com- 
pany was chartered in Illinois, to construct a line 
of railroad from Chicago northwestwardly to the 
State line of Wisconsin, and on the 11th of March 
following, the Rock River Valley Union Railroad 
Com pan}' was chartered in Wisconsin, to construct 
within that State a continuation of the former line 
by way of Janesville to Fond du Lac, with power 
to extend northwestwardly from Janesville to a 
point on the Wisconsin line near St. Paul, and 
northwardly from Fond du Lac to the Michigan 
line. Of the line between Chicago and Fond du 
Lac, the Illinois and Wisconsin had completed the 
section to Cary and the Rock River Valley Union, 
the section from Fond du Lac to Minnesota Junc- 
tion (both opened in 1854), when, on the 31st of 
March, 1855, a consolidation of the two companies 
was effected under the corporate title of Chicago, 
St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad Company. In 
1857, this company consolidated with itself under 
distinct acts th^ following coiwpaui^; WisQoasin & 

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Superior, Marquette <fe State Line, and Ontonagon 
& State Line. By these several consolidations, the 
Chicago, St. Paul <fe Fond du Lac Railroad Com- 
pany secured the land grants that were donated t(» 
the companies named, to aid in the construction of 
their respective roads. In the financial depression 
of 1857, the consolidated company became embar- 
rassed, and as a result, the consolidation with the 
Ontonagon & State Line Railroad Company was 
defeated, its lands reverting to the State of Michi- 
gan. Later in the same year, default was made in 
the payment of interest on the Chicago, St. Paul & 
Fond du Lac bonds, and under an agreement for 
the re-organization of the company, the road was 
sold under foreclosure, June 2, 1859, the Chicago 
<fe Northwestern Railway Company, its successor, 
being organized June 6, 1859. Immediately fol- 
lowing the completion of its organization, the new 
company entered vigorously upon the work of ex- 
tending and completing its lines, and on Oct. 6, 
1859, ran its first train over the completed road 
from Chicago to Oshkosh. In 1873, under the 
charter of the Northwestern Union Railroad Com- 
pany, the Chicago <fe Northwestern Company built 
a line from Milwaukee to Fond du Lac, completing 
a new short line from Chicago to Fond du Lac and 
the mining districts of Michigan. By previous and 
subsequent construction and consolidation, it has 
increased its mileage to about 4,000 miles in Wis- 
consin, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, Minnesota and 
Dakota. The Sheboygan <fe Mississippi Railroad 
Company was incorporated March 8, 1852, and its 
books were opened for the subscription of stock, 
but the company was not organized until the fol- 
lowing year. At a meeting in Sheboygan, held for 
this purpose, April 5, 1853, J. F. Kirkland was 
elected President, and M. J. Thomas, Secretary. 
Work was actually begun on the construction of 
the road, June 4, 1856, by the contractors, Edward 
Appleton <fe Co. The road was completed to She- 
boygan Falls in January, 1859, to Plymouth, June 
6th following, and to Glenbeulah, March 29, 1860. 
This was as far as the above-mentioned contract 
extended. The road suffered the fate of most new 
enterprises of this character, and after foreclosure 
of mortgage, the company was re-organized. The 
new organization was known as the Sheboygan & 

Fond du Lac Railroad Company, and its officers 
were: S. P. Benson, President, and J. O. Thayer, 
Secretary and Treasurer. Finally the road was 
completed to Fond du Lac, Feb. 14, 1869. It was 
subsequently pushed on to Princeton, Green Lake 
County, which point was reached in the fall of 1871. 
Since 1879 this road has been under the management 
of the Chicago <fe Northwestern Railroad Company. 

Other lines of railway through portions of these 
counties have been projected, and some of them 
will probably be built in time. A Fox River line 
has long been a pet project, the realization of which 
would doubtless lead to the more rapid growth of 
all the material interests of the strip of country 
through which it would run. At a comparatively 
recent date, when this project was being agitated, 
the Berlin Courant published the following semi- 
historical article: 

**Berlin being just now somewhat interested in 
the railroad extension, it seems an opportune time 
to review some of the projects and air-castles that 
have been built in years back. In looking up the 
matter, we find that the same subject has been agi- 
tated at various times. The following is an ex- 
tract from the Courant of Jan. 6, 1870, under the 
caption of *'The Wooden Railroad." 

**We trust the last valuable tree has been cut in 
this vicinity simply to get it off the land, and that 
instead the owners of the trees and all others inter- 
ested, will at once bend their energies to secure a 
ready and cheap means of shipping this timber to 

"In conversation with a resident of the town of 
Poysippi during the past week, on the subject, he 
said that during the past year he had cutoff twenty 
acres of valuable timber, just to clear the land. 
The timber had not paid him for clearing the land, 
yet he estimated that, had our railroad been in 
operation, that timber would have sold for 11,000, 
as it stood, or $50 per acre. He has eighty acres 
of excellent timber yet standing, which at half his 
estimate, would be benefitted 12,000, to say noth- 
ing of the value it would add to the land, and 3'^et, 
with a general co-operation, this man need not take 
more than $500 stock in the road to secure it, and 
he would find that his money was better invested 
than in Government bonds. 

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^•Within the past week, we have learned several 
other facts that may hear favorably on this project. 
One of these is, that with tlie co-operation of tlie 
people of Waupaca, this road could be built from 
Brush ville to tliat place for less money per mile than 
this end would cost, since at a point about six miles 
from Brushville, it would strike a grade already 
made. If arrangements could be made to use that 
grade, there would be but twenty-one miles of 
grading to secure railroad connection between Ber- 
lin and Waupaca. 

*'Given, this road running through a belt of tim- 
ber, comprising all the kinds required for its con- 
struction, the building of a road of the kind west- 
ward, to and beyond the Wisconsin River, would 
bfc vastly facilitated. 

'•The wealth of Waupaca, Portage and Marathon 
Counties has just begun to be developed. The 
railroad that first reaches in that direction secures the 
flush of their carrying trade. If this project is taken 
hold of at once, it may easily be the first to be in 
operation, and with proper management may always 
take the precedence in the carrying trade, for it 
will be built, owned and operated at home. The 
people will not be asked to make large donations 
toward an expensive road (more than enough to 
build this one), as is the case everywhere at pres- 
ent, and then be at the mercy of a foreign corpora- 
tion, but they will o?r/i the road they build, operate 
it for their own benefit, and consequently will 
patronize it in preference to that of any foreign 
competing company. 

*' The following report of a meeting held at Poy 
Sippi, March 29, 1870, will throw light on the sub- 
ject: At a meeting of th<5 commissioners for the 
organization of the Berlin, Weyauwega & Lake 
Superior Railroad Company. On motion of T. L. 
Terry, A. V. Balch was called to the chair. On 
motion of N. L. Gill, T. L. Terry was chosen 
Secretar}'. The roll was called, and all responded 
except G. J). Waring, H. G. Talbot and Holmes 
Mack. On motion of Mr. Meikeljohn, a com- 
mittc consisting of D. W. Carhart, L. L. Post, G. 
Hawley and N. L. Gill were appointed to apportion 
the first $30,000 stock along the line of road. 
Committee reported in favor of apportioning to 
Berlin $10,000, Aurora $4,000, Poy Sippi $3,000, 

Bloomfield $3,000, Weyauwega $10,000. Report 
accepted and adopted. On motion a committee 
was appointed consisting of T. L. Terry and S. IL 
Warner, of Berlin, A. V. Balch and C. M. Fene- 
lon, of Weyauwega, N. L. Gill and E. W. Daniels, 
of Aurora, G. Hawley and R. P. Colt, of Poy Sippi, 
and E. Brush and A. Walrath, of Bloomfield, to 
receive subscriptions to the capital stock of the 
road in their several localities. On motion it was 
voted that the first meeting of the stockholders be 
held at this place on the 10th of May next. It was 
voted that the Secretary be instructed to prepare 
subscription books and receipts and forward to the 
several committees. On motion adjourned. 

'•The recent river railroad agitation seems not to 
be a new one, but tho reviving of an old one, 
as the following extract from an article in the 
Montello Express of 1870 will show. 

'•If railroads are to be built where they will pay 
the largest dividends to their stockholders, and 
that they are to depend upon the amount of busi- 
ness the road may have to do, it is clear enough 
that capitalists at a very early day will be looking 
after and securing the line of the Fox and Wiscon- 
sin Rivers for a profitable investment in a firstclass 
railroad. During the winter season a railroad 
would do all the carrying, and during the season 
of navigation, it would do the canying of passen- 
gers and light freights. Men who would build rail- 
roads now-a-days, are sharp enough to look after 
business lines, and to run where there is not. What 
we want now, what the country wants, and what 
business will absolutely require in a few years, is a 
railroad from Oshkosh through the river towns to 
Berlin, thence to Princeton, Montello, and Portage 
City, connecting Portage with the Madison road, 
and connecting at Madison with the Freeport and 
Prarie du Chien roads, which will make a continu- 
ous line from Green Ba}-, touching all the business 
towns on the two rivers, to the Mississippi. 

"Now that we have got the ship canal under 
wa3% and believe it will go on to a completion,let the 
river towns and the river country go in for tho 
next important improvement, which is a river 
railroad. There is plenty of capital waiting for .i 
profitable investment, that would gladly take hoil 
of a project of this kind, if informed of the oppor- 

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tunity. Wc ask Oshkosh, Berlin, Princeton, and 
Portage City, to present this question and this 
interest, to those who are looking after good 
chances. Not a road back from and off the river, 
but a line of road touching every important river 
town. That is now demanded, and that is what we 
must have." 

From all indications it looks as though the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Company were desir- 
ous of extending their road from Berlin in the near 
future. They naturally enough want to get what 
aid they can from the people of the country 
through which they pass. Berlin's business pros- 
pects arc all right whether tliey go through here or 

not. Business is as good here as in any part of the 
State. Berlin will welcome the extension, though, 
for if there is a main line through here it will give 
us better connections with the outside world, and 
bring more travel this way. In the meantime 
Berlin can afford to await the decision of the rail- 
road company. We do not suppose that they are 
working for the interest of Berlin or any other 
town, but for their own, and this fact strengthens 
our belief that their line of extension will be from 

This railroad, if constructed and put in opera- 
tion would, seemingly, be of about equal benefit 
to Green Lake, Marquette and Waushara Counties. 


Settknjeijt of Gre@3? Lake Coiiijtj. 

SIEUR JOLIET, were the 
first white men to tarry with 
the Aborigines in this region, 
and stopped here on their 
voyage to the Mississippi River 
in 1673. These explorei*8 re- 
mained for several days to ex- 
amine the country of which 
they were so favorably im- 
pressed, making quite a num- 
ber of rests in order to instruct 
tbe Indians in a higher religious 
belief, and at the same time to 
gain relaxation from their tire- 
some vo3'age. 

One of the places they visited was a large spring 
near the Fox River, which Pere Marquette desig- 
nated as St. Marie, and from which the town derives 
its name. The Mascoutin Indians had a small 
village on the shore of Lake Packaway, where 
Fniher Marquette and his companion remained two 
d.iys. The present village at that place and the 
town bear the name of Marquette, as well as the 

parent of Green Lake County, of which the history 
now under consideration was once a part. 

Some of the Pioneers. 

In compiling the following list of early settlers, 
the writer has consulted manj^ old residents of the 
county, and also the History of Northern Wiscon- 
sin and Gillespy's little book of local facta, figures 
and reminiscences. It appears that the first perma- 
nent white settler in the count}' was Luther Gleason, 
a Vermonter, who located at what is now known as 
Marquette, on the Fox River, in 1829. He was an 
Indian trader, kept a store and cultivated a tract 
of land. The remains of his stockade were to be 
seen at a comparatively recent date. Hiram Mc 
Donald, formerly a soldier of the United States 
Army, having served in the war of 1812-14, settled 
in the town of Mackford in 1836. He built a saw- 
mill, (the first one in the county) in 1843, and, 
with Messrs. Carhart and White, built a grist-mill 
in 1850. 

James Powell, a half-breed, settled in what is 
now the town of Green Lake in 1835, and culti- 
vated a tract of land belonging to a balf-bree4 

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trader named Poquette. Anson Dart, William 
Bagley and Mr. Beals were also early in this town. 
Two sons of Mr. Dart came with him. They built a 
grist-mill in 1840, and a frame house in 1841, 
the first thereabouts. In 1840, Mr. Beal broke up 
some prairie land, the work being done by Mr. 
Bagloy and a Stoekbridge Indian named Pyer. 
Other early settlers here were S. R. Lathrop, S. 
Burdick, E. Cable, Satterlee, (now Hon. 'vSat.") 
Clark, of Horicon, Mr, Pomeroy, a relative of 
James Fenimore Cooper's, who early returned to 
Cooperstown, N. Y., S. H. Palmer, Mr. Jewell, 
Henry Pi-att and J. W. Burt. Burdick and Cable 
occupied a room in Beal's house as a land ofTlcc, 
locating land for settlers. The town, in those 
days, was the busy and excited nucleus around 
which hundreds of land-seekers gathered to learn 
what lots were or were not located. The first school 
in the county was taught in Bagley's house in 1842. 
"Sat" Clark, who located land east of Green Lake 
in December, 1842, was the first postmaster in the 
county. Anson Dart was made the first Justice of 
the Peace in 1840. 

An old soldier named McGee located in the town 
of Manchester in the fall of 1837 and built the first 
log cabin there; and a few years later, in company 
with others, he laid out a town plat, and endeavored 
to plant a village. Messrs. Barlow and Matthews 
came in 1845, and found W. and S. Carter, two 
Stewarts, Mr. Robinson and their families, and Mr. 
Miller, who brought some 1500 sheep into the town 
and lost most of them by mismanagement. Barlow 
and Matthews were bachelors, and after twenty- 
four hours' acquaintance, pooled their capital and 
their energies, and began life in the new country 

Other settlers in the town of Green Lake not 
mentioned above were William Seymour, R. Day, 
"Squire" Adkins, J. L. Millard, M. B. Swift, N. 
Gleason, J. S. Gardner, G. Rector, N. Pool and 
Jacob Cook. The first store was opened by F. B. 
Hawes, in Marquette Village in 1845. A grist-mill 
was built at Markesan in 1846, and the first frame 
house there was erected by Mr. Seward. Austin 
McCrocker built a saw-mill there in 1848, and a 
grist-mill in 1846. 

Among the first settlers at Dartford were J. C, 

and William Sherwood and Anson Dart, in whose 
honor the place was named. The latter and J. C. 
Sherwood erected a grist-mill in 1849. 

Nathan Strong, William D. Strong and Thomas 
Noyes were the pioneers at Strong's Landing, on 
the Fox River, now the city of Berlin. They came 
in 1847, as did also O. Wilson and Messrs. Conant 
and Seeley and their families. Among those who 
came in 1848 were Joel Day, Dr. Merriam, Messrs. 
Shailer and Montague, D. W. C. Benbaw, C. D. 
Taylor and 'Squire Shumway. Settlement began 
near Peck's Corners about the same time by the lo- 
cation there of Messrs. Atkins and Decker, and 
early settlers two miles west of Peck's Corners, 
near the center of the town, were D. E. Lewis, J. 
Larkin and J. F. Brown. 

Gardner and D. M. Green were prominent among 
the early settlers of Marquette. They built large 
warehouses and docks at that place. D. M. Green 
afterwards became sheriff. J. H. Dart first settled 
on the site of the village of Kingston. E. R. 
Stevens opened the first store there. D. N. 
Phelps kept the first tavern. A gristmill was 
built in 1848 by Drummond <fe Jewell. The first 
settler in Dayton was S. Weeks. The second log 
cabin was erected by P. H. Weeks. The first frame 
house on the Green Lake and Marquette road was 
built for a tavern by Mr. Sargeant. One of the 
Weeks taught the first school. Colonel Shaw was 
one of the pioneers in St. Marie. 

The first cabin erected in the town of Princeton 
was built by Mr. Simpson, three miles east of the 
village, and was once known as the John Winchell 
Tavern. R. C. Treat located at the site of the 
village, in 1848. He laid out the village plat. 
Other settlers were Mr. Pai-sons, J. Knapp and 
family, R. P. Rawson and N. P. Smith. The first 
house was built in May, 1 849, and F. Durand opened 
the first store in 1850. N. S. and A. L. Flint built 
a grist-mill west of the river in 1857, bringing 
water six miles, from the Mechan, in a canal ten 
feet wide. 

The first religious society in the county was that 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Green Lake, 
organized during the year 1845, by Rev. G. W. 
Miller. The first Church edifice erected in the 
county was by this society, at the village of Dart' 

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ford, in 1850. Isaac Bronson made the first entries 
of Government Land in the county, Aug-. 26, 1835. 
His four entries of that date include nearly all of 
the site of the village of Marquette. The first deed 
written in the county was for a portion of the same 
land, and was given by Sherman Page to Andrew 
Palmer, May 19, 1836. The first record of a deed 
of land within the present county limits was made 
at Green Bay, long before the organization of the 
county. The register's certificate is dated July 9, 

The land entries books in the office of the 
Register of Deeds shows that among those who 
settled in the county prior to 1848 were Nicholas 
Bush, J. C. Burdick, M. M. Hurlburt, O. J. Fuller, 
H. Bonesteel, George Carllings, John Nichols, 
William Seymour, Theodore Wheeler, R. Bend, J. 
Millard, W. R. Carter, R. Langdon, S. W. Mather, 
William Morris, O. Pritchard, K. Steckle, H. W. 
Swift, L. G. Woodworth, G. J. Williams, P. W. 
Jackson, J. Gibberd, 8. Mesick, C. J. Parkhurst, 
Lyman Austin, W. H. Butler, Ira Butler, William 
Hare,S. M. Knox, John Larkin, George McCrocken, 
J. L. Millard, W. J. Matthews, George Pratt, 
Charles Rogers, William Shaw, Barlow Swift, B. F. 
Ik>dle, M. V. Clute, John Crabtree, D. E. Hey wood, 
8. D. Owen, A. L. Palmer, Fred. Wiedman, J. S. 
Vine, A. Blatchley, Joel Day, D. W. G. Benham, 
C. D. Taylor, O. Wilsou, L O. Seeley, David Jones, 
Lucius Clark, Walter Burlingame and R. C. Treat, 
some of whom are mentioned above. Manj' others 
besides these settled in the county prior to this date, 
of whom particular mention will be found in the 
village and town histories. 

Old Settlers* Reminiscences. 

Mr. 8. R. Lathrop, some thirty years ago, wrote 
the following account of the early settlement of 
the town of Green Lake and his exi>erience during 
that period. It will be found of great interest 
to all who love to revert to or read of the pioneer 

'* January 10, 1847, unloaded my fixings in the 
town ; snow eighteen to twenty inches deep in the 
openings, from six inches to six feet according to 
location on the prairie; thermometer ranging from 
xero to thirty degrees below; air befogged and 

clouded with falling and drifting snow. At that 
time there were several families who claimed to be 
first settlers. Mr. Bagley, who came in 1840 with 
Mr. Bears family from Green Bay, resided on the 
Beal farm; also S. Burdick and E. Cable, who oc- 
cupied a room in Beal's house as a land-ofilce, 
locating land for settlers. Gov. Horner at that 
time was Registrar of the Green Bay land office. 
The town was then the scene of great activity 
among land-lookers. The fii-st post-oflBce was kept 
at 8. Clark's dwelling; subsequently removed to 
the store of E. Smith, one mile north of the Center 
House, which was probably the first post-oflSce and 
the second store in the county, there being a store 
at Marquette before this. 

** The county at that time was in three electoral 
divisions, called Big Green, Packaway and Lake 
Maria precincts. Big Green, in addition to store 
and post-oflfice, a blacksmith-shop, a few settlers, 
amongst whom was a Mr. Pomeroy, a relative of 
Cooper, the novelist — a man of worth as well as 
wealth, who subsequently removed to Coopers- 
town, N. Y. 

"Mr. Bagley had collected around him some of 
the comforts and conveniences of life; his house 
was one of the stopping places where hungrj^ trav- 
elers were made to rejoice in a feast of fat things. 

"East of this locality resided Satterlee Clark, 
where luxuries not common at that day might be 
obtained; his house was the general intelligence 
oflfice on all subjects, whether of business or politics, 
and which was rendered without fee or reward. 
8. H. Palmer was the first man to risk life and 
limb in a settlement on the open prairie; located 
half a mile east of the meeting-house southeast of 
the Center House; built a comfortable frame house; 
here was a general stopping place, and the wants of 
the traveler cheerfully supplied, in so far as his 
larder would afford. Mr. Jewell, of Algoma, built 
a frame house at liittle Green; had store and ix>st- 
oflice; this was a place of rest and refreshment be- 
fore entering upon the broad prairie for Ccresco or 
Green Bay; at that time Oshkosh was a place to 
travel by, no stopynng place. Little Green became 
a place of note in the county settlement; rapidly 
increased ; first settlers, Henry Pratt, William Sey- 
mour, J. Burt, R. Day and some half a dozen 

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others, as well as Esq. Aikens, of Boston. J. L. 
Millard commenced ns a merchant at this place in 
a store 12x18 — a capital in accordance; by pru 
dence, economy, attention and fair dealing soon 
found his store too circumscribed, whilst as his 
capital increased it became the emporium of the 
county. M. B. Swift, with a large family and 
abundant means, settled here in 1848, adding much 
to the improvement of the settlement. N. Gleason, 
J. 8. Gardner, G. Rector, N. Poole, Jacob Cook, 
myself and some others came here in 1846-7. The 
west part of the town had some ten or twelve fam- 
ilies; valuable settlers, amongst whom was LeRoy, 
probably the oldest settler in the county; was in 
the Indian trade, and being part French was a fa- 
vovite with the red men; by some hocus-pocus 
be lost the best location in town; his paj)ers did 
not agree with the surveyor's marks; lost a No. I 
prize, and had to take up with about one of the 
least desirable spots in town; whether this was 
done designedly or accidently is hard to learn, but 
at any rate Mr. LeRoy, instead of being as he be- 
lieved the owner of a choice piece of land, was left 
to take up with that which this deed covered. Mis- 
takes will happen, and sometimes so curiously that 
we are led to believe that they are not the turn in 
fortune's wheel. 

'•School District No. I organized; house built 
in 1846 or 1847, at Little Green; first in town. 
Rev. M. Kasson held meetings at this place and 
at Mr. Palmer's occasionally. Methodist circuit 
preachers held meetings once in two weeks at 
S. Burdicks, on the Beal place; constituting all the 
religious privileges. 

^' James Powell was undoubtedly the first settler 
in this town; had land under cultivation, 160 acres 
fenced in, as early as 1835 or 1836, a part of which 
is now owned and occupied by Mr. A. Long. Mr. 
Dart and two sons came next; they located at the 
outlet of Twin Lake in 1840; did not know that 
there was any prairie until after making his loca- 
tion; built a small gristmill in 1841; put up the 
first frame house. Mr. Dart and sons came by the 
way of Fox River from Green Bay in row-boats; 
entered the mouth of the Puckayan Creek; up the 
creek to the lake, up the lake to his destination; 
was eleven days on the way; had a very fatiguing 

voyage; no doubt about the first and last white 
man who navigated the Puckayan; no settlement 
at that time at Appleton or Oshkosh; old Noys, a 
half-breed, kept a ferry at the latter place. Mr. 
Beal came next — the same year; broke up the first 
prairie land. Mr. Baisley and a Stockbridge Indian 
by the name of Pyer, employed bj"^ Mr. Beal, did 
the work in the fall of 1840; rather a singular co- 
incidence — the plowman from Great Britain and 
the teamster one of a tribe who long years ago 
hunted on the Housatonic the beasts of the forest 
upon their own land, now left, like many of his 
brethren, to earn a precarious living upon the soil 
belonging to their forefathers." 

Col. Shaw, an old pioneer in the West, thus re- 
lated his experiences as an early settler in this 

"Came to the State of Wisconsin in 1845; trav- 
eled over the State settled and unsettled; examined 
and explored the rivers, lakes and marshes; decided, 
on view of the whole matter, to settle on Fox 
River, about four miles below the City of Berlin, 
op|X)site Mr. Mason's nursery; this was in 1846; 
made improvements; called by the Indians Puck- 
a-nin-na-con, rendered in English, cranberries; staid 
in this place a year and a half; calculated on mak- 
ing a stock-farm; had twenty horses, a portion 
mares; 120 head of cattle, 160 large hogs and a 
few small pigs. In the fall of 1848 I moved to 
my present residence called by Father Marquette 
in the journal of his voyage to the Mississippi, 
Locate Ste. Marie — in English, St. Marie's hill or 
bank. The Indians stole, before I left my former 
location, the most of my hogs, killed the fat cattle 
and the dogs the poor ones; three of my horses 
were stolen by white men, the remainder died of 
distemper at St. Marie, thus closed up this specula- 
tion in stock ; had one valuable horse stolen ; cost 
me some $500 in rewards and expenses, travel- 
ing some 3,000 miles: caught the thief; he twice 
broke jail in Illinois; went to New Orleans; got my 
horse after much trouble. 

*• Constant exposure in all weathers in Illinois 
and Missouri for more than thirty years, traveling 
up and down the Mississippi to and from New 
Orleans to dispose of ray produce affected my eye- 
sight to such a degree as to result in total blind- 

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remained in that condition two and one- half 
years; subsequently had an operation performed 
in the City of New York; at this time can see to 
read with some reasonable facility b}' using two 
sets of glasses." 

" My location at St. Marie was considered the best 
crossing place on the river, and a point at which 
must center the trade and travel of the surround- 
ing countr}'. Having my first claims contested 
and impediments put in my way by the Board of 
Public Works who contended that my claim was too 
valuable for one man to own, finally defeated every 
enterprise in regard to making this place one of 
importance; being delayed in all my plans, other 
places sprung up and got the start of this very best 
location on the river. Finally the legislature 
passed a law abrogating the action of the boaixi 
and securing to me what at the time was of little 
worth and is now but the evidence of enterprise 
impeded by usurpation and prostration of hopes, 
which if left to my own energies would have been, 
as I well believe, the emporium of the county. 
My whole claim was 205 acres for a fourth of 
which I was offered $10,000, but the action of the 
board precluded me from making the bargain." 

The following is extracted from an interesting 
paper written by Mrs. H. S. Merriam, of Berlin, 
and read by her before a small gathering in that 

" You ask me for local history. Well, I fear it 
will be only a small bit that I can give you and 
not very entertaining withal, yet if you will hear 
me I will try to do the best I can. 

" We will start from Oshkosh in a birch canoe 
and paddle up Fox river. Most of the way we 
find low, marshy land extending along either bank 
interspersed with here and there an occasional 
clump of ojtk openings and good banks. As far as 
we are able to judge from the views obtained as we 
glide along in our frail boat, we think them fine 
places for towns; still we see no other indication 
of human existence than now and then an Indian 
wigwam guarded by miserable-looking dogs. 

" On we travel for a distance of forty miles, 
when feeling somewhat wearied with our labor of 
paddling against the current of the river which in 
raaiiy pbces is quite rapid, we resolve that at the 

next good landing which presents itself we will 
disembark. We do so, and lo ! a while man is in 
advance of us, for, as we turn a bend in the river, 
nearing the eastern bank w^ are surprised at be- 
holding a shanty reared among the oaken kings of 
the land and a flat boat still loaded with lumber 
tied up here. 

" Let us approach the shanty and find out by 
whom it is occupied. We meet a white man, 
Nathan Strong by name. He is accompanied by 
several others whose names we do not learn, but 
as Mr. Strong seems to be the leading spirit among 
them to him we will direct our inquiries. We 
learn that a few weeks previous to this (it is now 
the sun>mer of 1846) he came from Ripon, or 
rather from Ceresco, through the woods and across 
the prairies, until he arrived at this spot, where he 
conceived the idea of founding a town. He there- 
fore returned to Ceresco, interested a few others 
in this scheme and persuaded them to accompany 
him to Oshkosh, where he purcliased the boat load of 
lumber which we have already seen. By their united 
efforts it was poled up the river to this place, and 
he now has a shanty of his own and another will 
soon be completed. The place is Strong's Land- 
ing. We will now leave them for a short time. 

'• On returning a little more than a year later, 
we find quil€ a village of board shanties and log 
cabins and the settlement has assumed the name of 
Strong ville. It is now autumn, 1847. Let us 
note some advances. First we find a hotel known 
as the C. D. Taylor House. It was on the stand 
now occupied by the Rossman or Davis House ; 
was a story and a half high and contained several 
rooms of fair size. Next we observe several little 
places of business. A Dr. Shumway has his 
shingle out and Dan Shailer keeps a variety shop, 
under the head of Indian goods, among which 
were to be found groceries of various sorts, some 
cotton goods, blankets, beads, tobacco and whis- 
key. We were told that just previous to our return 
a citizen had brouglit a load of the foul stuff to 
the new town and it was not now an uncommon 
thing to see the red man of the forest sprawling on 
the ground, overcome b}' the firewater which he 
had drank. 

" On the northwest corner of what is now the 

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city park was a shanty used five and a half days 
out of the week for school purposes. The teacher 
was Miss Tryphena Bignall. On Sunday, in the 
same shanty, gathered such as were disposed to 
worship God and study the Bible. There were as 
yet no churches. This first Sunday-school was led 
by Mr. Bignall, the father of the school teacher, 
who moved into town from a farm between Berlin 
and Ripon. 

'* The first frame erected for a house was the 
one opposite Guest's blacksmith shop, but it was 
not completed for some time. The first bouse 
finished up with windows, chimne3% lath and 
plaster, in fact the first house in which the wind 
did not blow through crevices of some kind and 
in which an umbrella was not needed in case of a 
hard^ain to protect the candle from going out, 
was the house now owned by Pete Hanson. He 
has, of course, made many changes and improve- 
ments, yet a part of the old house, then the home 
of Nathan Strong:, the founder of the place, still 
stands on its original site. In 1848 and 1849 
there were many new arrivals and new places and 
varieties of business, so another hotel became nec- 
esssar}'. It was built by Mr. Bignall, before men- 
tioned, for a man named Tom Noycs, the proprie- 
tor, who named the new building the Fox River 
House. The opening, which occurred July 4, 1849, 
was celebrated by a free dinner and a big dance. 
Many of the guests became intoxicated and much 
confusion and quarreling resulted. The first reg- 
ular saloon was opened by one Doran in 1848. Ira 
O. Seeley was made the first Justice of the Peace, 
but was soon succeede<l by J. N. Rogers. June 
29, 1849, Miss Bignall was married to William 
Strong, a brother of Nathan Strong, and in 1850 
they removed to the Indian lands west of the river. 

*'Tlie first house built on the west side was a 
log one, near where E. M. Buell now lives, and is 
owned by Mr. Van Horn. The second was built 
by Mr. Reese, a son-in-law of Mr. Van Horn. As a 
imrt of the home of Dr. Turner, it now stands 
where first built, though much changed. At the 
time these two houses were built they were really 
on the Indian reservation, the land not having yet 
come regularly into the market. There was at that 
time quite a large encampment of Indians on the 

bank of the river, where T. W. Wood's residence 
now stands. The Indians occupied these grounds 
a part of each year while engaged in gathering 
wild rice, which grew abundantly near by, and in 
fishing and catching beaver and muskrats. 

*' The old school house was built in 1850. It 
later became the city poor-house. This year also 
the first church was erected on ground now occu- 
pied by a barn just south of Sacket'a hardware 
store. The baptist church was organized in April, 
1 848, and its first house of worship was built in 
1851. Later it became known as Hamilton Hall. 
H. S. Merriam taught the first singing school in 
the winter of 1851-52. The name of the place 
was changed from Strongville to Berlin at the 
spring election of 1851. W. B. Rowland opened 
the first tailor shop in the place in April, 1851. 
There was a tin shop on the site of Engelbracht's 
saloon and a furniture shop near the bridge and 
other branches of business were represented. The 
mails were brought by stage weekly until 1851, 
when they began to come tri- weekly. Mr. Conant 
was the first postmaster. Most of the supplies of 
all kinds were brought by team from Milwaukee 
until boats began to ply on the river. The first 
was a long stern- wheel boat, named the Potoma. 
The next two were the Mitchell and the Pocahon- 
tas. Nathan Strong, the founder of the town, died 
August 23, 1852. The first fire occurred during 
this year. The first child born in the place after 
it was c died by its present name was Sarah Berlin 

''We will now skip over four years to April) 8, 
1856, when Berlin was organized as a cdty. The 
first mayor was George D. Waring. The first train 
of ears came into Berlin on Aug. 8, 1857. This 
occasion was celebrated (like all other great events) 
by a dinner and a dance. The depot was then on 
the flat near the Ripon road, and remained there 
for several years, until it was moved to its pres- 
ent location. Not long after the place became a 
city a steamer was built here to run on the river 
between Berlin and Oshkosh. The steamer was 
known as the "Berlin City." It started out with a 
a grand excursion, and returned safely. However, 
it made only a few trips before it was blown up, 
killing one man and injuring several others. 

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First Old Settlers' Meeting. 

The first annual meeting of the old settlers of 
Berlin and vicinity was held in February, 1878. 
The following account of it is taken from the Ber- 
lin Journal'. 

At seven o'clock supper was announced, and 
about 150 hungry persons flocked into the spacious 
upstairs dining room of Hathaway cfe Bellis, where a 
most elegant repast was in waiting. Oysters, raw and 
stewed; coffee; half a dozen kinds of cake and pie; 
as many varieties of cold meats; the whitest of 
rolls; fruit, etc., filled the tables, and ample em- 
ployment for the old settlers was furnished for half 
an hour, after which they returned to Library 
Hall. At 7:30 the meeting was called to order by 
President Waring, who made the opening address, 
briefly recounting some of the most important 
events, both national and local, which had occur- 
red during the past thirty years. His remarks 
were to the point and of interest. He closed by 
announcing that while at Princeton the other day 
he liad called upon his good friend. Elder Rich- 
ards, and invited him to write a poem for the 
occasion. Mr. Richards had consented, and would 
then read the poem. 

After the poem, President Waring read a tele- 
gram from the Waupun Old Settlers, who were in 
session at the same time, sending greeting to their 
Berlin neighbors, as follows: 

''The Old Settlers of Waupun, now in session, 
send greeting to the Old Settlers of Berlin; may 
the Old Settlers of Berlin often meet to fight their 
old battles, tell their old stories, chat over old 
times and live long, useful, happy and contented 
lives, is the heartfelt prayer of the Old Settlers of 

The dispatch was received with applause, and 
Messrs. Harkness, Kimball and May were appointed 
a committee to make a response, which they did, 
and it was telegraphed to Waupun within fifteen 
minutes of the receipt of the telegram from that 
place : 

•'The Old Settlers of Berlin, in Library Hail as- 
sembled, send greeting: Your dispatch was re- 
ceived with three rousing cheers. We are having 
a good time re-living old times. May you live 
loug, happy and prosperous." 

What would those pioneers then assembled have 
thought thirty years ago if they had been told that 
in the year 1878 they would hold reunions twenty- 
five miles apart and communicate greetings back 
and forth in fifteen minutes? Who can foretell 
what science will accomplish in the next thirty 
years to come } 

A letter was next read from Col. J. H. Carle- 
ton, of Kenosha, one of Berlin's old settlers, as 
follows : 

"Kenosha, Wis., Feb. 14, 1878. 
G. G. Alexander, Sec*y Berlin Pioneer Club. 

My Dear Sir: I regret very much that I cannot 
attend the first annual re-union of the Berlin Pio- 
neer Club owing to business engagements. I as- 
sure you nothing would give mo greater pleasure 
than to meet the pioneers of Berlin and livffover 
again for a few hours the good times we enjoyed in 
long years gone by. I think I am not entirely 
weaned from Berlin, and never hear the name 
spoken without somehow feeling that I still have 
an interest there. Knowing the old settlers as 
I do, I feel assured that it will be a happy and 
profiUble meeting, and sincerely hope all may live 
to enjoy many more re-unions. Please extend to 
the club the kindest regards and best wishes of 
my wife, my mother and myself." 

The President then announced that brief remarks 
by the old settlers would be in order. Aaron 
Walker, Henry Thomas, Dr. N. M. Dodson, H. G. 
Talbot and Mr. Patterson were called for, but were 
either absent or excused themselves from speaking. 
F. Grant volunteered a speech, and recounted 
briefly how he first came to this vicinity in pursuit 
of a home; how he surveyed from "the rocks" the 
present site of Berlin and the surrounding coun- 
try, and followed the Indian trail through the 
very land which he now owns, having been favor- 
ably struck with its appearance and having gone to 
the land office and purchased it as soon as possible 
after looking it over. He said that he came here 
single-handed and alone, determined to find a piece 
of land and own it, and make for himself a home,and 
he said if the large number of young men in the cities 
and villages of this section and the east would do 
as he and thousands of others had done they would 
have no occasion to complain of hard times. The 

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times would ne^er be any better here, he believed, 
as long as so many persisted in staying in the cities 
and villages and getting a living as best they 
might. Mr. Grant was followed by Henry Bruns- 
man, Sr., who read a short speech in his inimitable 
way wliich brought down the house at almost 
every sentence. Messrs. F. Chamberlin, W. D. 
Strong, Ira Lathrop, G. N. Smith, E. C. Mon- 
tague and others made brief remarks, after which 
the exercises closed, and the hall was cleared for 
dancing. The evening was enlivened at frequent 
intervals during the exercises by Krause's orchestra 
and by songs by the glee club, Messrs. Sheperd, 
Lounsbur}' and Taggart, and Miss Mollie Turner. 
Previous to supper, we should have stated in the 
first part of this article, while the company were 
awaiting its preparation. President Waring read a 
a poem from the New York Independent entitled 
tlie *'01d Man's Valentine.*' Perley G. Chase spoke 
briefly, and J. V. Swetting related his early ex- 
perience in Berlin, and compared the past with the 
present. There is a rivalry between E. C. Mon- 
tague and Deacon W. D. Strong as to which is the 
oldest settler here. Montague came here in 1848, 
and Strong in 1847, but it is claimed that the lat- 
ter did not settle here permanently until 1848 or 
1849, living as much in Ceresco as in Berlin. 

The last thing on the progranime of the even- 
ing, dancing, was commenced at about 9:30 and 
continued until midnight. Many old settlers were 
seen upon the floor, participating in the " giddy 
mazes" and '• tripping the light fantastic" with as 
much grace and a good deal more gusto than their 
younger neighbors. The most enthusiastic of the 
dancers was Mr. J. Young, of Sacramento, who 
was on hand for every set and danced "Money 
Musk" and the fastest quadrilles with great vigor. 

The first annual reunion of the Berlin pioneers 
was in all respects a success, and we are glad that 
the institution has been organized and hope it may 
be maintained in all the years to come. 

The ladies having been entirely ignored by the 
managers of the reunion, and knowing that they 
were capable of making a creditable appearance, at 
once circulated a paper for a ladies' pioneer club, 
and a meeting was promptly called and arrange- 
ments were perfected on short notice. On Wednes- 

day evening, agreeable to announcement, the lady 
old settlers took the floor and gave fully as inter- 
esting a literary entertainment as did the sterner 
sex on the Friday evening previous. The follow- 
ing programme was arranged and carried out: 

An opening song by Messrs. Buell and Tucker 
and Mrs. Buell and Mollie Turner, followed by 
the opening remarks by the president of the club. 
Miss E. A. Brown, who made many happy hits on 
ye olden times. Miss Lizzie McKittrick then read 
interesting reminiscences of school matters as well 
as other happenings. Mrs. Rounds, Mr. H. S. Mer- 
riam, Miss Lizzie Wood and Miss Sadie Bassett 
then favored us with a tine song. Mrs. Bellisthen 
gave an interesting history of her early days in 
Berlin. Mrs. Swetting then read an interesting 
chapter of the early days full of historical events 
such as first wedding, first house of worship and 
first dance. Mrs. Waring followed with her history 
of first life in Berlin which was interesting. They 
then sang *'Auld Lang Syne" and G. N. Smith 
read a paper on the original settlers of Berlin 
which brought down the house. A call was then 
made upon old settlers in the audience to give 
their experience, but responses were very scatter- 
ing or very brief, and tlien Prof. Brand and Miss 
Carrie Headley were introduced and sang a fine 
duet, which was loudly encored, but with no re- 
sponse beyond a bow. Mr. Boyle claimed to be an 
old settler and told us about it in a few words, and 
was followed by Mrs. G. N. Smith, who told us 
how she and her husband lived in a dry -goods box 
and spent the first Sabbath in Berlin counting other 
dry -goods boxes in the range of their vision. 
Prof. Brand introduced a comic piece on old 
times. Mrs. Talbot then read a chapter of tlie 
pioneer period, and E. M. Buell told how he and a 
lady of the Seventh Day persuasion could not 
ngree on the day of the week. Charles Morris 
briefiy and humorously referred to a happening in 
his father's family in Jnne, 1848 (his birth), but 
stated that, as he was rather young at the time, he 
could say only that he was there. Mrs. McElroy 
sent in a very interesting communication which was 
read by the Secretary. Deacon Strong paid a tri- 
bute to the first mail carrier of this vicinity. Mrs. 
Sears read an interesting paper on *'Ye Good Old 

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Days of Yore." Mrs. Stillman Wright read a let- 
ter from Mrs. Woodsworth full of interest and the 
meeting was closed by singing ^'Old Hundred." 

Historical Address by Judge Pulling. 

An old settlers* meeting at Spring Grove, Green 
Lake County, July 20, 1882, drew together between 
3,000 and 4,000 persons. The day was spent chiefly 
in social intercourse. The chief feature of inter- 
est was the address of Hon. D. J. Pulling, which 
is here presented : 

^'Assembled here on the shores of this beautiful, 
and to us, historic lake, upon such an occasion as 
this, the recollections of the past force themselves 
upon us. We have all passed the meridian and are 
descending toward life's setting sun. A few short 
years and these places will know us no more. The 
friends who now and for many years have been our 
comfort and our joy will see us no more. We 
shall drop into the silence of the grave. And it is 
upon occasions like this that in memory we live our 
life again. In our memories we call up the pleas- 
ures we have had; the trials and pains we have en- 
dured. And by communing with each other our 
memories are refreshed, incidents of life are re- 
called; we remember the pastas but yesterday, and 
we become young again in spirit, though our bodies 
are weak and trembling. Forty years — how long 
it is in the future, how shor^ in the past ! Forty 
years ago we were full of hope and ambition. The 
world was to us new and bright. With momen- 
tary heaviness of heart, but with spirits elastic and 
buoyaot, we bade adieu to friends in the East for 
a home in the almost trackless and unexplored 
"West — some of us with a wife and perhaps a little 
one to cheer us, others alone — all hopeful and de- 
termined to fight the battle of life and to shrink 
not until a competency should be acquired for the 
time of old age and a place made for our name as 
a man among men. Those who know only of the 
present time, of the railroad and the telegraph, can 
never understand or appreciate the nerve, the 
courage, the heroism required for such an under- 
taking. Now the trip around the world is but one 
of pleasure, with luxurious dining and sleeping 
cars and ships that in their furnishings and com- 
forts rival the i)alacrs of kings and emperors, with 

servants catering to every want and viands to 
satisfy the epicure; and the time occupied is but 
little if any longer than was then necessary to ac- 
complish the journey from New England to Wis- 
consin. Then traveling was by the packet or on 
the canal, the steamboat round the lakes and the 
stage coach or the prairie schooner on the land. 
Chicago had but a dozen houses, Milwaukee was 
her rival and had not a brick building in it, and 
when Mrs. Jewell, in 1843, wanted some milk for 
her babe it was not to be had in all Milwaukee, as the 
only two cows in the place had got lost in the woods 
the night before. That baby is Mrs. Edgar Saw- 
yer, now living at Oshkosh. A few settlers and a 
trading-post at Green Bay and a company of 
soldiers at Ft. Winnebago comprised the whole 
settlement of Wisconsin except some miners at the 
blue mounds and a few French half-breeds at 
Prairie du Chien. The present great West was 
unexplored, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Dakota 
and California were almost unknown, and to leave 
the comforts of an eastern home and the society 
of educated and intelligent friends to make a home 
in such a country required character, faith, hero- 
ism. A new country is never peopled and devel- 
oped by dunces and drones. It requires the 
energy, the activity and the integrity of brave 
men and the faith and confidence of pure minded 
women to brave the perils and hardships of a life 
in the unbroken wilderness, and there is no prouder 
legacy to leave to our children as evidence of the 
solidity and brightness of our character than that 
we were pioneers." 

''The first white men that ever trod the soil of 
the present county of Green Lake were Louis JoU 
iet and Father Marquette, who in 1673 (209 years 
ago this month) ascended the Fox River from 
Green Bay and landed on the south shore of Lake 
Puckaway, and remained there some time. They 
named the place Marquette, which name it has al- 
ways retained, and under which name the county 
was subsequently organized. They also visited a 
spring to the northward, near the river, which they 
named St. Marie, and from which the present town 
of St. Marie was named. From that time the 
silence of nature was undisturbed by white men 
until 1828, when the Government established a 

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fort at Portage, between the Fox and Wisconsin 
Rivers, and named it Ft. Winnebago, from the 
tribe of Indians inhabiting that section. There was 
laid out a military wagon road, which ran from Ft. 
Howard on the waters of Green Bay, through Fond 
du Lac and what is now Brandon, and thence a 
little south of Kingston to Ft. Winnebago, and 
soon after, probably in 1828, Luther Gleason made 
at Marquette the first permanent white settlement 
in this county. 

"The next settler was James Powell, who settled 
in what is now the town of Green Lake, in 1835. 
Hiram McDonald settled at Mackford in 1836, 
and an old soldier by the name of McGee settled 
in Manchester in 1837. In 1840 Anson Dart, Will- 
iam Baisley and Samuel W. Beals settled in Green 
Lake. From the foundation of the world up, and 
including the year 1840, only seven white male 
persons, so far as I can ascertain, had made their 
homes within the limits of the County of Green 
Lake, and the census of that year shows the popu- 
lation to have consisted of eighteen white persons 
of both sexes and all ages. But from this time the 
settlement was rapid, and in the summer of 1843 
there were eleven families. Anson and Oliver 
Dart, Samuel W. Beals, William Baisley, Henry 
W. White, James Burt, the two McDonalds, John 
Parker, Bat Howe and H. C. Jewell, were the heads 
of these families, and the settlement continued so 
rapid that in 1850 the population was 8,641 in the 
whole of Marquette County. In 1843 there were 
only two horse teams in the county. The people 
used oxen, and these were so few that the children 
could call the name of every ox. The houses were 
all made of logs except one, a small frame house 
of H. W. White, on the south side of Green Lake; 
the same house is there now. The only fences be- 
tween Portage and Fond du Lac were those of 
White and Burt, except at Lang's place, seven 
miles from Fond du Lac. In the fall of 1843 Beals 
built the first grist-mill in the county, at the inlet 
of Little Green Lake, with one run of stone. It 
was subsequently abandoned and sold and taken to 
Horicon. The people went to Columbus and Water- 
town to mill, and to Fond du Lac and Fox Lake 
for mail. Watertown had two public houses : Tom 
Noyea kept one and Gilman the other; and one 

store kept by John Cole, The grist-mill at Water- 
town started this year (1843), and there were per- 
haps eight or ten houses. 

''In the fall of 1843 William Dakin settled where 
he now lives, and Satterlee Clark on the south shore 
of Green Lake. From this time the settlement of 
the county was so rapid for the next few years, it 
is impossible in the time allotted to me to specify 
all the individuals. There were F. B. Hawes, Ed 
Smith, Burling, Seward, McCracken, Sam Smith, 
Knox, Bradbury, Russell, the two Strongs, Tom 
Noyes, David and Gardner Green, Sam Mather, 
J. C. and William Sherwood, Bush, Burk, Burdick, 
Bonesteel, Cullings, Nichols, Seymour, Wheeler, 
Butler, the two Millards, Rogers, Swift, Haywood, 
Palmer, Wiedman, Wine, Blatchley, Bow, Seeley, 
Burlingame, Homer, Pomeroy, and many otheis 
too numerous to mention on this occasion, but all 
took an active and manly part in improving the 
county and forming the habits of the people. Al- 
though the county was so new there were religious 
services held as long ago as 1843. The Rev. Mr. 
Cadle preached in the house of Samuel W. Beals, 
and in the other private houses. He was at this 
time stopping at Beals' house, teaching Beals' chil- 
dren for his board. He subsequently established 
the Cadle Home at Green Bay. The Rev. Mr. Clin- 
ton preached at Jewell's house once in four weeks, 
and the Rev. G. W. Miller was called to attend 
a funeral and then preached occasionally, and in 
1845 he organized the fii'st religious society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in the county, located 
at GrQ^n Lake. In 1847 the first church edifice 
was built on the prairie, and went by the name of 
Deacon Grant's Church, and the next was built at 
Dartford in 1850. In 1847 the Presbyterians 
formed a society of seven or eight members and 
held meetings in the first school-house built in the 
county. It was located about two miles north of 
Mackford ; it was put up, and the outside was put 
on, so they had a school in the summer of 1845, 
and finished in the fall in time for a winter school. 
Previous to that, the first school kept in the county 
was taught by Miss Wilson, from Ceresco, in 
the house of James Burt, in the winter of 1844-45. 

*'The first sawmill in the county was built by 
McDonald, in 1843-44, at Mackford, and Seward 

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built a sawmill and gristmill at Grantville (now 
Markesan) in 1845-46. Mr. McCracken came and 
built a mill between them about the same time. 
The two Darts built a mill at Dartford about the 
year 1845 or 1846. Charles Hewitt built the mill 
at Kingston in 1847-48. Christian Mead opened 
the first store at the Corners, two miles north of 
Maekford, in 1844. Ed Smith had his store west 
of 'Sat' Clark's place in a little town started in 
1845; Hawes had a store at Marquette in 1845 and 
started a village; Davis and Gardner Green were 
among the first to settle at Marquette; Matthews 
had a store at Markesan. The Strongs and Tom 
Noyes were among the pioneers at Berlin; J. C. 
and William Sherwood were . among the first at 
Dartford ; R. C. Treat founded Princeton. The 
first white child born in the county was Lyman 
White. Anson Dart was the first Justice of the 
Peace, and *Sat' Clark was first Postmaster having, 
the oflfice at his house in 1844, while H. C. Jewell 
was the second, and had the 'office at his house in 
1845. The first entry of Government land in the 
county was made by Isaac Bronson, Aug. 26, 1835, 
his four entries on that date having included nearly 
all the village of Marquette. The first deed writ- 
ten in the county was from Sherman Page to An- 
drew Palmer, May 18, 1836. The first record was 
at Green Bay, July 9th following. 

I have thus, my friends, sketched in a very 
brief way some part of the early history of this 
county, but how shall I describe our customs and 
habits.'^ We were without the luxuries of life, 
although all had sufl!lcient for necessities. We 
had pork in plenty. True, it was fattened on 
acoros and five pounds would fry into one, but it 
was cheap (I have sold for $1.50 per hundred 
pounds), we had corn meal and flour and some- 
times groceries; we had sometimes sugar, but usu- 
ally molasses. Once on a time molasses was very 
plenty in my neighborhood. When I came into 
this country the law business was not very flourish- 
ing. There were but few settlers, and they were 
very peacefully inclined, and to get a living I kept 
a store at Fox Lake. Customers were scarce and 
I spent much of my time in reading. One day a 
little girl came for some molasses. I set the 
measure under the faucet and as it was thick and 

ran very slowly, I sat down to my reading to wait 
for it; I got absorbed in the book and the girl 
was too timid to say anj'thing to me. How long 
I read I dont know, but when I finally went out 
in the back room the molasses on the floor was over 
my shoe tops. From that circumstance came the 
expression "Let the molasses run." We lived in 
log houses and the most of us used oxen, but our 
hearts were as big as ox hearts and our sympathy 
as broad as our prairies. Our latch-string was al- 
ways on the outside to the wayfarers and to our 
neighbors and in our social relations there was 
that heartiness which would now be looked for in 
vain. All were welcome to our tables and beds, 
albeit the beds were often on the floor. Indeed so 
open was the hospitality that doors were never 
locked, and yet the people were so honest that 
thefts were unknown. I have many times got up 
in the morning and found Indians asleep on the 
kitchen floor. And then the friendly relation be- 
tween our pioneers — how can I describe them.^ 
We seemed to be all of one family and the cares 
and woes of one were felt by all. No bickering 
nor backbiting, such as follow in the train of what 
is called refined society, but a hearty effort on the 
part of all to help each other, and yet the people 
who settled this country were as cultured and 
refined as any of this or any other day. In the 
poorest shanty you often found books of science 
and literature of the highest order, and even the 
piano. Who can forget those long winter even- 
ings when the horses were harnessed or "Buck" 
and "Bright" yoked up to the sled and the whole 
family and oftentimes some of the neighbors 
would pile on and go, perhaps, miles to visit friends 
and talk of their propecls and trials, or crack jokes 
upon each other until the small hours. And then 
when we hitched the team to go to mill or to mar- 
ket we carried a grist for every one or did errands 
for the whole neighborhood. And then the good 
old times when we started with our grain to mar- 
ket at Milwaukee, a hundred miles away. After 
the first day there would be a long string of teams 
perhaps sixty or seventy to a hundred, and when 
we stopped at the hotel for the night .the stories 
that would be told and the pleasures that were had 
were simply indescribable. I. am inclined to think, 

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as Uncle Rev. Rogers said to me ibe other day : 
"Away with your railroads! There never will 
come again such times as those, when you could 
sup, lodge and breakfast and have your horses fed 
over night for six bits, and whiskey free!! But 
whiskey was not used as it is now. The old set- 
tlers took it as a medicine and sometimes they took 
it in the same way that one of our settlers did one 
upon an occasion; I do not like to call his name, 
but for convenience will call him Sam. Sam was 
once in his life drunk, and I guess only once. He 
had been over to Clarks' Walkers' or Knoxs', or 
somewhere else, to spend the evening in chat and 
story. They had found a bee tree in the woods 
near the lake and brought the honey home. They 
made some metheglin, having a little whiskey in 
the house for sickness and putting some of it in 
the mixture. The honey so overcame the whis- 
key that, being wholly unaccustomed to the use of 
it, Sam drank more than he could walk under, but 
nevertheless he started for home, hoping that the 
effects would pass off before he got there, but it 
didn't. His wife was in bed, and Sam crept into 
the house as quietly as possible, and took off his 
clothes and boots without noise and laid down be- 
side her. He was just congratulating himself that 
his wife would never know anything about it when 
she said : "Why, Snm, what on earth is tiie matter? 
You've come to bed with your hai on!*' Sam had 
taken off everything else but his hat. 

"But it would not be true to say that a pioneer's 
life was one of unbroken joy. There was hard 
work, a liouse and fences must be built, the farm 
cleared or broken, and provisions and clothing 
must be provided, and many times too we were 
attacked by that most miserable of all diseases 
called homesickness. The images of father, mother, 
brother, or sister, or friend, and vivid pictures of 
the homes we had left behind us would rise before 
us and often, perhaps very often, 

"Our fond memory wandered back 

Through childhood's happy hours. 
To when we rambled through the fields 

Among the bees and flowers — 
When oft, boy-like we lay and dreamed 

On cool and fragrant mows, 
Or, in the sun's declining rays. 

Came bringing home the cows. 

•'Their names come floating down thro' time. 

Like pealing bells from far, 
'Lightfoot,* 4iuby,' 'Berry' and *Bess,' 

'Gipsy,* 'Pet' and 'Star'.' 
The oxen, too, our hearts recalled 

As we went wandering back, 
'Duke' and 'Diamond' *Buck' and 'Bright,' 

'Dandy,' 'Browney* and 'Jack.' 

"But now those days are gone for aye, 

Those happy days of yore. 
When we were young and life was bright — 

But mourning can't restore 
Those days, when down the shady lanes, 

'Neath overhanging boughs, 
We, in the evening calm and still. 

Came bringing home the cows. 

And ray friends, as our minds travel backward 
over the years since we have made our home hero, 
there are other recollections that are sad. 

"We are sad when we view the long list of those 

Who, first in their manhood's prime. 
Threw off the pleasures of home and friends 

With a courage almost sublime; 
Who left the scenes of their childhood days, 

Those men to whom danger was jest. 
For a home on the prairies, 'mid peril and toil. 

For a life in the trackless West, 

"They have gone from their homes a second time, 

To the land of the setting sun — 
They have gone to sleep in the arms of Death, 

But they rest with their work well done — 
They have gone to a country unknown, afar, 

At peace from the sorrows of strife — 
They rest where the prairies are ever green — 

They sleep by the waters of life. 

"Their names will go down thro' the years to come 

As men who were brave and kind — 
Their roem'ries fresh and green will live 

In the hearts they left behind; 
And when in the future that great day comes 

In the wonderful by and by. 
When the graves shall open and yield their dead, 

They will find their reward on high. 

"And now the sun's" declining rays, 

Far down in the glowing West, 
Warn us that are left that we too, ere long. 

Shall be called to that promised rest. 
Let us hope that, when that time shall come 

And the race of our life is run. 
Our friends can say, as we say of them. 

They rest with their work well done." 

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City of Berlin. 

There are many places in Wisconsin of lart^er 
population and wealth that have fewer claims on 
public attention as live and substantial cities than 
Berlin, the commercial center of Green Lake and 
Waushara Counties and of a goodly portion of 
Marquette County. Berlin is the terminus of one 
branch of the northern division of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee <fe St. Paul Railway, 97 miles north 
of Milwaukee, 16 miles north of Dartford, and 
22 miles southwest of Oshkosh. Stages run to 
Wautoma, Pine River, Omro, Plainfield and Wau- 
paca, and during the season of navigation steamers 
make daily trips to Oshkosh, and a good freight 
and passenger business is done. Berlin is one of 
the most important points on the Fox River, a gov- 
ernment waterway on which millions of dollars 
have been expended in putting in locks and build- 
ing dams and other improvements. Berlin draws 
its trade from a large territory. The prairies of 
Green Lake County lying east and south are ex- 
ceedingly fertile, producing grain of all kinds and 
furnishing facilities for raising the best grades of 
sheep and cattle at great profit. The monthly 
'* cattle fair" is a feature in Berlin's business life. 
Stretching away to the west and north is the whole 
of Waushara County, rich in timber and noted for 
the quality and quantity of its dairy products. 
Large and valuable herds of Jersey, Holstein, 
Hereford and other breeds of cattle are kept and the 
numerous creameries and cheese factories rank 
among the best in the State. The agricultural 
products of this region are poured into the Berlin 
market and a vast amount of merchandise given in 
exchange. Berlin's granite quarries, of which 
more is said elsewhere, add much to its commercial 
importance. So, too, do its cranberry interests. 
In the valley of the Fox and tributary streams 
around Berlin there are many thousands of acres 
of marsh devoted to the raising of cranberries. 
Large sums have been spent in erecting water- 
works, digging wells, canals and trenches for flood- 
ing the marshes to aid the growth of the berries 
and protect them from frost. One water system 
alone cost about $30,000 for its construction. The 
cranberry season varies in the yield of fruit, but 
the careful, intelligent cultivation of the berry has 

become a very profitable business. The picking 
season begins about September 1, and lasts about 
three weeks. It is a time of hard work and lively 
sport. Thousands are emplo3'ed and all classes and 
all nationalities are represented. Camps are estab- 
lished and the nights are often si>ent in dancing 
and other amusements. The average 3'ield of cran- 
berries from the marshes around Berlin is about 
25,000 barrels, and Berlin is conceded to be one of 
the principal shipping points for cranberries in 
Wisconsin. Fruit and berries are cultivated with 
success, and Berlin may be said to be attracting 
some attention as the producing point for goodly 
quantities of fine raspberries. The city has quite 
a number of manufactories of different kinds, the 
more prominent of which are mentioned elsewhere. 

First Visit of White Men. 

Although a period of less than half a century 
has elapsed since the first white man determined 
upon making the present site of the city of Berlin 
his home, the precise date of its first visitation by 
a party seeking a point for settlement is involved 
in some doubt. Most of the early comers have 
l)assed away, and the recollections of surviving 
actors in the scenes of its first settlement arc indis- 
tinct upon many points, but from the most reliable 
sources to which access may now be had it is learned 
that about January 1, 1846, a party composed of 
Nathan H. Strong, Hugh G. Martin, Hiram Barnes 
and William Dickey started from Ceresco, where 
they had been residing as members of the "Ceresco 
Phalanx,'' for the purpose, doubtless, of ascertain- 
ing the most feasible crossing place on the Fox 
River for a public highway then in contemplation 
to run from Fond du Lac to Plover, in Portage 
County, and to lay out which commissioners had 
previously been appointed by the territorial author- 
ities, and when a spot was selected of settling on 
the adjacent lands and building up a town thereon. 
They had previously, on similar excursions, sur- 
veyed the river from the present site of Euieka to 
Oshkosh and from the present site of Princeton to 
that of St. Marie, and upon this occasion they had 
determined to strike the river at a point between 
their previous surveys and look up and down the 
river until they were satisfied as to the probable 

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point at which the commissioners would determine 
to cross in laying out the road. 

Accordingly tiiey started from Ceresco, in the 
morning, with a team belonging to Martin. They 
made the first wagon tracks which ever marked the 
surface of the beautiful prairie and openings then 
lying in unbroken solitude between their starting 
|)oint and the site of the present city of Berlin. 
Their course must have been pretty nearly di- 
rect, for they passed and saw the spring 
near the present highway on the old Chaffln 
farm and came upon the Winchell Spring, 
and, passing down the westerly side of the stream 
running from the latter, they halted at the western 
side of the Winchell grove, where the waters of the 
river first came within their view. Strong clapped 
his hands and exclaimed enthusiastically: "There 
is the Fox River, and there," pointing to the north- 
ward where the highlands seemed to shutdown close 
upon the river, " the spot for the crossing!" It 
being late in the afternoon, it was arranged that 
Martin and Dickey should stop at the edge of the 
grove and prepare their suppers and camp for the 
night, while Strong and Barnes would cross the 
marsh to the highlands and reconnoitre. The latter, 
accordingly came over to the present site of Berlin. 
The}' found a couple of Indian wigwams upon the 
high point of land afterward the site of the resi- 
dence of Dr. Merriam. They had some conversa- 
tion with the Indians there and returned to their 
supper and spent the night in Winchell's grove. 
The next morning after breakfast, they loaded 
their tent, camp kettles, etc., and proceeded up the 
stream which is crossed in going from Berlin up to 
the old Forsyth place until they found a spot 
narrow enough for the horses to jump across, and 
having so crossed they drove the first team upon 
the soil of Berlin. Driving down to the river at 
a point near the bridge, they went down the bank 
to the site of Sacramento, and striking off southerly 
till they reached the marsh extending eastwardly 
from Berlin they skirted the borders of the same 
till they came back within the present limits of 
Berlin. Upon the old Baptist Church lot they 
prepared and ate their first dinner here upon the 
spot where they had determined to cast their lots 
and make their future homes. 

It would be profitable to pause here for a mo- 
ment and consider what ropes of sand our human 
calculations are. Here were four men in the earlj 
prime of manhood, all determined that this should 
be their future home, and they made their claims 
upon the lands hereabout. Ten years later Strong 
was dead, Dickey was living on a claim on the 
bank of Lake Harriet, in Minnesota, Martin was 
cultivating the soil in the distant State of Texas, 
and Barnes alone remained to tell the story of the 
first visit of white men to the site of the now thrifty 
and hustling city of Berlin. 

Beginniugr of Settlement. 

The little party of explorers returned to Ceresco 
in the afternoon, and the following June, Strong put 
up his shanty on the lot where they had partaken 
of their first dinner, and began his residence on 
his claim as a permanent settler. Martin, Barnes 
and Dickey entered their lands at the Green Bay 
land-oflBce, while Strong took out a pre-emption, 
and for two years inhabited his shanty with no 
neighbors save the Menomonees and Winnebagoes, 
earning his livelihood by a small lumber trade with 
thr^se who were now and then settling upon the 
rich farming lands of Green Lake and Democrat 
prairies, and the opening lying between this point 
and Big Green Lake. In June, 1847, Oscar Wilson 
a brother-in-law of Strong's, came with his family 
and built a shanty upon the spot later occupied by 
the People's Store, or Lewis Hall, as it came to be 
called, and his was the first white family that set- 
tled upon the later plat of the village of Berlin. 
With the family of Wilson, Strong took board, 
lodging in his own shanty, until the establishment 
of Thomas Noyes and his family in Noyes* new 
shanty on the site of the Fox River Hotel, when 
he began to board with them. Noyes came from 
Watertowu, and arrived about September 20. In 
company with Hiram S. Conant, Noyes had been 
prospecting through the country north of Water- 
town to the Fox River, and sometime in Augusl, 
i'^47, stopping at Puckaway over night, they hfl I 
heard of Strong's Landing, and determined npo:» 
visiting the place. They accordingly came by way 
of Dartford, and thence, following a wagon tracl: 
by way of the houses of Elbridge Corliss, Samuel 

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Button and Thomas McClelland, had arrived near 
nightfall at the house of George Atkins, sorae three 
miles from the landing, where they tarried over 
night. The next morning crossing the stream and 
marsh, they came to the river near the spot where 
Stedman's warehouse was afterward built. Look- 
ing upon the beauties of the surrounding scenery, 
Noyes was so impressed by what he saw that he 
took of his gloves, and casting them down beside 
him, exclaimed : " If I ever buy land on Fox River 
it will be right here, on this spot 1" Strong was 
at the time at Oshkosh on business, and Wilson and 
his family were visiting at Ceresco, and there was 
no one about the place but the aged father of Mr. 
Wilson, and no improvements were visible except 
Wilson's and Strong's shanties. Noyes determined 
to visit Oshkosh and see Strong, and, if possible, 
buy an interest in his property here. This deter- 
mination he immediately put into execution. He 
found Strong at Oshkosh, and for $500 purchased 
from him an undivided half-interest in those frac 
tional lots or parts of sections lying on Fox River, 
and including the lands upon which Berlin was 
afterward laid out. 

With Noyes' arrival in September, 1847, began 
a new era in the history of Strong's Landing. His 
family was shortly followed by that of his son-in- 
law, Hiram S. Conant, and in November or Decem- 
ber of that year Ira O. Seeley settled here with his 
family. At that time those four families were the 
only white inhabitants of Strong's Landing. During 
this year (1847) Joel Day had built the first 
framed building in the place on the lot at the 
northeast corner of Main and Capron Streets, 
fronting the ''common," and he brought his family 
and took up his residence in it in January, 1848. 
These five families are said to have passed the first 
winter in the history of civilization at Strong's 
Landing unemployed and practically care free, 
getting life's necessaries without much trouble, 
eating, drinking and sleeping, and amusing them- 
selves as best they could with cards, plays and 
conversation. Just imagine, if you can, the 
spot on which Berlin has since grown up with all 
its varied interests, covered with a thin growth of 
native oak8, two shanties on the old Baptist 
Church lot, one on the lot occupied by the once 

popular People's Store, Noyes' sixty-foot tavern 
shanty on the Fox River Hotel lot, Conant's shanty 
on the "commons," and Day, the King among all 
these, living in palatial splendor in a real framed 
house fronting the common; the ladies of the set- 
tlement at Day's enjoying an afternoon tea party, 
and the men at Noyes' playing eucher ; and perhaps 
you can catch an idea of the way they used up 
time, though (Hrhaps you can form no adequate 
notion of the sum total of genuine happiness they 
all enjoyed without any of the trammels and con- 
ventionalities of latter-day "society." 

Early Events. 

The first political meeting was held here in April, 
1848, when a convention of politicians came to- 
gether in Noyes' shanty. Curtis Reed, from I^ee- 
nah, B. F. Moore, of Fond dii Lac, and other dele- 
gates were in attendance, some from Ft. Winnebago 
and other distant places, whose names we have 
been unable to ascertain. In the spring of 1848 
was turned the first furrow in the soil here. The 
piece of ground lying between the Fox River 
Hotel and the Union House was the first plowed. 
It was planted to potatoes and garden vegetables 
by the united efforts of the whole community. 

Early the same spring a valuable addition was 
made to the number of the settlers by the arrival 
of the family of C. R. Taylor, who immediately 
began the second frame building and opened in it 
the first hotel in the settlement. The house later 
came to be known as the Union House, but Mr. Tay- 
lor named it the Berlin House in honor of the Berlin 
post-oflSce which had just been established. The 
building was so far completed that he was able to 
open the house to the public, which he did with a 
grand opening ball, July 4, 1848. That ball was 
larger than any other ball that was had in Berlin 
for more than a decade afterward, and it was long 
talked of by those who took part in it. 

Some time during this same spring the first 
religious meeting was held by Elder Manning, 
who later became a resident of the village. Like 
all other great public doings, it was held in Noyes' 
shanty tavern. About thirty persons are said to 
have been present, the country between Berlin and 
Ceresco having begun to fill up, and the Seventh 

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Day Baptist settlement having begun to have some 
population by this time. 

The post-ofBee was established in the spring of 
1848, and Hiram S. Conant was appointed Post- 
master. The post-olHce department at Washington 
requested Mr. Conant to select some name that 
had not already been given to some other post- 
office in Wisconsin, and he selected Berlin in honor 
of the famous European capital so named, and to 
this circumstance the residents of the city have 
ever since owed its short, easily written, glibly- 
spoken name. The mail was at first brought weekly 
on horseback, and during the first three months of 
its existence the income of the post-office from all 
letters deposited (even at the old high rate of 
postage) was but tl.60. It would have taken 
more than a large percentage on that income to 
keep the Postmaster and his family in afifluence. 

Free and frolicksome as that first winter of 1 847- 
*48 is said to have been, it was not permitted to 
pass without its sorrows. Death came almost as 
soon as the settlers, an unbidden guest who goes 
where he will and asks no hospitality. — H. G. Mar- 
tin's child died Feb. 11, 1848, Mrs. Wilson, Feb- 
ruary 15th, and a child of Ira O. Seeley, February 
18tb. Those who attended those three funerals in 
the new country, crowding each other so closely, 
never forgot them. 

The first birth occurred on the ''Indian land" 
side of the river, that of Robert, son of Ira O. 
Seeley, in the latter part of March. The first with- 
in the bounds of the original village plat was that 
of Sarah, daughter of C. D. Taylor, who after- 
ward made an addition to her name l)y which it 
became Sarah Berlin Taylor, in honor of the place 
and in commemoration of her being the first white 
child born within the limits of the original village. 

It is said that the first marriage in Berlin was 
that of Miss Tryphena Bignall to William Strong, 
a brother of Nathan Strong. They soon moved 
on the west side of the river. December 30, 1848, 
George H. Reese and Elizabeth Van Horn were 
married by Dr. D. H. Shumway, acting Justice of 
the Peace. DeWittC. Benham married a daugh- 
ter of Thomas Noyes, March 26, 1849. 

On the northwest corner of what is now the city 
park was a shanty qsed five and ^ half days out of 

the week for school purposes. The teacher was 
Miss Tryphena Bignall, and it is* said by some that 
when she was married the wedding broke up the 
school. On Sunday gathered in the same shanty 
such as were disposed to worship God and study 
the Bible, for there were as yet no churches. The 
first Sunday-school was led by Mr. Bignall, father 
of the teacher, who had moved into town from a 
farm between Berlin and Ripon. 

The first house built on the west side was a log 
house near where E. M. Buell now lives. It was 
owned by Mr. Van Horn. Mr. Reese, a son-in-law 
of Van Horn's built the second house. It was a 
frame building, and now stands where it was 
erected, though much changed. It is a part of the 
home of Dr. Turner. At the time these two houses 
were built they were on the Indian reservation, 
the land not having yet come into market through 
the Government. There was at that time quite a 
large encampment of Indians on the bank of the 
river where T. W. Wood's residence now stands. 
The Indians occupied those grounds a part of each 
year while,engaged in gathering wild rice which 
grew abundantly near by, and in trapping beaver 
and muskrats. 

In 1850 the old school house, now the city poor- 
house, was built, and there were two teachers re- 
quired to do the work. There was also a school 
started on the west side. 

The first house of worship stood just above the 
Union House sit^. It was a board shanty with the 
roof sloping from the front nearly to the ground at 
its rear. A strip of siding was left off about half 
way up the sides, and the opening so made served 
as a window. The dimensions of the building 
were about 15 by 16 feet. Two rough board 
formed the door which swung on leather hinges, 
rough seats without backs were placed around the 
room, supported on blocks or half barrels. One 
citizen changed the name of the structure from 
sanctuary to "shantuary." At one end of the room 
was a writing desk raised high on four legs. This 
served as a pulpit. That the roof was not water- 
proof the following circumstance sufficiently ai- 
tests: A Milwaukee clergyman visiting Berlin w:is 
invited to preach. When he was half through his 
sermon a shower came up, and while ^or<is of e'o^ 

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quence burned on his lips he seemed literally to be 
baptised from heaVen, for the rain came pattering 
on his head and shoulders until some Aaron or Hur 
raised an umbrella and held it over the good man 
until the storm ceased. A little incident occurred 
one Sunday which was never forgotten by those 
who were present. A company of Indians witli 
their heads turbaned and with tomahawks in their 
belts rode up to the church, and as they came 
nearer, their ponies' heads almost within the door, 
they seemed to listen attentively. It was the first 
church assemblage they had ever seen, probably, 
and some of the whites present imagined this a 
wonderful exhibition of the natural desire of man, 
even in a savage state, to pay heed to the word of 
God; but such were speedily undeceived when 
they saw one of the Indians tap a merchant on the 
head with his riding-whip, and then pointing to the 
merchant's store and his own jug, his countenance 
beaming with glad anticipations, say eagerly 
''Swap! swapl" In 1851 the first regular church 
was built on the east side of Pearl street, a few 
steps from the corner of Huron and Pearl. It was 
built double of boards and the space was filled in with 
sawdust, from which circumstance it came to be 
known as '*the sawdust church." This was the 
first house of worship of the Congregational ists. 

In April, 1851, M. B. Rowland opened the first 
tailor shop in the place. He occupied a smAll one- 
story building where the engine-house now stands. 
A tin shop marked the spot now familiar by £n- 
gelbracht's saloon. There was a bakery a Jlittle 
above Market Square, and a furniture shop near 
the bridge. Other branches of business were rep- 
resented also. In 1851 a tri- weekly mail was re- 
ceived. In the winter of 1851-'52 the first sing- 
ing school was taught by the late H. S. Merriam 
in the new Baptist Church. The class numbered 
about seventy-five scholars, ranging from ten to fifty 
years of age. At the spring election of 1851 it was 
decided that this place should no longer be called 
Strongville, a name which had superceded Strong's 
Landing, but should bear the name of Berlin, 
which had been given to the postoflSce. It is said 
the change was made with what were considered 
appropriate exercises. One relates that a large 
hoop was placed around the shoulders of Mr* 

Strong, and that thus distinguished, he with such 
music as was procurable, headed a procession which 
paraded the streets and then listened to a speech 
prepared for the occasion. Most of the supplies 
were brought by team from Milwaukee. 

An incident of the pioneer days has been re- 
served for this place in order that, in view of the 
progress which has been noted, that peculiarly in- 
teresting period may not be lost sight of. In the 
spring of 1847 Mrs. Wilson, whose death has been 
mentioned, lived alone for two weeks in her isolated 
cabin. Her only occasional callers were Indians, 
and there was not another white person within 
miles. That some mission of more than ordinary 
importance called her husband away for such a pro- 
tracted absence goes without saying. She is said to 
have declared that she experienced no fear. 

Progrress of Settlements — Incidents. 

During the spring, summer and autumn of 1848 
the population of the town was considerably in- 
creased, mainly through the exertions of Thomas 
Noyes, a man well calculated to draw attention to 
a new place, and capable of portraying its advant- 
ages and prospects in an attractive light. Mr. 
Montague came and opened a store which he ran 
for a short time. August 2i8t J. F. Heazlit, after- 
wards a postmaster, came to settle. He found 
Noyes, Seeley, Conant, C. D. Taylor, Strong, Day, 
Shailer, Montague, Barnes, Martin, Dr. Merriman, 
Bignall and Merritt in the place. In September 
following came off a boat ride on the steamboat 
^^Manchestcr,"a little craft owned and run by Captain 
Hotaling, of Fond du Lac, in which nearly all the 
inhabitants of Berlin participated. Not calculat- 
ing upon being out over night they took little pro- 
visions along, which neglect they later had cause 
to regret with great bitterness. The boat pro- 
ceeded up the river to Shaw's Landing, where old 
Col. Shaw, the Indian trader, was the only in- 
habitant. The upward trip had nearly consumed 
the day, and on account of some accident the party 
found they must remain out over night. Shaw 
nearly out of provisions and all the voyagers had 
taken from home had been consumed. No other 
resource was left but to attack Shaw's cornfield, 
which before morning was nearly worthless except 

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for fodder, and amid the music of crying babies, 
the wails of sickly ladies and the grumbling of men 
with even less patience, the night was spent in 
roasting and eating corn, with very slight lodging 
accommodations indeed. This ride and its inci- 
dents have fastened themselves on the memory of 
the old inhabitants of Berlin with a tenacity 
scarcely less permanent than one of a' later date 
when the steamboat Berlin took them down the 
river to be tied up by the Sheriff at Delhi, and 
passed a most ludicrously uncomfortable night at 
Omro, to partake of a roly-poly pudding the effects 
of which on their minds, if not on their digestive 
systems, will never i>ass away. 

The fall and winter of 1848-49 were severely 
cold. In December Henry Mj'ers and a young 
man liamed Irwin, who went into the woods on the 
^4ndian land" side of the river, got lost and wan- 
dered about day and night, not daring to stop for 
fear of freezing, until they came out near Eureka 
half frozen and almost starved. In the spring of 
1849, the settlers came near starvation, and were 
for several" weeks without butter, eggs, milk, and 
many other necessaries. Yet a lady who was here 
at the time, bore testimony : "Those were the hap- 
piest times I have ever known in Berlin, for we 
were then all agreed, and we women could slip on 
our sunbonnets and skip into a neighbor's without 
the least ceremony whenever leisure permitted, or 
inclination prompted." What a commentary is 
this upon the benumbing influence of our latter- 
day conventional life upon the social intercourse of 
human creatures formed to enjoy each other's so- 
ciety, with hearts yearning for kindly sympathy, 
yet kept at a distance from each other by the pre- 
scribed rules of formal etiquette. 

The amusements In the early days were few, and 
such as tliere were, depended for originality upon 
the inventive genius of the inhabitants. The win- 
ter months were desolate indeed, and in the first 
years of the town's history, scarcely a man or a 
team came to the place to enliven the scene. Once, 
for want of something else to do, a Mr. Butler pro- 
posed to his companions, that if they would roll 
him up to the Taylor House in an empty sugar 
hogshead that stood near a store, he would stand 
treat for the whole crowd. This proposition was 

unanimously accepted. Butler took bis place in 
the hogshead, and his friends set it in motion, and 
if ever a man had a rough journey he had one then, 
if it was a short one. The men who propelled the 
revolving vehicle, were only to willing to do their 
best to make good time. As they pushed the hogs- 
head forward, they shouted and laughed and danced 
behind it in boisterous glee. Up hill it went, and 
down hill; over sticks and stones; through the mud 
and up embankments; over stumps three or four 
feet high, one veracious narrator asserts, and such 
a shaking up as Butler got, few men ever got be- 
fore or since. Arrived at Taylor's, Butler extri- 
cated himself from the hogshead, and the whole 
crowd made a dive for the bar. A jollification en- 
sued, such as most there, had never participated in. 
It is said the song was "Drink, drink all night, till 
broad day light, and go home drunk in the morn- 

D. W. C. Benham, so Gillespy says, "came to 
Berlin in October, 1848; about twenty-five persons 
here, old and young. Had an election of town offi- 
cers; was not a voter; in his anxiety to elect a 
Whig Justice, he managed to get the candidate on 
most of the tickets, and to vote himself; it resulted 
in a Whig victory. He boarded with C. D. Taylor 
and subsequently with D. R. Shailer. He had his 
oflRce in the rear of Shumway <fe Parson's store, on 
one side of which was a large trade in black-strap 
and rot-gut, while the other side was occupied by 
dry-goods and Yankee notions, but the counters 
were used more generally for the display of clubs 
as trumps, than for anything elstt. The first law- 
suit he engaged in, was a trial before Esq. Shum- 
way; jury empanneled for assault and battery. 
After trial, the jury retired under care of the con- 
stable, who was a witness on the trial ; the jury got 
in a fog in regard to som^ evidence, and in a very 
original manner had the constable testify over 
again; not agreeing after this, they decided the 
case by a game of high, low. Jack, on the result of 
which a verdict was rendered — parties all satisfied. 
He attended a law-suit before a Justice of the Peace 
at Sacramento; no witnesses appeared; finally it 
was agreed to leave the matter to the court, on the 
testimony of the parties. The plaintiff swore posi- 
tively that the defendant owed him f 65, and tb^ 

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defendant swore as positively that be did not owe 
him a cent. Here was a dilemma that no one but 
Justice Robinson could solve. He decided that 
the defendant should pay the cost, and thus equal- 
ize what he supiK)sed the merits of the case." 

It was in 1852 that the cry of *'firel" first broke 
on the ears of the residents of Berlin, and with one 
accord they rushed to see where the destroyer was 
at work. There was no fire engine in the village 
at that time, and it did not require much time for 
the *'fire fiend" to do his work of ruin, and shortly 
only a heap of smouldering debris was all that was 
left to mark the location of the first tavern. 

By this time Berlin had a population of nearly or 
quite 300, and the ''Indian lands" were being rap- 
idly settled, acting as a magnet to draw a ix)rtion 
of the village westward. 

Briefs and Saddle-Bags. 

During the next few years Berlin developed 
rapidly in all its interests and assumed consider- 
able importance. Doctors came, and lawyers, and 
merchants and farmers and mechanics. Berlin was 
getting to be of some prominence. There were few 
professional men here as early as 1850. The phy- 
sicians were D. H. Shu m way, a sharp and snappy, 
somewhat unscrupulous man well adopted* to bor- 
der life and practice, who not only administered 
medicine in his capacity of physician but dosed 
out law as a Justice of the Peace; Dr. Hockley, a 
plain and straightforward practitioner; and Dr. 
Merriman, a man of less force of character than 
either of the others, but careful and painstaking 
withal. Shumway and Hockley died in Berlin and 
are there buried; Merriman removed to Appleton 
and died there. Dr. N. M. Dodson came shortly 
after 1850, and has been a leading practicing phy- 
sician in Berlin ever si^ipe. Probably about the 
first lawyer was De Witt C. Benham, before men- 
tioned. Ben ham was a man of moderate ability 
and at the same time something of a " hustler," as 
the reader may have surmised. He removed to 
Minnesota and died there. Ezra Wheeler was an- 
other early comer. He was an excellent counsel- 
or, trustworthy and successful, who, after repre- 
senting his constituents in the State Senate and in 
Congress, was appointed Register pf the land-oflSce 

at Pueblo, Colo., when he died. J. V. Swetting 
was his partner. Mr. Swetting, who is stiU living 
in Berlin, became prominently known throughout 
this part of the State and has with honor filled 
several oflScial positions. J. N. Rogers, an aged and 
remarkably well preserved man mentally and phy- 
sically, was an early legal practitioner and Justice 
of the Peace, has been identified with Berlin's his- 
tory and progress almost from the first. O. F. Silver, 
another of the earlier attorneys, enlisted in the war 
as captain of a company of Wisconsin volunteers 
and did effective service for his country. After 
the war he held the oflSces of District Attorney and 
County Clerk of Green Lake County and that of 
Justice of the Peace of the City of Berlin, where 
he died an incumbent of the ofllce. 

From an old copy of the Marquette Mercury^ 
published in Berlin under date March 20, 1854, 
Mr. L. S. Truesdell extracted much that was of in- 
terest in connection with that period of the city's 
history which he gave to the Berlinites of this gen- 
eration in the Saturday Courant. By the courtesy 
of Mr. Trnesdell and of Mr. L. E. Davis, publisher 
of the Courant^ the writer is permited to make free 
use of this material. Dr. Shumway, above men- 
tioned advertised himself thus: " D. H. Shumway, 
physician and surgeon. Particular attention paid to 
chronic diflSculties and all modern operations in 
surgery." At this time this notice would be deemed 
in some degree "unprofessional," but old settlers 
remember Dr. Shumway as a scholarly physician and 
daring and skillful surgeon. He lived a troubled 
life, which may have had a strong influence in creat- 
ing some personal eccentricities, and the history of 
his family would make a book of romance and 
tragedy, furnishing lessons valuable for the con- 
sideration of the pYesent generation. It was not 
until ten years later that he died at his residence 
on Wisconsin street. On the 1st of Nov. 1851, 
Drs. S. M. Mix and N. M. Dodson formed a part- 
nership and put an advertisement in the paper to 
that effect. For many years this firm was unbroken, 
though at one time it was reinforced by the ad- 
mission of Dr. Angear, who was a member of it but 
a short time, however. Dr. Mix afterward turned 
agriculturist, but as all Berlinites know, Dr. Dod- 
son's servicer are still sought by the lame aqd the 

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sick. There is a saying that doctors never take 
their own medicine, which may account for the 
fact that no one ever heard of Dr. Dodson being 
**uiider the weather." '^Forty Years' Practice/* b^ 
Dr. Dodson would be a valuable book could he be 
induced to write it. Dr. J. H. Turner had an of- 
flce over Webster's drug store. He was a young 
man then and is said to have had a large practice. 
It is years since the Doctor set a bone or pullerl a 
tooth, for he found insurance, real estate and 
money loaning better adapted to his tastes and 
more profitable. Webster's drug store, just men- 
tioned, was the oldest in the place and was origin- 
ally established by Dr. H. R. Merriman. Soon 
after his brother Alden N. Merriman, as druggist, 
came and entered into partnei*ship with him. The 
drug store was a small one, little resembling 
Brown's, Slater's or Britton's of the present da}'. 
Old settlers remember the neat little building about 
14x20 feet with a little portico and Grecian col- 
umns. Dr. Merriman sold out to Dr. P. M. Hockley, 
who has been mentioned. At Dr. Hockley's death 
the store passed into possession of his brother, A. 
W. Hockley, who, a year or two later^ sold to I. 
Webster. Webster was succeeded by P. C. Adams ; 
Adanis by J. R. De Reimer; De Reimer by Drs. 
Dodson <fe Mix in 1862. In 1805 Dr. Mix with- 
drew, leaving Dr. Dodson sole owner. The store 
was destroyed by fire in 1870, and has been rebuilt 
and is now under other ownership. 

Back in 1854, the bar of Marquette County was 
a noteworthy one on several accounts. Some of its 
leading lights lived in Berlin and all of them who 
did not live here lived near by and came 
here to visit each other in legal tournaments. 
Clients drifted here from all parts of the State for ad- 
vice, and advice was plentiful enough to be cheaper 
than it really was. This part of the State was a 
judicial battlefield, and had in it the timber 
for all legislative and judicial honors. Henry G., 
(the renowned " Hank,") Webb was located at St. 
Maril and advertised with Mr. Wells. The 
Webbs, Bill and Hank and Charley, were fighters 
of good caliber and the district rang with their 
eloquence. When they appeared in Berlin courts 
they had good audiences. Henry afterward drifted 
to Kansas and was made a Circuit Judge. Horace 

Merriman and William A. Bugh were law part- 
ners in those days. Merriman finally renounced 
the law and went into the boot and shoe trade. 
During the war he was collector of internal revenue 
at Berlin. Col. Bugh made a gallant record in the 
civil struggle, came home a cripple and was ap- 
pointed postmaster and elected School Superintend- 
ent. Neither Mr. Merriman nor Mr. Bugh made 
any great efi'ort to distinguish himself in the profes- 
sion. The former lives in Kansas City, Mo., and 
the latter sleeps in Oakwood cemetery, one of the 
long list of soldiers who yielded up their lives in 
their country's defense. His ^ame has been |)er- 
petuated in that of William A. Bugh Camp, Sons 
of Veterans, of Berlin. This legal firm did business 
in a small oflflce one door west of where Peck's 
hardware store now stands. The old firm of 
Wheeler <fe Swetting, "attorneys, solicitors and 
counsellsors at law," was then in the heyday of its 
career. Judge Wheeler was in his prime, a man of 
great natural abilit}^ well read in the law, digni- 
fied and courteous, bnt with a vein of humor 
that caused him to be sought after wherever there 
was fun afloat, and Swetting was not far behind. 
The after prominence and death of Mr. Wheeler 
have been referred to. Every one in Berlin knows 
J. Volney Swetting, and every one likes him. 
Neither time nor work nor winter's blight has ever 
had any effect upon him except perhaps to make 
him a little gray. His heart is young. His spirits 
are light. He has a fund of reminiscence that ren- 
ders him almost a perambulating encyclopedia 
on all matters local, and he is so apt a story-teller 
that he invests the dryish recital with the 
deepest interest. J. N. Rogers was then Justice 
of the Peace and attorney -at-law. Mr. Rogers was 
one of the first men to permanently locate here. 
Now past four-score years, he appears twenty 
years younger, and could tell men more about the 
"old times" in Berlin than could be crowded into 
two volumes like this. Berlin's bar was always bet- 
ter for having Mr. Rogers on its roll. 

John C. Truesdell and his brother Martin L., 
about that time opened an office in Berlin. The 
latter soon returned East and the business was con- 
tinued by the former, whose principal oflSce was at 
Fond du Lac. Mr. Truesdell was one of the 

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ablest men of his time and in many respects stood 
head and shoulders above his legal brethren. He 
died in Berlin, where his sons survive him. Par- 
ticular attention is directed to an extended bio- 
graphical notice of Mr. Truesdell, which appears 
elsewhere in these pages. O. F. Silver had an of- 
fice where Frohne's grocery store now is, opposite 
the Woodworth House. He was a young man of 
promise and in tho^e days no one had yet called 
him by his afterwards familiar nickname of '*Pap.*' 
Miss J. A. Kimball had a millinery store in the 
town, and history shows that one of Silver's first 
actions was against this establishment, that he won 
the suit and closed up the business by inducing the 
fair milliner to become his wife. He was a genial 
companion and faithful friend, and everybody 
liked him. At the bar he was content to let others 
do the talking and stuck pretty closely to office 
business. He served the county in an^ official ca- 
pacity and was for many years a local Justice. 
Martin Luther Kimball was, without doubt, at that 
time the best educated man at the Marquette 
County Bar. A classical scholar well learned in 
the law, he was a safe counselor, but was little 
given to oratorical displays. He dipped into poli- 
tics, went to the legislature, servied as postmaster 
and later gave up the law and turned his attention 
to farming. Norman Benham was another Berlin 
lawyer. Most of the old practitioners have paid 
the debt of nature, leaving the field to a new gen- 

Some Old Hotels. 

To a large extent the history of a town is identi- 
ged with the history of its hotels, and Berlin had a 
goodly number of them thirty-five or forty years 
ago. The tide of emigration was setting this 
way, and the hotels did a rushing business. It 
was at the hotels that political and other schemes 
were hatched, that important business was trans- 
acted, that dances and re-unions were held, and 
that the many stages that ran across country made 
their headquarters. The hotels were the gathering 
places upon all occasions, the news exchanges as 
it were, of the town. 

The principal hotel of the then village was the Fox 
River House, on the site of the Woodworth, kept 
by old roa» Ely. The Fox Riv^r Hpus^ did tb^ 

bulk of the business, and the old Concord coaches 
with four horses used to wheel up before it in 
grand style. The stage drivers were the heroes of 
the day. The Youngs and Saxtons were centers 
of interested groups whenever the stages came 
bowling into the town heralded by a long, loud 
blast from a big tin horn at the bridge. This 
house was burned about the beginning of the war, 
and the whole block of which it formed a part 
went with it. All of the guests were rescued un- 
injured except "Russ" Bunker,' who leaped from a 
second story window and broke his leg. All the 
town was very much excited, for it looked as if 
the whole place was doomed. Elder Livermore 
mounted a barrel and prayed that heaven would stay 
the flames ; but he had not proceeded very far in this 
laudable invocation before some one more practi- 
cally minded kicked his improvised rostrum from 
under his feet and advised him to go to passing 
water, reminding him that '^Heaven helps those 
who help themselves." This sudden interruption 
of what was thus rudely prevented from becoming 
an historical prayer is by general consent charged 
against "Sy Whitcomb, who is still a well-known 
resident of Berlin. Two lines of humanity were 
formed from Hamilton's store to the river, one 
composed of women and one of men. There were 
men at the river to dip the water up and it was 
passed along the line of men and dashed into the 
fire, and the empty pails were returned to the 
river along the line of women. When a fire-bell 
clanged in those days everyone appeared on the 
scene pail in hand, and helped to carry water. For 
twenty years Berlin burned and built up under 
this fire protection system, and then better means 
were secured for the extinguishment of local blazes. 
Another old land-mark in the line of hotels is 
the Temperance House, which is still standing on 
Railroad Street, opposite M. Heilman's residence. 
This hotel was kept by Mr. Bears and had an old- 
style swinging sign. The business furnished a 
good living for the proprietor for many years and 
the honest old man continued it as a temperance 
house in fact, as well as in name. The rates were 
low and he usually entertained those who walked 
up from the trains when the depot was near the 
Ripon crossing. 

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The Union Hotel stood where the Phelps House 
now is and about thirty-five years ago was kept by 
Wright <fe Reeves. It« name was changed several 
times and it was known successively as the Topliff 
House, the Briggs House and the Lloyd House. 
At the time Mr. Lloyd was proprietor, A. M. Hur- 
ley was interested in it. Lloyd <fe Hurley after- 
wards went to Chicago and engaged in the hotel 
business there, but their venture was disastrous 
and they lost everything. Hurley then went into 
the practice of law and is reputed wealthy. The 
Forsyth House, now the Fri berth House, was in 
those days the best hotel on the '^Indian Land." 
The old Forsyth residence was on Swetting's hill, 
now owned by Mr. Doherty. In the early days a 
scheme was sprung to divide the town, the east 
side to be known as Berlin, the west side to be 
called Forsyth. The plan caused no end of strife 
but the opposition finally carried the day for un- 
ion. Thomas Williams kept a restaurant at the 
foot of Huron street. His place of business is des- 
cribed as having had groceries on one side and 
drinks, cigars and lunch on the other. Among the 
attractions of his establishment was a telescope 
through which his customers could view the sur- 
rounding country. 

A Railroad, Politics and the Saw- 
dust Church. 

What Berlin needed thirty-five years ago was a 
railroad, and a plan had been got into shape to 
build one. A company was formed, called the 
Berlin & Lake Superior Railroad Company, and a 
meeting was advertised in the Mercury '*to be held 
at Wheeler & Swettings' oflfice, in the village of 
Berlin, on Thursday, the 23, of March, 1854, at 
10 o'clock a. m., when books will be opened for the 
purpose of receiving subscriptions to the capital 
stock of said company.'* This call was signed by 
J. Volney Swetting, E. Wheeler, E. Field and 
George W. Gate, who for seventeen years was Cir- 
cuit Judge, served in Congress and is now enjoying 
a lucrative practice in his profession at Wausaw. 
He last appeared before the public as the defender 
of the Currans for the killing of Hazeltine. This 
railway scheme did not materialize, but was the 
means of eventually getting a line into Berlin from 

Milwaukee. The plan was to project it through to 
the Superior country, but this branch was never 
built. It was a grand thought, however, and was 
afterward taken up by Charles L. Colby and others 
who subsequently built the Wisconsin Central 

The Mercury prints a caucus notice to the effect 
that '* the Whigs will meet, on the 28th of March, 
1854, to nominate town ofl3cers, at the Pearl Street 
Church," then popularly known as the " Sawdust 
Church." This building, in the rear of the present 
Sacket hardware store, has been referred to before 
and doubtless will be again, because in its time it 
was the scene of many meetings and deliberations 
of moment to Berlin in one way or another. The 
reader has been informed that it was called the 
Sawdust Church because it was stuffed with saw- 
dust between the inner and outer walls. As the 
building advanced in age the dust would sift 
through the crevices, fall upon the seats and the 
floor and among the worshipers. Elder Liver- 
more was one the last to hold meetings there, 
and as the dust would drop down gently on the 
leaves of the Holy Book on the desk before him, 
he would, it is said, brush them away with his 
handkerchief with a look that seemed to say, 
" Dust thou art ; to dust thou shalt return." A 
year or so later the church was abandoned and has 
not since been used for religious meetings. The 
boys in the Mercury office — Jack Galloway, Kirk 
Ay res and Gus Rogers — and perhaps other boys 
banded with them, once kept the town in a furor 
for several days through a practical joke well plan- 
ned and successfully carried out. They ran a se- 
cret wire from the Mercury office to the tongue of 
the bell of the old Sawdust Church, and at un- 
canny times would cause the bell to give forth 
ghoulish sounds in a seemingly most mysterious 
manner. After a season of " haunted church " and 
no end of speculation the people of the town 
learned the secret of the manifestations. This 
bell, which was put to such unhallowed use by the 
boys of that day, was afterwards transferred to 
the Union Church and is hanging in its spire at 
the present day. Oscar Willis used to ring it for 
the worshippers in the Sawdust Church in 1852 
and composed this verse on his Christian enterprise : 

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'* O how I love to make it ring, 
The noble Presbyterian * ding,' 
To show my skill about the town 
And bring the trembling sawdust down." 

Facilities for Crossing the Fox. 

The first means employed to cross Fox River was 
a ferry. That was superseded by a float bridge, 
one end of which wad attached to a sort of pier, 
which served as an approach to it, and the other 
end of which rested on a large scow-like contriv- 
ance by means of which it was floated around and 
attached to or detached from the pier at the oppo- 
site side. By this device the river could at any 
time be cleared for passing boats, and the bridge 
could be swung around out of harm's way in times 
of high water. The roadway from the west end 
of the bridge to about the site of the Forsyth 
House was very low and in times of floods was en- 
tirely submerged and seemed a part of the river. 
There was a ridge of land extending from just 
above Talbot's sawmill to the west approach of 
the bridge. The tract east of the Forsyth House 
was similar to that along the river between C. S. 
Barrett's tannery and the rear of stores on Broad- 
way. When the water was high teams could not 
make the crossing, but the inconvenience was com- 
paratively small for the reason that the whole 
country west of the Forsyth House was practically 
a wilderness with no highways but Indian trails. 
Boom logs were put afloat for the accommodation 
of pedestrians, and an involuntary cold bath was 
one of the chances taken by those who crossed. 
During times of high water, the ferry boat would be 
pulled over by means of a rope placed for that 
purpose, and when the end of the rope was reached 
on the west side the boat was propelled by poles 
and landed near the Forsyth House. The east 
bank of the river was high and dry. Where 
Huron Strait is, was a ravine extending from near 
the site of the Union Church to that of Sackett's 
hardware store and then taking a turn to the river 
in the direction of the depot. The float bridge 
served as a make-shift and was good for little else, 
as the float leaked badly and its use was attended 
with other diflficulties, and it was universally con- 
ceded that a change was demanded. 

Horace Merriam, then of Berlin, now of Kansas 

City, proposed the building of a novel bridge 
which, on account of its peculiar construction, he 
called a " railroad bridge." His plan was adopted 
for want of a better one. It does not appear 
whether he is entitled to the credit of the invention 
of this uncommon device or whether he had seen 
something similar in operation elsewhere. It was 
constructed thus : From the east bank to the cen- 
ter pier it was much like ordinary bridges. The west 
approach was furnished with a track. A span of 
the bridge was mounted on wheels which ran on 
this track after the manner of a railway car, and 
its construction was such that it could be run from 
its place inland far enough to permit the passage 
of boats. Added to the weight of this movable 
span was a counter weight on the west side which 
kept it up to the proi)er level when it was in place 
for use, and this rendered it so cumbersome that it 
was difficult to handle. It is said that it took 
nearly every one within hearing of a boat whistle 
to operate this bridge, which made it so unpopular 
that it was abandoned after a season's trial in favor 
of the old float bridge, which was again used until 
the erection of a substantial bridge in the winter 
of 1856. 

During the year last mentioned a town meeting 
was held at the Union House. At its close the 
bridge question was brought up and J. V. Swet- 
ting, Chairman, called for a vote of those present 
to decide whether a new bridge should be built or 
not. The vote was taken by having those in favor 
of the new bridge step to one side of the street 
and those opposed to it the other side. It was a 
very close vote, as the people in the south and east 
parts of the town disliked to pay taxes for a bridge 
that they would have little use for. Besides this, 
the question of getting a city charter was then be- 
ing agitated and many were in favor of having the 
bridge question held open until after that matter 
should be decided. But a decision was reached in 
favor of building the bridge, and the work was 
done the following winter. It was virtually the 
same bridge that was taken down to make room 
for the presennt iron structure, although the wood- 
work was afterwards entirely replaced and other 
changes were made from time to time. It was re- 
timbered by S. H. Radway. This, which is popu- 

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larly referred to now as the '' old wooden bridge," 
did good service. Before it was built the roadway 
for a block or more west of the river, on Broad- 
way, was filled in to a depth of eight feet. Stumps, 
logs and brush were piled in, and then covered 
with dirt. This work was done by R. G. Camp- 
bell and his brothers. Some of these logs were 
struck a few yeai-s ago in digging a well. 

The present iron bridge, which was completed 
early in 1888, cost about $11,000, including mas- 
onry at the ends which cost $3,000. it is about 
170 feet long and 33 feet wide over all. The width 
is divided as follows : Roadwaj' twenty feet, two 
sidewalks, five feet each. The middle pier is round 
and firmly planted in the river bed below low water 
mark. It is surmounted by trackage upon which 
run the trucks upon which the bridge is swung to 
admit of the passage of steamers. The iron struc- 
ture was put up, under contract with the city, by 
the Milwaukee Bridge and Iron Company. 

The Town Plat and Additions. 

The original plat of Strongville was filed for 
record Sept. 27, 1848, by Nathan H. Strong, Thomas 
Noyes and others. The plats of the following 
named additions were filed in the years designated: 
First addition and Park Block addition, 1855, 
(platted much earlier;) second addition by H. G. 
Martin, 1850; Van Horn's addition to Berlin, 1852; 
Turner's addition, 1856; Forsyth and Bassett's ad- 
dition, 1853; Reas and Buck's addition, 1856; 
Leffort's addition, 1856; Strong and Gait's ad- 
dition, 1856; Smith's nddition, 1856; Wheeler's 
addition, 1857; Ruddock's addition, 1856; James' 
addition, 1857; Forsyth's addition, 1857; Capron's 
addition, 1857; Strong's addition, 1858; Franklin's 
addition, 1858; Forsyth's 2d addition, 1858; Cross 
and Woodward's sub-division, 1860; Husted's ad- 
dition, 1860; Carbart's addition, 1872; Warner's 
addition, 1873; Arnold's addition, 1876. 


The original Act incorporating the city of Berlin 
was approved March 6, 1857. It has been amended 
and superseded by subsequent Acts as follows : An 
Act entitled " an Act to amend an Act entitled * an 
Act to incorporate the city of Berlin,' " approved 

February 13, 1858; an Act entitled " An Act to 
create the town of Forsyth and to amend Chapter 
330 of the Private and Local Laws of 1857 in- 
corporating the city of Berlin," approved March 
30, 1860; an Act entitled - An Act to Consolidate 
and Amend the Act to Incorporate the city of 
Berlin and the several Acts amendatory thereof," 
approved March 22, 1861; an Act entitled "An 
Act to Consolidate and Amend the Act to Incor- 
porate the city of Berlin and the several Acts 
amendatory thereof," approved April 6, 1866, and 
" An Act to Revise, Consolidate and Amend the 
Act incorporating the city of Berlin and the sev- 
eral Acts amendatory tliereof," passed April 11, 
1887, which provides that *'all that district of 
country in the counties of Green Lake and 
Waushara contained within the limits and bound- 
aries heremafter described shall be a city by the 
name of Berlin, and the people who now inhabit 
and those who shall hereafter inhabit the same shall 
be a municipal corporation by the name of the city 
of Berlin," etc., and defines the city and ward 
boundaries as follows: "Sections No. 3, 4, 9 and 
10 and the east half of sections 5 and 8 and that 
part of section No. 16 and the east half of section 
No. 17, lying north of the center of Fox River, 
all in township No. 17 north of range No. 13 
east, and that part of sections No. 33 and 34 in 
township No. 18 north of range 13 east, lying 
south and east of Fox River." " All that portion 
of section No. 4 in said city lying east of the cen- 
ter of the Fox River, shall constitute and be the 
First Ward. All of section 3 and that part of sec- 
tions 33 and 34, in snid city, shall constitute and 
be the Second Ward. All that portion of sections 
9 and 10, in said city, lying east of the center of 
Fox River, shall constitute and be the Third Ward. 
All that portion of said city lying south of the 
center of Broadway street and west of the center 
of Fox River, shall constitute and be the Fourth 
Ward. All that portion of said city lying north 
of the center of Broadway street and the west of 
the center of Fox River, shall constitute and be 
the Fifth Ward." 

From the Records. 

The first officers elected to serve the city were 

Digitized by 




as follows: George D. Waring, Mayor; Thomas E. 
Baker, City Clerk; Stillman Wright, Treasurer and 
Aldermen Field, Bassett, Turner and Taylor. The 
first meeting of the City Council was held in 
Metropolitan Hall, April 14, 1857, when the or- 
ganization of the city was effected. Following is 
a list of the successive Mayors with their re- 
spective terms of service: George D. Waring, 
1857-60; John D. Porter, 1861-62; J. D. Husted, 
1863-64; Henry A. Williams, part of 1865, (re- 
signed;) H. G. Talbot, 1865-66, 1871-72, 1881-84; 
O. Silver, 1867-68; S. H. Warner, 1869-70, 
1873-74; J.N. Rogers, 1875-78; Hiram Stedman, 
1879-80; George Fitch, 1885-86; Joseph Yates, 
1887-88; S. H. Sacket, 1889-90. 

Business Men Past and Present. 

Thirty.five and forty years ago the streets of 
Berlin were extremely muddy and the wheeling 
down Main street is said to have been **]\orriblc." 
Farmers went around by the back streets to get 
anywhere near the market. Arrived at the market 
they disposed of their produce to Perley G. Chase, 
who was doing a large business as a general dealer 
on the west side. His prices were thus quoted in 
the Mercw'y in 1854: Winter wheat, $1 a bushel; 
Spring wheat, 75 to 90 cents; butter, 15 cents; 
cheese, a shilling; corn, 37 cents; oats, 22 cents; 
lumber, $8 perm.; wild hay, $2.50 per ton. Mr. 
Chase is here yet, ranking with J. V. Swetting, C. 
A. Mather, J. N. Rogers, L.D. Waring and Messrs. 
Bellis and Woodworth as examples of a trans- 
planted race of old settlers. All have not suc- 
ceeded in like measure, but they are recognized as 
belonging to the '' old stock," which is said to last 
longest. At that time Chase had things about his 
own way, and the farmer who didn't like his prices 
could go further to get better ones, which did not 
always pay in the long run. 

Heazlit's store on Huron street was an important 
landmark in Berlin at the time of which we write. 
It was kept in a little frame building on the site of 
Peck's hardware store, and as business then cen- 
tered about the intersection of Huron and Pearl 
streets everything on the south side of the street 
was mentioned as being so many doors east or west 
of Heazlit's, and any settler anywhere between 

'* the Point ' and Oshkosh who would have con- 
fessed to not knowing where "Heazlit's" was 
would have been considered densely ignorant in 
local geography. S. M. Baker and N. B. Conklin 
formed a partnership in general merchandising 
early in 1854. The oldest business house in the 
place is that of J. F. Hamilton which was estab- 
lished in 1856. Mr. Reese opened a store in 1857 
and has been a merchant in the city ever since. 
The following business interests were mentioned 
or advertised in the Courant in 1859: 

J. F. <fe T. W. Hamilton, general store; William 
Williams, hardware; J. A. Loebe, dry-goods, boots, 
shoes and tailoring; D. H. Saxton, general store; 
Vedder <fe Safford, book store; George Alexander, 
clothing, boots, shoes, etc.; Reed <fe Carhart, gen- 
eral store and tailoring; E. and S. Alexander, gen- 
eral store; G. W. Cooke, book and music store; J. 
R. De Riemer, druggist; G. N. Smith, foundry; J. 
Higgs, boots and shoes; William Na^ior, furniture 
and cabinet ware ; Yates <$? Porter, hardware, tin- 
ware and stoves; J. and E. Field, general store; 
Ruddock <fe Silsbee, pump manufacturers; William 
H. Morton, dealer in washing machines; H. G. 
Talbot, agricultural implements; T. W. Wood, 
apple eider etc. ; Bliss, Holly <fe Armstrong, marble 
works. The card of Cronkhite <fe Co., banker^i, 
appeared; also the advertisement of the City of 
Berlin Oneida Bank, of which James Field was 
President; O. G. Buell, v ice-President and Edwin 
Kellogg Cashier. The following "professional" 
cards had place: J. H. Turner, insurance agent; 
R. E. Gross, insurance agent; M. Mix, M. D.; N. 
M. Dodson, M. D.; S. T. Randall, dentist; John 
F. Hobbs, city marshal; J. C. Truesdell, attorney 
at-law; W. Pierson, M. D.; Norman Benham, 
lawyer; D. W. C. Benham, lawyer; Waring <fe Car- 
ruth, lawyers ; Doctor Foster; Mrs. A. M. T. West- 
lake, teacher of music. 

Among the advertisers in 1862 were J. H. Lax- 
ton, Justice of the Peace; Mix & Angear, physicians 
and surgeons; Truesdell <fe Waring, attorneys-at- 
law; L. Safford, dealer in books, stationery, etc.; J. 
Higgs, boots and shoes; William Naylor, furniture, 
carpets, etc.; Levere House, general stage ofl9ce, 
west of the river, S. Nichols, proprietor; Love's 
Hotel, M. P. Love, proprietor; Henry Brunsman, 

Digitized by 




city barber shop; E. and S. Alexander, lumber and 
shingles; J. F. and T. W. Hamilton, general store; 
William Williams, hardware; G. N. Smith, foundry 
and machine shop; H. H. Sleeper, produce dealer; 
Reese <fe Williams, general store; J. Macnish <& Son, 
druggists; J. R. De Reimer, druggist; A. T. Par- 
melee, city harness shop; J. Higgs, boots and shoes; 
All's. J. Tripp and Miss Marie Harrington, dress- 
making; Lucy Hamilton, millinery. 

Prominent among business and professional men 
and women in 1869, were the following: Emanuel 
Alexander, general store; G. G. Alexander, cloth- 
ing, hats and caps; Mrs. H. M. Allen, dress and 
cloak maker; Mrs. C. U. Askins, millinery; H. M. 
Babcock, horooepathic physician; H. T. Baker, fan- 
ning mills and milk safes; J. P. Ba&sett, dealer in 
groceries, leather, etc.; Thomas Bassett, harness 
manufacturer; Beckwith House, Johnston <fe Pipher, 
proprietors; Luke Beckwith, corn and feed mill; 
R. Boyle, sash, door and blind factory; Bridge <fe 
Simmons, merchant tailors; A. Brown, pump and 
churn manufacturer; H. Buell <fe Co., general store; 
W. A. Bugh, Postmaster and Superintendent of 
Schools; Mrs. J. E. Bunker, dress and cloak maker; 
Mrs. N. M. Burnham, dress and cloak maker; E. S. 
<fe D. R. Burr, jewelers and druggists; J. H. Calen- 
der, dentist and sewing machine agent; Carhart, 
Wright <fe Co., flouring mill; P. G. Chase, auction- 
eer; Andrew Christie, tailor; Clark <fe Brooks, or- 
gans; Lauren J. Clark, homojpathic physician; C. 
Cohen, hoop-skirt manufacturer; Mrs. A. A. Cope- 
land, millinery; W. R. DaviesA Co., foundry; Dei- 
bler & Steinke, wagon manufacturers; D. Dewe}', 
blacksmith; N. M. Dodson, physician and surgeon; 
Edmund Drake, clothier; L. Eichstaedt, grocer; H. 
D. Everett, harness-maker; William Fahy, wagon- 
maker; Mrs. C. A. Felt, millinery and dressmak- 
ing ; First National Bank of Berlin (T. S. Ruddock, 
President; Charles A. Mather, Cashier); John 
Flood, blacksmith; D. Forbes, dry-goods; Augus- 
tus Fox, artist and florist; F. F. Fyler, dry-goods 
and notions; John Gilhuber; City Hotel; William 
Gorden, brick-yards; George W. Graves, books; 
Mrs. S. E. Griswold dress-making; Joseph Gutman. 
clothing; Hamilton Brothers, general merchandise; 
F. F. Hamilton, produce; R. Hardy, pump-raaker; 
J. J. Hargrave, photographer; Hathaway & Bellis, 

confectionery and restaurant; Edward Hathaway, 
agent for Florence Sewing Machine; Mrs. M. J. 
Havener, millinery ; C. W. Hendei*son & Son, gro- 
cers; J. J. Higgs, boots and shoes; John W. Hin- 
man, harness-maker; M. S. Holly, photographer; 
Hughes & Baxter, gristmill; Mrs. Lucinda Jacobs, 
dress- making; Johnson <fe Miner, books, stationery, 
and news dei)Ot; Miss M. E. Jones, milliner; Jones 
& Hughes, merchant tailors and clothing dealers; 
Jones <& Slay ton, manufacturers of spring 1)eds, 
and dealers in sash, doors and blinds; J. B. Ken- 
dall, eclectic physician; J. S. Kendall, dealer in agri- 
cultural implements; Mrs. S. L. King, dressmaker; 
Michael Lanner, boot and shoe manufacturer; C. 
H. Larkin, Jr., agent for Milwaukee <fe St. Paul 
Railroad Company, and wholesale dealer in salt, 
plaster and cement; G. A. Laurence, sewing ma- 
chines; Mrs. G. A. Laurence, corset-maker; Jacob 
Leach, carpenter and builder; C. Lear, blacksmith; 
W. Lear, livery; C. LinkGeld, proprietor Levcre 
House; H. H. Lock wood, tanner and manufacturer 
of whips, gloves, etc.; George W. Lounsbury, har- 
ness-maker; Luther <fe Buck, whip manufacturer; 
Macnish & Robertson, produce dealers; Charles A. 
Mather, insurance agent and notary public; James 
McCaskey, stage agent; Thomas McClear, general 
merchant; Hugh McElroy, telegraph operator; H. 
Merriam, boot and shoe manufacturer; H. S. Mer- 
riam, music teacher and organ dealer; Henry Mil- 
ler, blacksmith and wagon-maker; H, D. Miner, 
fruit and confectionery; Miles Mix, M. D.; H. C. 
Moulton, money leaner; J. E. Montague, telegraph 
operator; Nay lor <fe Son, furniture and under- 
taking; Silas Nichols, proprietor Nichols House; 
O'Connell <fe Co., boot and shoemakers; E. O. Pad- 
dock & Co., wool-carding and cloth dressing; A. 
T. Par melee, grocer; Parsons & Collins, painters; 
F. B. <fe C. A. Peck, hardware; C. E. Phelps, phy- 
sician and surgeon ; Thomas Protheroe, tailor; Put- 
nam & Hunt, boot and shoe manufacturers; Reese 
<fe Whiting, general store; Charles Richardson, 
bakers; L. Richardson, grocer; George Roberts, 
hides, furs, etc.; Mary A. Roberts, millinery and 
dress. making; J. N. Rogers, lawyer and Justice of 
the Peace; O. L. Rosecranz, jeweler; Ruddock <fe 
Guest, manufacturers of agricultural implements; 
S. C. Ruddock, lumber; Ryan & Kimball, lawyers; 

Digitized by 




D. H. Safford, manufacturer of agricultural imple- 
ments; L. Safford, sewing machines; J. V. Shel- 
don, manufacturer of carriages and sleighs; Oramel 
Shepard, painter; M. H. Shipley, dealer in hay; 
P. R. Slingsby, physician; C. B. Skinner, book- 
binder; E. Smith, merchant tailor; M. Smith, gro- 
cer; John Spooner, brewer; H. G. Talbot, planing 
mill; Terry <fe Arnold, publishers Courant; J. H 
Turner, insurance; Vroom <fe Harman, sawmill; 
Wheeler & Waring, lawyers and claim agents; 
Warner <fe Jones, agricultural implements; Mrs. A. 
M. T. West, music teacher; P. Q. WIghtman, den- 
tist; Calvin Wood, grocer; S. D. Wood worth, In- 
ternal Revenue Assessor; T. W. <fe F. M. Wood, 
painters; A.J. Work, carriage manufacturer; Yates 
<fe Foote, hardware; John Young, proprietor of 
Yonng's Hotel; William Zickerick, furniture and 

Business of To-day. 

J. F, Hamilton's general store, formerly Hamil- 
ton Brothers, is a land mark connecting the old 
Berlin with the Berlin of the present. The old 
store of Mr. Reese was afterward known as that of 
Reese & Williams, and until within a year, as Reese 
<k Whiting's. It is now the exclusive property of 
the founder, R. T. Reese. The hardware of Peck <fe 
Son, afterward Peck, Warner <fe Peck, now C. A. 
Peck's, is the oldest establishment of its class in the 
city. Among old grocers may be mentioned Thomas 
<fe Son, T. W. Wood & Son, and E. T. Chamberlain. 
The large general store of W. W. Collins, was es- 
tablished in 1879, by R. H. <fe F. A. Clark, who 
were 3ucceeded by F. A. Clark in 1884. F. A. 
Clark <fe Co., succeeded to the business in 1886. 
The Clark Company were the next proprietors, and 
W. W. Collins, who had been connected with the 
concern before he became sole proprietor in 1 889. 
Mr. Koch established the business in general mer- 
chandising, now of Koch <fe Groflfman about four 
years ago. George E. Shaw and T. W. Hamilton 
have the oldest shoe stores. The principal cloth- 
ing merchants, Ardin L. Buell, W. W. Collins, A. 
Ford, and H. C. Truesdell, began business in the 
order named. The oldest drug-store is that of C. 
H. Britton, which, in a sense, is a continuation of 
the pioneer drug enterprise before mentioned. 

John R. Brown and John W. Slater have large 
stores in this line. H. S. Saeket's hardware store 
is one of the big mercantile institutions. F. H. 
Tucker <fe Co., and John Andre, are the leading fur- 
niture dealers and undertakers. C. D. Taylor, one 
of the oldest residents of Berlin, is an undertaker 
with a large patronage. There are stores of all 
kinds, shops, offices and interests which space does 
not admit of our mentioning; but the following 
succinct summary of Berlin's business will be found 
of interest. A boot and shoe factory, saw and 
planing mills, a brewery, a cigar factory, a coffin 
and casket manufactory, a washboard, factory, whip, 
glove and mitten factories, machine works, flour- 
ing mills, brick and tile works, tanneries, two banks, 
an opera house, a telephone exchange, and several 
popular and helpful publications. The cranberry 
and granite interests are mentioned elsewhere. 

The principal hotels are the Wood worth and the 
Bellis. The Western, Frieberth, Phelps and City 
hotels, each does a good business. The Wood- 
worth House is on the site of the old Fox River 
Hotel, the burning of which has been referred to. 
When rebuilt, it was called the Beckwith House. 
It has since been known as the Dunham House, and 
the Wood worth. Since Nelson Beckwith, its pro- 
prietors have been Mr. Perkins, from Montello; 
Mr. Love, whose unfortunate marriage long served 
as a subject for gossip in the town, Johnston <fe 
Pipher, J. S. Fyler, H. C. Dunham, Charles Willey 
<fe Son, Mr. Pattee, Mr. Wood worth, the Clark Syn- 
dicate, and latterly, the Wood worth House Com- 
pany, F. A. Clark, manager. The Bellis House had 
been opened about ten years under the continuous 
management of Hathaway <fe Bellis. The Phelps 
House is an old institution, formerly known as the 
Topliff House and the Rossman House. The West- 
ern Hotel, formerly the Nichols, was burned since 
it came into possession of the present owner, H. H. 
Olson, who rebuilt it. The Frieberth House is 
kept by John Maitland. It was formerly known 
successively as the Forsyth and the Chase House. 
The City Hotel was built by John Gilhover, about 
fifteen years ago, and is now owned by his widow. 
Charles F. Doolin is the present lessee and man- 
ager. Taken all in all, Berlin's hotel accommoda- 
tions may be considered first-class. 

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The Granite Quarries. 

In the northeast suburb of the city are great hills 
of stone covering many acres, anci rising high 
above the surrounding prairie land. From early 
days "'The Rocks" were considered a picturesque 
feature of the scenery, and visitors were taken to 
the summit to view the landscape roundabout, 
which for miles and miles was spread out before 
them, but no one thought that the large masses of 
rocka would ever be made to serve any practical 
purpose. When, however, granite pavement began 
to be adopted so extensively by Western cities, 
"The Rocks" began to be regarded as of possibly 
more than artistic utility, and in 1884 the Berlin 
and Montello Granite Company, which had al- 
ready opened a quarry at Montello, purchased the 
greater part of "The Rocks" with the view to uti- 
lizing the stone. After a thorough trial it was 
found that the stone beneath the surface was not 
only admirably adapted for paving blocks, but 
thai it was especially adapted for building stone, 
both on account of its beautiful appearance and 
the ease with which it could be dressed. It is said 
that no granite has ever been found in the West 
that can be split so evenly or so advantageously 
cut into building stone as that from the Berlin 
quarries. A ready and profitable market was found 
for all the stone that could be got out, both for 
building purposes and for the paving of streets. 
The granite in its original state is a beautiful 
bluish gray color, but when polished is nearly 

The granite quarries have become the principal 
industry of Berlin, giving work to more than 300 
men, a large number of whom are skilled and well- 
paid mechanics. A side tract connects the quarry 
with the Chicago, Milwaukee <fe St. Paul Railway, 
and the arrangements for quick and easy shipments 
are complete. About a year ago a mammoth stone 
crusher, run by a lOO-horse power engine, fed 
with crude petroleum, was built. This great ma- 
chine has the capacity to crush 500 tons of granite 
daily. This is used in acadamizing streets and high- 
ways. About 2,000 car-loads of granite, including 
paving block8,building stoneand crushed stone,were 
shipped during the past season. As the railroad com- 
pany gets about $20 per carload for transportation. 

$40,000 would be something like the aggregate sum 
of freight paid. There have been as many as twenty- 
seven carloads shipped in one day. The amount 
paid out by the company for wages is about $10,000 
per month. Heretofore the iK)lishing of stone from 
this quarry has been done at the Montello quarry, 
but a polisher has been added to the Berlin plant, 
and will be put in operation with the opening of 
the coming season. 

The office of tbe Berlin and Montello Granite 
Company is at 162 Washington Street, Chicago. 
J. H. Sliepard is President; J. H. Anderson, Vice 
President and General Manager; C. B. Beach, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer; and William H. Bairstow is 
Superintendent in charge at Berlin. 

The Berlin Granite Company is another and 
smaller concern, which is quarrying granite near 
Berlin. It employs about fifty men, and produces 
a fine quality of stone. Mr. W. Bannerman, an ex- 
perienced quarryman, is Suj>erintendent. 

The granite business is a wonderful help to the 
business interest of Berlin, circulating, as it does, 
a large amount of money among all classes of busi- 
ness men. It helps all branches of trade and com- 
merce, more or less, some nlore directly than 
others. One thing upon which Berlinites can con- 
gratulate themselves is the fact that this great 
business interest can never be removed, and can 
be depended upon until the quarries are exhausted, 
and no one in Berlin expects to live to see that 

Banl^ing Interests. 

The Banking House of C. A. Mather <fe Co., of 
which C. A. Mather and J. M. Hawley are the 
proprietors, is the successor of the First National 
Bank of Berlin, of which mention has been previ- 
ously made. This house, under its present name, 
began business Sept. 1, 1870, and has a capital of 

The firm of Sacket & Fitch, bankers, Berlin, is 
composed of George B. Sacket and George Fitch, 
and was established in September, 1876, and re- 
ports a working capital stock of $25,000. The 
business is based on the well-known personal re- 
sponsibility of the proprietors, whose property con- 
sists largely of real estate. They do a general 

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banking business, and the bank has now been in 

successful operation for a jieriod of thirteen years. 

City Park and Soldiers' Monument. 

A square of ground situated in the best resi- 
dence portion of the city was left by the late 
Nathan Strong for public use. Standing in it are 
a number of forest trees and otlier shade trees have 
been set out, and the place has been otherwise im- 

The corner stone of a soldiers* monument was 
laid in May, 1886, on an elevated plateau in the 
center of the park.* This will be a fitting memo- 
rial to all residents of Green Lake County who 
fell while defending the Union. It will be a hand- 
some granite shaft, on a fitting granite pedestal, 
sui-mounted by an eflSgy of a soldier in uniform, 
altogether about twenty-five feet in height. 
Fire Department. 

A volunteer fire department, numbering about 
eighty men, has charge of one steamer, a hook and 
ladder apparatus and three hose carts. In the 
past this organization, with its equipments, has been 
equal to any emergenc}', A plentiful supply of 
water is obtained from the river, which flows 
through the center of the city, and from large 
reservoirs, which have been built at different 
points, and are kept constantly full of water. In 
addition to the ''Silsby'* steamer, the city has an 
excellent large hand engine to be worked by 
forty men, and two small engines to be worked by 
two men each. 

The chief of the department, Mr. E. M. Buell, 
has been at its head ever since its first organiza- 
tion, twenty-three years ago, and even before that 
time he formed an individual fire department with a 
small garden engine,which he owned, and with which 
he at different times saved much valuable property. 
He is prompt,cool and energetic, and his long experi- 
ence eminently qualifies him for his position. The 
same may be said of his first and second assistants, 
E. T. Chamberlin and P. Burns, the former of 
whom has been connected with the department for 
as long a time as the chief, while the latter has 
been one of the most eflUcieut members for years. 
Berlin Business Men's Association. 

This association has its existence under author- 

ity of the Secretary of the State of Wisconsin. Fol- 
lowing is a copy of the instrument under which it 
wns organized : 


*' The State of Wisconsin, } 
"Department of State, f 
-'To All to Whom These Presents Shall Come: 

" I, Ernst G. Timme, Secretary of State of the 
State of Wisconsin, do hereby certify that there 
has been this day filed in this department an in- 
strument in writing purporting to be the Articles of 
Association with a view of forming a corporation 
t*) be known as The Berlin Business Men's Associ- 
ation, without capital stock, for the purpose of fos- 
tering and promoting the business interests of the 
City of Berlin, and verified as a true copy by the 
aflfidavit of J. M. Hawley and H. C. Truesdell, who 
appear in said instrument as two of the signers 
of said articles: 

"Therefore the State of Wisconsin does hereby 
grant unto said The Berlin Business Men's Associ- 
ation the powers and privileges conferred by Chap- 
ter 86 of the Revised Statutes of the State of Wis- 
consin, and all acts amendatory thereto, for the 
purposes above stated, and in accordance with their 
said Articles of Association. 

"In witness whereof, I have hereunto 
/ ^~*-*-^ . set my hand and afidxed my oflficiai 
I SEAL, j- seal, at the Capitol, in the City of 

'"^^''^ Madison, the fourth day of June, in 
the year of our Lord, one thousand, eight hundred 
and eighty-eight. Ernst G. Timme, 

Sec'y of State." 

The following extracts from its articles of asso- 
ciation state its object-s and other facts of interest: 

"We, the undersigned, adult residents and citi- 
zens of the County of Green Lake and State of 
Wisconsin, do hereby associate ourselves together 
for the purpose of forming a corporation pursuant 
to Chapter 86 of the Revised Statutes of the State 
of Wisconsin, and acts additional or amendatory 
thereto, for the purpose of taking proper steps, 
and keeping up an organization, to foster and pro- 
mote the business interests of the City of Berlin, 
under articles of Association, as follows, to wit: 

"The name of such cori>oration shall be "The 

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Berlin Business Men's Association," and its lo- 
cation shall lie the City of Berlin, in the County 
of Green Lake, and the State of Wisconsin. 

"Such corporation shall be without capital stock. 

'•The general officers of such a corporation shall 
be a President, a Vice President, a Secretary and 
a Treasurer, and also a board of five directors, 
which officers and directors shall hold their le- 
spectivc offices from their election until the next 
ensuing annual meeting, and until their successors 
are elected and qualiOed. 

All of the said officers shall be elected by a ma- 
jority vote of the members present at any annual 
meeting, or in case of failure to elect at the time 
of annual meeting, then at any regular meeting of 
such asociation thereafter held." 

The original membership of the Association was 
20. The first officci-s were: C. S. Morris, Presi- 
dent; C. A. Peck, Vice President; R. A. Christie, 
Secretary; J. M. Hawley, Treasurer. The list is 
unchanged except b}* the succession of H. G. Tal- 
bot to the Vice Presidency. The original board 
of directors was constituted as fallows: Ardin L. 
Buell, C. G. Starks, W. H. Johnson, George B. 
Sacket, Perry Niskern. The only change has 
been by the succession of C. C. Wellinsgard to the 
place of Mr. Niskern. The following have been 
enrolled as members of the association : 

Ardin L. Buel, J. P. N. Brown, George Boche- 
merehl, T. I. Bassett, C. H. Britton, W. H. Baria. 
tow, William Brown, F. A. Clark, R. A. Christie, 
R. G. Campbell, J. A. Craft, W. W. Collins, E. T. 
Chamberlain, L. E. Davis, A. A. Daniels, E. Kit- 
tredge, L. Eichstaedt, George Fitch, A. Ford,George 
E. Gates, J. M. Hawley, H. B. Hamilton, George 
C. Hicks, J. M. Heaney, J. F. Hitchcock, T. W. 
Hamilton, C. D. Hawley, W. H. Johnson, Mills 
Johnson, D. A. Kennedy, E. J. Longcraft, Henry 
Luther, C. S. Morris, C. A. Mather, A. C. Mertz, 
J. E. Murphy, A. Mansfield, H. H. Oleson, Perry 
Niskern, W. S. Putnam, C. A. Peck, G. S. Phelps, 
Peter Pries, F. T. Rice, A. F. Rate, W. A. Reed, 
H. T. Sacket, F. P. Swetting, Hollis Steadman, C. 
G. Starks, Rodney Sacket, L. C. Smith, Hiram 
^tefidman, J, C. Scbaef^r, H, C, Truwlell, A. L. 

Tucker, J. H. Turner, H. G. Talbott, L. S. Trues- 
dell, F. B. Talcott, W. D. Williams, J. J. Wood, C. 
M. Willis, P. F. Whiting, J. S. Walbridge, F. W. 
Wright, J. E. Williams, George D. Waring, C. C. 
Wellinsgard, M. Warnke, August Leimer. The 
Business Men's Association is a live organization 
and maintains handsomely furnished club rooms, 
to which members resort for relaxation; at their 
weekly business meetings all projects that will 
tend to advance the material interests of the city 
are looked into and acted upon. Strangers are given 
the free use of the rooms at all times. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The following sketch of the history of Metho- 
dism at Berlin from 1850 to 1876, was written by 
Rev. C. R. Pattee, who was pastor at the latter 
date, and is preserved in the records of the church: 

''The history of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in Berlin, Wis., begins with the fall of 1850. At 
that time the place was known as Strong's Landing, 
it being at the head of navigation on the Fox 
River. It consisted then of about twenty houses 
and some shanties, two taverns, two or three small 
stores and a blacksmith shop. The river was 
crossed only in small boats, no bridges having yet 
been built, and as the few inhabitants lived on both 
sides of the river great inconvenience was experi- 
enced and especially on the Sabbath, when religious 
services wore held. 

'* The first pastor was Rev. Mr. Basse nger, who 
preached the first Methodist sermon in September, 
1850. The service was held in a little warehouse 
by the river, near the later site of the woolen fac- 
tory. In connection with that first service the first 
class was formed, consisting of six persons, viz: 
Reuben Thorn plans, his wife and two daughters, 
Mrs. KellogueandMrs. Mary McElroy. During that 
year, Samuel McElroy, Charles Barnes and perhaps 
others were added to the class. Of this first organi- 
zation. Brother and Sister McElroy still remain 
prominent and efficient members of the church in 
Berlin, (October, 1876). To them we are chiefly 
in<iebted for the facts here given. Many are the 
thrilling incidents which they relate and which, if 
space would permit, would furnish a most interest- 
ing history of the conflicts and victories of those 
early times, 

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'^From the time of which we speak Strong's 
Landing became a permanent preaching place on 
Dartford Mission. After occupying the ware- 
house for a time the meetings were moved to the 
second story of another building. These meetings 
are reported to liave been well attended as were 
also the prayer meetings held ever}' week and often 
every night while the pastor remained in the place. 
They are remembered as seasons of much religious 
interest and power. Mr. Bassenger, the pastor, 
lived. in Dartford, nine or ten miles away, in a lit- 
tle slab shanty through every crevice of which the 
wind passed freely. He was a man of backward 
habit, but faithful in his work. He remained but 
one year on the charge, but the work of the Lord 
went on. Thus the church in Berlin was fully 
launched and made ready for its future voyage. 

'* The next pastor was Rev. M. Pearsall for one 
year. Brother Pearsall was a lame man and a wid- 
ower. He is spoken of as a laborious, earnest, per- 
severing man. Under his administration the mis- 
sion got' fairly under way. The place of meeting 
was now in the third story, or attic, of Mr. Alex • 
ander's store, then standing on the corner of what 
are now Huron and Pearl Streets. It was a small, 
dark place and difficult of access, the best that 
could be procured. These were the days which 
tried men's souls, requiring great sacrifices on the 
part of both pastor and people. The support was 
meagre and the privations were many. But during 
this year some very marked advancements were 
made. The first church edifice was built. It was 
small, but sufficient for those times. It is now 
the front twenty-four feet of Mr. A. J. Wood's 
blacksmith-shop. The first Sunday-school was 
also formed this year. It numbered nine scholars 
from two families, viz. : five children of S. M. Mc- 
Elroy, and four of C. Barnes. These Sunda}'- 
school boys helped to shingle the new church, which 
was built in a hurry. Eor several years this build- 
ing was also used during the week for school [)ui- 
poses. It should have been mentioned before, 
that, at its commencement and for four years 
after, this mission was in the Watertown district, 
and the Rev. Mr. Phelps was the presiding elder. 

*' The third pastor was probably Rev. Mr. Brown, 
who remained but one year (1852-53), nothing 

esj)ecially new occurring. He was followed by 
Rev. Mr. Orbison (1853-'54). There is some con- 
fusion at this point, no records having been pre- 
served, and some claiming that one came to the 
charge first and some the other, but sister McElroy , 
relying on her mother's never failing data, viz., the 
birth of one of her children, while Brother Brown 
was a near neighbor, and its baptism by Brother 
Orbison afterward, when the child was over a year 
old, seems to settle this point. At .this time 
(1853-54) the pastors lived in this place, and the 
name was changed from Strong's Landing to Ber- 
lin. About this time, also, Berlin and its sur- 
soundings became a separate charge, and was known 
as Berlin Mission. The fifth pastor was Rev. Mr. 
MofTitt for one year (l854-'55). During this 
year no new facts appear save that sixteen feet was 
added to the church. The sixth pastor was Rev. 
R. S. Hay ward one year (1855-56). At this time 
the name of the district was changed to Beaver 
Dam district, and Rev. J. M. Walker was presiding 
elder. Burton Hayward proved to be a very etfi- 
cient worker in the vineyard of the Lord, and a 
gracious revival of religion followed his labors. 
A large number joined the church on probation, 
a young people's class was formed which, as is fre- 
quently the case with such classes, worked disas- 
trously, and but comparatively few of them became 
permanent members of the church. But during 
this time or the year preceding several families 
moved in from the East, greatly strengthening the 
church. Among these may be mentioned Edwin 
Work, David Sherman, and Mosey Kees and their 
families. The most of these still remain active and 
efficient members of the church in Berlin, holding 
still, as they have for many years, official relations 
as leaders, stewards or trustees, and although old 
age is now upon them, they are among the strong 
pillars in the church. Brother Work, the most 
active and efficient of them all, died in glorious 
triumph a few years since. 

"The seventh pastor was the Rev. L. Salsbury 
for one year, 1856-57. At this time appears the 
first official record, dated Oct. 4, 1856. The record 
stands thus: J. M. Walker, Presiding Elder ;L. Sals- 
bury, Pastor in charge; Edwin Work and C. P. 
Cook, Class-Leaders; Charles Barnes, E. Goodier, 

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C. P. Cook, E. Work, A. S. Thompkins, and R. 
Mollitt, Stewards; A. E. Cornish, local preacher. 
Sisters Goodier, Work and Moffitt appointed a 
committee to act with the preaciier in charge for 
the cause of missions. The records show that for 
that year the Presiding Elder's claims were 145, 
and the pastor's claim, exclusive of house rent and 
traveling expenses, $374, divided as follows: Quar- 
terage, 1224; table expenses, $150, to which were 
added traveling expenses amounting to $23.35, and 
house rent to the sum of $56.87, making a total of 
$499. 22, of which $100 was paid by missionary 
appropriation, and $399.22 was raised and paid by 
the society. During this year the church property 
was mortgaged to clear it from debt. 

**Thc eighth pastor was the Rev. D. Stansberry 
for two years, 1857-59. Brother Stansberry was 
the first who remained in the pastorate for two 
years. At this time Berlin became % station, but 
continued to receive assistance from the missionary 
fund. The Sunday-school was reported as having 
ninety-five names, and the interest increasing. 
During Brother Stansberry 's second year the present 
church building was begun and inclosed. Brother 
R. Moffitt donated ihe timber, Brothers Sherman 
and Starke cut the first tree, and the frame was 
hewn by a picnic party, the sisters taking their 
share by providing the dinner. Great sacrifices 
are said to have been made in the building of this 
sanctuary, and it was a long time before it was 
finished. The ninth pastor was the Rev. J. C. Rob- 
bins, one term of one-half year, in 1859. The time 
of holding conference havinj^: been changed, the 
year was a very short one. Brother Bobbins was 
the first pastor to occupy the new church, but it 
was not finished ; the place where the steeple was to 
be served as an open ventilator to let off the sur- 
plus volume of the preacher's stentorian voice. At 
the beginning of this year Berlin was attached to 
the Fond du Lac district and J. Anderson was the 
Presiding Elder. 

'•The tenth pastor was the Rev. J. T. Woodhead, 
1859-61. During these years the church was plas- 
tered but not finished. Brother Woodhead was a 
hard worker and greatly beloved. He was, and is 
yet, an excellent Sunday-school man, and under his 
ministry that department greatly prospered; at the 

end of this time the charge was placed upon the 
Appleton district, and the Rev. M. Himebaugh 
became the presding Elder. The eleventh pastor 
was the Rev. C. C. Symes, 1861-62. For some 
reason the work does not seem to have advanced 
much during this 3^ear" (It was probably affected 
by the opening of the war of the Rebellion, and the 
distraction of public attention from church matters 

'*The twelfth pastor was the Rev. D. O. Jones one 
year, 1862-63. This seems to have been a, mem- 
orable year in the history of this charge. Brother 
Jones was and is yet a very energetic and laborious 
man. During that year the church was finished 
and dedicated by the late and much lamented Dr. 
T. M. Eddy. At that time the indebtedness was 
supposed to have been provided for, but on account 
of some worthless [>led§^es it proved otherwise. 
During this year, also, the present parsonage was 
begun and far advanced toward completion. A 
debt was left upon it in favor of Brother Jones of 
$330. From this time, also, the charge seems to 
have become self-supporting, no further mission- 
ary appropriations being made for it. At the end 
of this year the Rev. P. S. Bennett became presid- 
ing Elder. The thirteenth pastor (1863-64) was 
the Rev. G. A. England; he served a part of the 
year and then went South in the service of the 
Christian Commission. The year was filled out by 
the Rev. Mr. Morse. During the year the parson- 
age was finished. The fourteenth pastor was the 
Rev. O. J. Cowles, one year (1864-65), then com- 
mencing the ministry and now a leading member 
of the Conference. The fifteenth pastor was the 
Rev. N. J. Applin, two yeai-s — 1865-67. During 
this time a good revival took place and quite a 
large number were added to the church. The six- 
teenth pastor was the Rev. E. S. Grumley, an excel- 
lent man and a good preacher, now superannuated. 
He remained two years — 1867-69. In the year 
last mentioned the Rev. P. B. Pease was made Pre- 
siding Elder of the district. 

*'The seventeenth pastor was the Rev. J. C. Rob- 
bins, for the second tin^e — 1869-70. The eight- 
eenth pastor was the Rev. J. Wiltse (1870-73). 
with the Rev. T. C. Wilson as Presiding Elder tlic 
last year, Brother Wiltge was greatly esteemed bv 

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the people, and the church moved on in the even 
tenor of its way. During this time the church in- 
debtedness had increased to aboul $600. An effort 
was made to pay off the claims, resulting in its re- 
duction to $300. The nineteenth pastor was the 
Rev. N. J. Applin, for the second time, one year — 
1873-74. The twentieth pastor was the present 
incumbent and writer of this record (Rev. C. E. 
Pattee) 1875-76, now closing his second year. 
The first year was marked by a good revival, add- 
ing to the church thirty-one probationers, all but 
two of whom have come into full membership. 
During this year the first Sunday-school Missionary 
Society was organized. The second year union 
meetings were held, adding to the church fifteen 
probationers, the most of whom are now in full 
membership. The entire increase of membership 
for the two years is about thirty-five, counting out 
all deaths and removals. During the second year 
the charge lias been in the Wauimca district, the 
Rev. George Fellows, Presiding Elder. During 
this year an auxiliary of the Women's Foreign 
Missionary Society has been organized and is doing 
well: President, Mrs. H. E. M. Pattee (the pastor's 
wife); Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. C. A. Peck; 
funds raised, $20; also a ladies' Church Aid Society, 
which has done very efficient service in the finances 
of the church. During this year, also, a successful 
effort has been made to clear the church from debt, 
amounting to about $414. The church and societ)' 
are now entirely free from indebtedness for the first 
time since the church and parsonage were built. 
These have been years of arduous, but pleasant, 
labor. The pastor has preached 240 sermons, made 
1.118 visits — 314 to the sick and dying — and held 
120 revival meetings. Thus have been passed two 
of the most interesting and profitable years of our 
ministerial life. May God leave His blessing upon 
this work, Amen." Later Mr. Pattee added this 
entry: "The Conference is now past and we are re. 
moved to another field of labor (Menasha), to 
which we go forth from the associations of the past, 
not knowing what may befall us there, and therefore, 
bid a long and prayerful farewel to the church of 
Ikrlin, the history of which we have thus briefly 
sketched. May the blessing of God ever rest upon 
it, and peace and prosperity attend it," 

The successor of the Rev. Pattee was tlie Rev. 
J. Anderson, who came in 1876, and remained one 
year. He was followed by the Rev. C. W. Brewer, 
who c«me in the fall of 1877, and remained until 
the spring of 1879, when he gave place to the 
Rev. A. E. Yager, who served the church until the 
following fall. At that time the Rev. S. A. Olin 
was appointed. He remained three years. His 
successor, in the fall of 1882, was the Rev. T. H. 
Walker, who was the pastor one year. The Rev. 
W. W. Stevens came in 1883, and remained until 
the fall of 1886, when his successor, the Rev. Web- 
ster Miller, was appointed. Mr. Miller was pastor 
two years, until the appointment, in 1888, of the 
present pastor. Rev. W. D. Cornell. Rev. J. R. 
Creighton became Presiding Elder in 1883. In 
1887, 1888 and part of 1889, the Rev. G. W. Wells, 
of Oshkosh, was presiding Eider, and Berlin was in 
the Oshkosh district. In the summer of 1889 he 
died, and the Rev. C. E. Goldthorpe was made 
Presiding Elder, and still fills the office. During 
the pastorate of Mr. Stevens an addition, compris- 
ing two class rooms, was built to the church, and 
large and convenient sheds were erected. In 1 889 
the old parsonage was sold and another was pur- 
chased at the corner of Wisconsin and Main Streets, 
separated from the church by only a single lot, and 
comprising a convenient two-story house and a 
barn. The cost was $2,500. The present mem- 
bership of the church is 130. Mrs. S. McElroy, 
one of the original organizers of the first class is 
still an active member. The pastorate of the Rev. 
Mr. Cornell, now in its third year, has been peace- 
ful and measurably prosperous. 

It is well known that the Methodist ministers 
lead a life of itineracy, for by a law of their de- 
nomination no minister is allowed to lemain over 
the same charge for more than five years in succes- 
sion. Previous to *88 the time was limited to three 
years. The salaries paid have averaged $900 to 
$1,000, and at present is 11,025, including parson- 
age. This decade shows a gain of 112 new mem- 
bers, a Sunday-school of 125 children, contributions 
to the amount of $575 for missions and other be- 
nevolences, $1,800 for general improvements, in- 
cluding a new carpet, vestry roomg and furnishinjjs. 

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Baptist Church. 

In the winter of 1848-*49 there were in Berlin 
(then called Strongville,) only five Baptists and 
two Congregational ists — H. Bignall and Miss Try- 
phena Bignall, afterwards Mrs. W. D. Strong — and 
they held union prayer meetings weekly at the 
houses of diflferent interested families. In accord- 
ance with a previous notice, the Baptists met March 
18th and organized a church, electing W. D. Strong 
clerk, and adjourned for two weeks. On Sunday, 
April 1, there assembled at the home of N. H. 
Strong thirteen persons who after adopting articles 
of faith entered into a covenant as a church of 
Christ. Of this number Sally Ransom, Nathan 
Strong, Sally Strong and W. D. Strong were resi- 
dents of Strongsville. Rev. William R. Manning, 
who was pastor for the first six months, and Harriet 
A. Manning moved to the place after the organiza- 
tion of the church. The others — William Wal- 
bridge, Lucy Walbridge, Samuel Southard, Ellen 
H. Southard, Thomas McClellan, Mary McClcllan, 
and Susan McLaughlin — were from the surrounding 
country. William Walbridge and Nathan Strong 
were elected deacons. Of the constituent members 
only W. D. Strong is now a resident of Berlin. 
The second covenant meeting was held in the same 
place and Mrs. Lester Rounds, of Eureka, and N. 
H. Strong were received as members. In the fall 
two ministers moved into the settlement and in 
January following united with the church. At no 
time in the early history of this organization was 
there a lack of ministers as two and sometimes 
three were members of the church at the same time. 
One of these. Rev. J. Murphy, immediately became 
pastor for one year at a salary of $200. The other, 
Rev. Mr. House, then assumed charge for the suc- 
cce<ling eight months. The services were held in 
different places, among them in a shanty erected 
for school purposes until it was too small for the 
demands of the congregation, when meetings were 
held in a room over Bartlett's store until, with 
other denominations the Baptists rented the old 
warehouse and met there until late in 1851. Mean- 
time, November 2, 1850, a committee was appointed 
to solicit a site on which to erect a church, but it 
was not until September 6, 1851, that it was de- 
cided to build a meeting-house and a committee of 

three was appointed to draw up a plan for the same. 
A primitive building without a spire was erected 
and was ready for occupancy in two months from 
the time work was begun. The following entry 
was made in the church records : " A portion of the 
members are detained from covenant meeting, at 
the meeting-house to make arrangements for the 
Sabbath.*' This referred to the work of cleaning 
out the new structure, arranging its seats and 
otherwise rendering it fit for use. This building 
since became and is now known as Hamilton Hall. 
Its original cost was 1500. It had a long, wide 
pulpit, and the singers' seat was at the west end. 
Rev. Anthony Case was pastor at a salary of $300 
and a donation, and among the singers, who were 
not dignified by the name of choir, were Robert 
Boyle, Mrs. Cooley, Mrs. Turner, the Buells, Mrs. 
Lefler, and Mrs. Livermore. During the winter of 
1851-'52 there was a successful revival and in April 
the first candidates were received for baptism. 
They were Mary Ann House, E. Blodgett and E. 
Rosenkrantz, and the ordinance was administered 
by Rev. Mr. Case in the Fox River. In August 
following, death removed from the member- 
ship Mrs. Sally Strong, wife of Nathan Strong 
and her son N. H. Strong. In September 
the fii-st session of the Marquette (now Win- 
nebago) Baptist Association was held with this 
church. Rev. Mr. Case resigned at the expira- 
tion of a year. Under his pastorate six were bap- 
tized and twenty received by letter and experience. 
Rev. Mr. House next occupied the pulpit for four 
years as supply. During this period one was bap- 
tize<l and two were admitted by letter and experi- 
ence and two more deacons were chosen. Rev. J. 
T. Westover became a supply for a few months and 
finally accepted a call as a regular pastor, but soon 
afterward decided that duty led him elsewhere and 
the church released him from his obligations. In 
1855 the Association again assembled at this place. 
Rev. J. J. Mclntyre entered upon his labors as 
pastor in May, 1856, and remained two years when 
he resigned to accept the position of teacher in the 
local public school. Rev. Mr. Mclntyre baptized 
twenty and received fifty members by letter and 
experience. Among the accessions were Nancy 
Cooley, Mrs, L. 0. Jones, H. Buell, wife and two 

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daughters. Mrs. Orange Buell, Asa Newell and wife, 
Hannah Peek, Jane Guest and Robert Boyle and 
wife. During this pastorate, in 1856, Asa Newell 
and W. D. Strong were elected deacons and Augus- 
tine C. Buell was employed as sexton. 

In July, 1858, Rev. L. P. Livermore accepted 
the pastorate, and he resigned three and one-half 
years later to become chaplain of the 16th Regi- 
ment Wisconsin Volunteers. During his stay 118 
wereaddedto the membership, fifty eight of them by 
baptism, among them 8. H. Warner and F. B. Peck. 
After the departure of Mr. Livermore the church 
was without a pastor for a few months, but regular 
meetings were held and in April, 1861, Rev. Peter 
Conrad, the pioneer missionary, accepted a call and 
visited the river five times for baptism, adding 
twenty more members by letter and experience. The 
old meeting-house had now grown too small and a 
movement was started to build a new church. The 
old building was sold and for a time the Baptists 
used the Union Church alternately with the Pres- 
byterians, the latter holding services Sunda}' morn- 
ings, the former Sunday afternoons. Later services 
were held in a room over Gordon's store and in 
Metropolitan Hall on the west side, long since de- 
stroyed by fire. In October, 1865, the present 
house of worship was dedicated. Erected during 
the war, when all building materials were high, its 
cost was not far from $7,000. In May, 1864, Rev. 
J). E. Holmes became pastor. He resigned three 
years later, having become principal of the Berlin 
High Schools. During his pastorate there were twen- 
ty-three admissions to the church, t^n by baptism. 
For several months visiting ministers filled the pul- 
pit, till in June, 1867, Rev. J. L. McCloud accepted a 
call and remained one year, during which two were 
baptized and six were received by letter and ex- 
perience. The Association met with this church 
for the third time during this pastorate. In De- 
cember, 1868, Rev. Ira D. Clark began bis pastoral 
services which continued until April, 1870. There 
were ninety- five additions, sixty of them by bap- 
tism. On the 5th of June, 1868, F. B. Peck, Peter 
Van Olinda and J. W. Payne were elected deacons. 
Rev. J. C. Burkholder was pastor two years, baptiz- 
int: five and receiving eleven by letter. The pas- 
b.-.a'.c of Rev. E. H. Page, extending from October, 

1872 to September, 1881, was the longest in the 
history of the church, during which the church 
debt was paid, the vestry built, a new organ pur- 
chased and various improvements made in the 
interior arrangement of the church. The member- 
ship was increased by 125, of whom sixty-seven 
were baptized. Deacons Van Olinda and Peck 
having died, J. H. Thomas was elected deacon. In 
this pastorate the Association met with this church 
for the fourth time. Rev. P. M. McCloud had 
charge of the church from January, 1882, to May, 
1884, and seven members were baptized and three 
added by letter and experience. May 3, 1883, 
Charles W. Pierce, M. E. Osborne and A. E. Dun- 
lap were appointed deacons. Rev. A. C. Watts 
became pastor in May, 1884, and resigned in the 
spring of 1888. During his pastorate he received 
thirty-two members by baptism and twenty-one by 
letter and experience. Rev. R. R, Coon, Jr., the 
present pastor, assumed charge of the church in 
the early autumn of 1888. To that time in the 
history of the church since 1852, 275 had been 
baptized and 310 received into membership by 
letter and experience, making, with the nineteen 
admitted prior to 1852. a total of 604 members. 
Of this number, 218 were given letters of recom- 
mendation or dismissal, 134 had had their names 
erased or been excluded and fifty had died. There 
have been a few accessions in Mr. Coon's pastorate 
and the present membership is about 160. 

The Union Church. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Berlin was 
originally organized as a Congregational Church, 
but became Presbyterian after a little more than a 
year. It was organized at a meeting held June 8, 
1850, by the following named persons, who 
adopted the confession of faith and covenant of 
the Presbyterian Congregational Convention of 
Wisconsin : J. R. DeReimer. Henry Bignall, John 
8. Willis, Harvey Wheeler, Charles Bartlett, Oscar 
F. Willis, Mrs. J. R. DeReimer, Mrs. Sarah Ann 
Richards, Mrs. L. M. Hayden, Mrs. Margaret 
Nay lor, Mrs. Sarah Wickham, Mrs. Sarah Willis. 
Rev. J. B. Preston became stated supply of the 
church in October of the same year, was installed 
pastor April 28, 1853, and the pastoral relation 

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was dissolved in September, 1857. The form of 
government was changed by vote of the church 
from Congregational to Presbyterian, Sept. 17, 
1857, and the following month the church was re- 
ceived under the care of the Fox River Presbytery. 

The first house of worship erected for the church 
was the oft-mentioned ''Sawdust Church" on Pearl 
Street near the northeast corner of Pearl and Huron, 
which was built in 1857. In 1856 the house of 
worship since occupied by the Union Church, on 
the southeast corner of Huron and State Streets, 
was built. It was dedicated Oct. 22, 1857. In 
1868 it was enlarged and thoroughly repaired. At 
this time twenty feet were added to the length of 
the building, the lecture room was opened in the 
basement and the organ was purchased. Twenty 
years later the church was further improved b}' the 
leveling of the gentle eminence on which it stood 
and the deepening of the basement to its present 
proportions, and about the same time a parsonage 
was purchased. At this time (1890) still further 
improvements are nearly completed. 

Rev. William M. Richards became stated supply 
of the Presbyterian Church in May, 1857, and was 
installed pastor in May, 1858. He resigned his 
pastorate in February, 1 863, but on consultation 
with the church he concluded to withdraw his 
resignation. Some misunderstanding and trouble 
continuing in the church, the session invited Rev. 
H. H. Kellogg, district secretary of the Home 
Missionary Committee, to occupy the pulpit, March 
15th. A part of the congregation withdrew to 
Moenish Hall, where services were held and Rev. 
Mr. Richards preached. This withdrawal resulted 
in the organization of the Congregational Church, 
letters being granted to thirty persons whose 
names are mentioned below for that purpose, Jan. 
11, 1864. The Presbyterian church being left 
without a pastor, Rev. B. G. Riley became stated 
supply. He was succeeded in the fall of 1864 by 
Rev. J. W. Stark, who remained stated supply of 
the church until the organization of the Union 
Church, in October, 1866. 

The organization of the Congragational Church 
is thus recorded: A council consisting of Rev. 
Robert Everdell and Lewis Richardson, pastor and 
delegate of the Congregational Church of Wau- 

toma, Rev. William E. Catlin and Eli Hayes, pas- 
tor and delegate of the Congregational Church of 
Dartford, and Rev. William M. Richards, of Ber- 
lin, met in Berlin Jan. 13, 1864. The following 
named persons presented letters of dismission from 
the First Presbyterian Church of Berlin, and re- 
quested to be organized into a Congregational 
Church: Luke Beckwith, M. J. Smith, C. D. Rich- 
ards, 11. J. Rundell, Miss Luzelina White, Mrs. 
Fanny R. Kimball, Mrs. Sophia L. S. Angear, Mrs. 
Tr3'phena Strong, Mrs. Jane Carlton, Mrs. E. S. 
Husted, Charles Bartlett, Mrs. Mallnda Bartlett, 
Carolina A. Bignall, John D. Lewis, Mary B. 
Willis, Mrs. Margaret Lewis, Miss Mary Lewis, 
Miss Libbie M. Lewis, Miss Anna Lewis, Emily 
L. Field, C. B. Wadsworth, Mrs. Jane Evans, Miss 
Jennie Megran, Mrs. Daniel Saflford, Leander Van 
Kirk, Alexander Smith, Mrs. Parmelia E. Smith, 
Miss Letty Megran. These persons, together with 
J. J. M. Angear, who was received by the council 
without a letter, were then organized in the First 
Congregational Church of Berlin. This church con- 
nected itself with the District Convention. Rev. 
William M. Richards preached to the society from 
the time of its withdrawal from the Presbyterian 
Church until the Congregational Church was or- 
ganized. The Rev. James McLean became pastor of 
the church in February, 1865, and remained with it 
until the organization of the Union Church, in 
October, 1866. 

A committee consisting of J. J. Miter, James Mc- 
Lean, James Field, George D. Waring, S. H. Cowles, 
John Ayres, N. Baker, John Wright, John S. Hub- 
bard and Alexander Smith, appointed by a meeting 
of the Presbyterian and Congregational Churches of 
Berlin held at Macnish Hall, on the evening of 
October, 8, 1865, to draw up a plan of union of 
said churches, and submit it for the endorsement of 
the members of the respective churches, reported a 
plan, with articles of agreement, and recommended 
that they be adopted. October 21 following the 
members of the two churches met for worship in 
the Presbyterian Church, and the Rev. J. J. Miter, 
of Beaver Dam, by request of the session, officiated 
as minister. At the close of the morning service 
a notice was given for a meeting of the members 
of the two churches, to be held at the Presbyterian 

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Church on the evening of the 22d, for the purpose 
of forming a new church. At that meeting, Rev. 
J. J. Miter was chosen moderator, and H. Merriam 
secretary. The articles of agreement were read 
and signed by eighty members of the Congrega- 
tional Church, and thirty-five members of tiie 
Presbyterian Church. On motion of G. D. War- 
ing, it was voted to proceed to form the new 
church in accordance with the agreement. A 
committee of four, consisting of G. D. Waring, 
N. Baker, Eli Hayes and John Hibbard, was ap- 
pointed to present articles of faith, which they 
presented and which were adopted. The names of the 
members of the respective churches who united 
with the Union Church were as follows: Congrega- 
tional — John C. Sheldon, Morris Smith, Daniel 
Balsley, Horace Merriam, James Field, Hiram 
Joslyn, Lorinda Smith, Henry J. Cowles, Jane 
Evans, Mary E. Lewis, Mrs. M. Lewis, Charles 
Bartlett, C. B. Wadsworth, John R. Chase, Eliza- 
beth Megran, Irving R. Willis, Typhena Strong, 
Sarah P. Wanier, Mrs. M. M. Cowles, Lewis C. 
Smith, George D. Waring, Luzelina White, Eliza 
Owens, Jennie Biggert, O. F. Sheldon, James Rob- 
ertson, Mary Hunt, Eliza Merriam, Emily S. Field, 
Harriet Joslyn, Mrs. H. D. Miner, Mrs. L. Watson, 
John D. Lewis, Libbic M. Lewis, Katie Lewis, 
Malinda Bartlett, C. D. Richards, John S. Chase, 
L. S. McKittrick, Sarah Macnish, Eunice Strong, 
J. J. Willis, Marise Smith, Mrs. H. Randall, George 
H. Smith, Harriet A. Waring, C. E. Allen, C. A. 
Bignall, Naomi R. Hays, Mrs. Purnelia Smith, 
B. E. Smith, Sophia L. Angear, James Basse tt, Eli 
Hayes, Lucy C. Nichols, Euphame Saflford, J. Cou- 
ncil, Lewis Richardson, C. A. Balsley, M, L. Baker, 
John Austin, P. F. Whiting, Mary E. Beckwith, 
Mrs. L. C. Smith, Mrs. A. Smith, Jane Carlton, 
M. B. Bassett, John H. Nichols, Mary Hitchcock, 
Mrs. L. Preble, Caroline C. Richardson, Nettie 
Orton, Mary A. Baker, Margaret Christie, Addie 
Cowan, Luke Beckwith. Presbyterian — Martha A. 
Wright, Mrs. E. Gillis, Mrs. E. Dorman, Mrs. John 
Wright, John S. Hibbard, Mrs. Alice Hanson, Mrs. 
John S. Hibbard, Mrs. Thomas Hanson, John 
Ayers, Mrs. George Roberts, Mary McKinney, 
Siir.ih A. Parmelee, Abigail L. Vedder, Elizabeth 
I) Mison, J. A. Forbes, Eliza Wtitraan, Lois Ives, 

Ellen Evans, Mrs. John Ayers, Mrs. E. Wheeler, 
Mrs. D. W. Carhart, Lizzie A. Dorman, John 
Wright, E. A. Preston, N. Baker, Nellie C. Preston, 
Thomas McKinney, A. L. Parmelee, Eliza E. 
Vedder, Daniel Forbes, Jane M. Merriam, Phebe 
Parmelee, Lavinia C. Ives. 

The Union Church belongs to the progressive 
wing of the Evangelical Church of America, and 
includes in its numbers members of any orthodox 
denomination, and though nominally a Congrega- 
tional Church and connected with the Winnebago 
Convention of Congregational Churches, it is even 
broader in its sympathies than when nominally in- 
cluding the Presbyterian and Congregational 
Churches alone. The following is a list of the 
successive pastors: Rev. Norman McLeod, until 
November, 1867; Rev. S. C. Easton, until No- 
vember, 1869; Rev. N. T. Blakcslee, until March, 
1871 ; Rev. G. L. Spinning, until September, 1873; 
Rev. T. J. Valentine, until November, 1874; Rev. 
R. M. Webster, until November, 1884; Rev. James 
A. Chamberlin, until February, 1889; and Rev. 
A. B. Penniman, who still remains. The relations 
between Mr. Penniman and the church are of the 
most cordial character, an<] the society has passed 
a vote to install him at such time as the pastor and 
council may agree. The membership of the church 
is about 135. The Sunday-school includes about 
150, with an average attendance of 120. A choir 
of forty was organized in November, 1889, and is 
under the direction of William Barrett Millard, of 
Ripon. A Young People's Society of Christian 
Endeavor was organized during the past year. The 
benevolences of the church have always been lib- 
eral, and its influence has been great and far-reach- 
ing. During ten years about seventy-nine new 
members have been admitted, nearly $1,200 been 
contributed for missions and other benevolences, a 
$1,500 parsonage has been purchased, and im- 
provements made upon the church to the amount 
of $2,000, including the enlargement of the base- 
ment, stained-glass windows, papering, painting, 

A plan is being talked of whereby indebtedness 
on the parsonage will be liquidated. Last year the 
sum of $1,000 was bequeathed by one of the mem- 
bers. The home expenses are met, and an average 

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of $1,000 ft year has been paid for salaries. The 
membership and Sunday-school are working in 
harmony to sustain the best interests of the church. 

Trinity Parish Episcopal Church. 

Trinity Parish, Berlin, was organized January 7, 
1855. The comer stone of the church was laid on 
the 12th of January, 1870, by the Rt. Rev. W. E. 
Armitage, assissted by the Revs. Lorenson of Wau- 
paca, Averill of Ripon and Thorpe of Waupun 
and the then Rector, Rev. W. E. Wright. The 
church was duly consecrated by Bishop Armitage, 
Januaiy 11, 1871. Of the clergy, there were pres- 
ent the Rev. Dr. Burr of Milwaukee, preacher of 
the sermon. Rev. William Dafter, B. D., Dean of 
the Fond du Lac convocation, reader of the act of 
consecration ; Rev. Averill of Ripon, Rev. Thorpe 
of Waupun, Rev. Bartlett of Marquette, Rev. Steele 
of Green Bay and Rev. W. E. Wright, the Rector, 
who read the request to consecrate. The total cost 
of the building was about $3,600. In the spring 
of 1881 the church was thoroughly repaired. It 
was ceiled overhead with wood, the chancel was 
calsomined, the nave was washed with alabastine, 
the seats were remodeled and the furnaces were re- 
arranged. The aggregate cost of these reimirs was 
$400, part of wliich was raised by subscription, 
. though it was mostly contributed by the Ladies' 
Society of the parish. The successive rectors and 
missionaries of the parish have been as follows : 
Rev. P. B. Morrison, from organization to April 
20, 1856; Rev. J. P. T. Ingraham; Rev. G. W. 
Talford, who began his labors April 25, 1859; Rev. 
Green, who closed his labors May 1, 1861 ; Rev. 
F. Durlin, from Ripon; Rev. W. Hickox, February, 
1866, to February 7, 1868 ; Rev. W. E. Wright, 
Easter, 1869, to the 18th Sunday after Trinity, 
1872 ; Rev. Joseph DeForest, June 17, 1877, to 
October, 1878 ; Rev. James H. Smith, January 9, 
1879, to June 11, 1879 ; Rev. Charles F. Susan, 
July 18, 1880, to July 15, 1883. 

Catholicism in Beriin. 

Long before the city of Berlin came into exis- 
tence a Catholic missionary had preached to the 
various Indian tribes that inhabited this portion 
of Wisconsin. He was no other than the God- 
fearing Marquette, the explorer and pioneer 

preacher of the Fox River Valley. Whatever the 
impression the doctrine he preached had upon the 
the tribes, it is certain it remained for the white 
man who came later to practically implant Chris- 

In the early days of Berlin the Catholics as well 
as other denominations contributed much to raise 
to prominence the community with which they had 
identified themselves. Their spiritual wants were 
attended to by missionaries from afar. Those were 
days that tried the reality of men's faith. We of the 
nineteenth century can scarcely form an adequate 
idea of the trials and difficulties that beset our fore 
fathers who have transmitted to us not only our 
religion in its pristine purity, but also a city and 
country the very soul of prosperity and progress. 
They had none of the modern inventions that have 
cheapened labor and enriched capital, and their 
mode of travel was more on foot than by wagon. 
But severe as was the life of these early pioneers, 
secluded as they were from more advanced cities, 
their spiritual wants were not neglected. The mis- 
sionary accommodated himself to the circumstances 
of his flock. He knew from experience what it 
was to walk from Oshkosh to Berlin with his vest- 
ments knapsack-like on his back and glad was he 
of the opportunity to rest his weary limbs in a 
wagon drawn by oxen. 

The first of the early missionaries who officiated 
in the city was Rev. Father Colten. Men who re- 
member his journey from Oshkosh tell us that he 
held divine service in 1851 in a place called Badg- 
er Hall. The following year the same missionary 
built a church on the southeast corner of Noise 
Street. The little mission of about twenty families 
was next attended from St. Marie, near Princeton, 
by Rev. Father Godfrey. The little church thus 
laboriously planted by Father Colten increased 
rapidly, so that in 1857 Berlin was able to sus- 
tain in peace and comfort a resident pastor. He 
was Rev. Father Grey, an Irish-American priest. 
During his long sojourn among his countrymen he 
endeared himself to them and made many improve- 
ments. He bought church property on Main Street, 
moved the little chapel erected by Father Colten, 
made a sacristy of it and built the present brick 
church dedicated to St. Joseph. 

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Rev. Father Grey's life was not an idle one. In 
those (lays his mission was a little bishoprick. It 
included from Ripon to Steven's Point, covcunng 
Marquette, Green Lake and Waushara Counties, 
and Kingston, Montello, Neshkoro,Wautoma, Mer- 
ril and other points were all under his pastoral 
Jurisdiction. To-day there are about eleven priests 
located in missions once attended by Rev. Father 
Grey. After twelve years he resigned his pastor- 
ate and departed, leaving happy memories to his 
flock and his many friends among the Berlinite 
citizens. To this day his old friends aflPectionately 
inquire for him. 

The next pastor was Rev. Father Dall, a Bel- 
gian. He was pastor three years, during which 
time he completed the interior of the church. He 
was succeeded by Rev. Father Radamacher, during 
whose administration the Polish element separated 
from the Irish and built a church for themselves. 
Rev. Father DePreter came next and remained but 
six months. He was succeeded by Rev. Father 
Scott, an Irish-American, who remained about four 
years and was followed by Rev. Father Mayan d, 
whose pastorate extended over a like period. Dur- 
ing these two pastorates not much advancement 
was made in church interest and membership. 
After this a young Irish priest. Rev. Thomas Ber- 
gen, with a brilliant future before him had he lived, 
and remarkable not only for his priestly character 
but for ills great intellect, rendered an account to 
his God after the short space of six months' resi- 
dence in Berlin. Rev. F*athei*s Allen and Graves 
followed, the one after the other. Both of them 
wer« converts to the Catholic Church. They were 
succeeded by Rev. Joseph Smith, a young Irish 
priest whose future is cloudless. His departure 
after six months was a source of sorrow to the con- 
gregation, for he was greatly beloved. 

After the Archbishop of Milwaukee gave the 
city of Berlin to the Green Bay diocese, the Right 
Reverend Bishop Katzer, appointing a pastor, se- 
lected Rev. T. J. Ryan, whose name proclaims his 
genealogy and a biographical sketch of whom ap- 
pears on another page. During its previous his- 
tory, the church had had no parochial residence. 
No sooner did Father Ryan take charge than he 
prepared to build one. He also introduced and 

carried forward numerous other extensive improve- 
ments. His pastorate for more than four years has 
been exceedingly pleasing both to him and his flock. 

It is to this Berlin has come after about thirty- 
eight years' missionary labor. At the outset there 
were only about eighty Catholics. Now there are 
about 450 Irish Catholics and it is a small estimate 
to say there are three times as many Polish Catho- 
lics. There was then but one church and one pas- 
tor ; now there are three Catholic Churches and 
two resident priests. 

St. Stanislaus' Church (Polish Catholic) ha<l its 
origin in the work of Rev. Father Benaventura 
Buezynoski, a missionary who preached at Berlin 
as early as 1 87 1 and gathered a congregation of some 
twenty -eight families. He was followed by Father 
Dominique Meyer in 1873. The church became 
fully organized and Rev. Father H. Gueski became 
its pastor in 1875. He was followed in 1877 by 
Rev. Father Simon Wieczork and the latter in 1886 
by Rev. Father January Czarnowski, the present 
pastor. Of the former pastors, Father Gueski is 
now in Milwaukee and Father Wieczork in Toledo, 
Ohio. The flrst house of worship was built in 1873 
at an expense of $1,600. It was rebuilt, after the 
coming of Father Czarnowski, in 1886, at an out- 
lay of 19,000. For some time previous to 1886, 
when all of Green Lake County was included in 
the Green Bay Diocese, that portion of Berlin east 
of the river was included in the Milwaukee Diocese 
and that |X)rtion west of the river in the Green 
Bay Diocese. In 1884 there was a division in the 
Polish Catholic Church at this place and one fac- 
tion built a new church west of the river. The 
new congregation did not flourish and since 1886, 
when the diocesan boundary line was changed the 
two factions were re-united. Services are held in 
both houses of worship by Father Czarnowski, who 
has done more than any other priest to build up 
the spiritual and temporal interests of his church 
here and who, with other improvements, has in 
prospect a school in which the youth of his flock 
may have afforded them opportunities for a thor- 
ough practical education. The parsonage was built 
(luring the pastorate of Rev. Father Wieczork. 
Rev. Father Rhodemacher was an earlj' and influ- 
ential Polish Catholic priest here. 

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The Evangelical €hurch 

Of Berlin, under Rev. A. H. Finger, has a mem- 
bership of forty-seven, and a Sunday school of 
sixty-four children and teachers. The sum of tl 78 
has been given for missions, benevolences and sal- 
ary during the past year. The society owns a church 
valued at $2,400 and a parsonage at $800, both free 
from debt. 

The statistics are incomplete because the charchcs 
of Koro, Willow Creek and Bloomfield, which are 
connected with Berlin as a circuit, are not given 
here. They also pay well for missions and minis- 
ter's salary, and these charges together with the 
Berlin charge are in a thriving spiritual condition. 


The firgt district school in this vicinity was 
opened in the spring of 1849, by Miss Tryphena 
Bignall, in a log shanty erected by Nathan Strong, 
on the southwest corner of what is now the city 
park, opposite the Union Church. The school 
broke up in June on account of the marriage of the 
teacher to William Strong. Later in the same 
year, Allen M. Merriraan taught the district school 
in the Seeley building, and in the fall, when the 
Baptist Cliurch was organized in what is now 
known as Hamilton Hall, the school was removed 
there where it remained until a district school 
house was built. 

On the West side, Mrs. William Strong taught 
another district school in her house in the winter 
of 1849-50, and was succeeded by Volney Conk- 
ling, who taught in the fall of 1850, on the corner 
lately marked by the residence of Henry Buck. 
He also taught for a time in a small building on 
the east b:»nk of the river, just north of the site of 
Sted man's warehouse. The next school on the 
west side was taught by G. B. Cooley, in S. McEl- 
roy's blacksmith shop, on the sand hill, until about 
1854, when a district school house was built west 
of William Strong's present residence, in which 
different teachers "wielded the birch" until 186G, 
when the West side Grammar School building was 

In 1852, a new school building was erected on 
Church street, in the same block with Union 
Church, and a portion of the building is now 

known as the "Poorhouse." To this building a 
wing was added about 1855, making three school 
rooms, and here Mr. Merriman was principal for 
some time, and after him Dr. Angear and Rev. J. 
Mclntyre. In 1856, what was known as the Craig 
School house, on Moore street, afterwards converted 
by Charles Bartlett into a dwelling, was built and 
occupied by two teachers until the erection of the 
High School building. 

After the adoption of the first city charter, in 
1857, the city was divided into four wards, two on 
the east and two on the west side of the river. 
Three School Commissioners represented each ward 
The first Superintendent was Horace Merriam. In 
1860, the west side of the town was separated from 
the City of Berlin, by an act of Legislature, and 
made into the town of Forsyth, having separate 
school privileges; but in 1861, it was again amended 
to the city, and the whole municipality was divided 
into three wanls with representation as at present. 
In April, 1861, the first election for Superintend- 
ent of schools was held under the amended char- 
ter, and E. M. Wadsworth was elected. The follow- 
ing composed the board; Harry Hamilton, J. G. H. 
Griffiths, John Megran, M. A. Mosher, A. Ship- 
man and John Saxton; Mr. Megran was made Sec- 

May 2, 1861, Mansfield Hall was rented for ad- 
ditional school room. In 1863, the Southard lot 
a portion of the present West side school grounds, 
was purchased for $250, with a view to erecting a 
permanent school building. In the fall of this 
year the question of buying land and erecting a 
good school building on the East side was proposed 
and the pieces of land were considered for the site. 
Nothing definite, however, was done in the mat- 
ter at this time. The report of the firat school cen- 
sus appears in this year, showing the number of 
scholars between four years and twenty to have 
been 772. In May, 1865, two lots adjoining the 
school property on the west side were purchased 
for $275, and the grounds where the High School is 
located were purchased for $1,205. In August, 
the contract for building the West side school 
house was let at $5,800. More school room being 
needed, the house of Owen Hughes, which was 
where the Polish priest's residence now is, but was 

Digitized by 




afterward removed to the rear of that lot and used 
as a Polish school, was rented for school purposes. 
In November 1866 the West side school house was 
completed, but it was not occupied until ihe begin- 
ing of the next term. The total cost, including 
outbuildings and furniture, was nearly $12,000. 
The history of the erection of the High School 
building, on the East side, is a somewhat stormy 
one, the details of which could hardly be recounted 
satisfactorily, to the whole mass of the people. 
The contract was let in July, 1867. It was ded- 
icated, with appropriate services, Sept. 9, 1868, 
Hon. Matt. Carpenter delivering a well remembered 
address. The total cost of the building, outhouses, 
furniture, etc., was $23,538. The building is a 
fine three-story structure of a pleasing style of 
architecture, beautifully located on an eminence 
overlooking the country around Berlin for miles 
in all directions. The grounds embrace quite a 
large area, handsomek laid out with walks and 
lawns, and ornamented with shade trees. In the 
same enclosure is situated a large and convenient 
Primary building, which accommodates the Pre- 
paratory and First Primary grades. The West 
Side Grammar School building is good-sized, con- 
venient and well built two- story frame edifice, 
with six large and pleasant rooms. 

Col. W. A. Bugh succeeded Mr. Wadsworth as 
Superintendent in the spring of 1867. In Septem- 
ber, the board appointed the Superintendent and 
Messra. N. M. Dodson, Ezra Wheeler, and W. P. 
Jordan to prepare a grade for the city schools, 
which was reported and adopted October 30, and 
which has undergone subsequent modifications. 
At this time the full course of instruction extends 
through a period of fourteen years, each year con- 
stituting one grade. An extra preparatory term is 
included for pupils promoted to the High School 
Department at the end of the winter term. 

The year is called a preparatory course, and is 
devoted to Kindergarten and preliminary work to 
prepare for the first primary grade of the regular 
course. The first three years of this course consti- 
tute the First, Second and Third Primary grades; 
the second three constitute the First, Second and 
Third Intermediate grades. The Seventh, Eighth 
and Ninth constitute the First, Second and Third 

Grammar grades. An extra term is designated 
as the Preparatory course, while the last four 
years constitute the First, Second, Third and 
Fourth High School grades. 

The regular course of study is designed to meet 
the wants of the pupils in the natural order of de- 
velopment. The pupils are classed according to 
their advancement, and are promoted whenever 
they show, by their daily work and by examination, 
that they are prepared for higher grades. 

The Public Schools of Berlin are furnished with 
two school libraries that are of great service to the 
students. The Text Book Library contains all the 
text books that are used in the various grades of 
instruction, and also many well selected reference 
books, including the latest encyclopsedies, diction- 
aries and gazetteers. The reference books are 
open to the free use of students, during the regular 
daily sessions. The text books are furnished to 
the students at a small rental fee. by the term or 
year. The Circulating Library contains 800 vol- 
umes of standard works on literature, science, bi- 
ography and history, and is open to both students 
and citizens of Berlin. An annual addition of the 
most valuable works appearing from time to time 
is made, by a special appropriation from the school 

The High School room is furnished with a read- 
ing table, upon which are to be found, for the 
daily perusal of the students, a number of the best 
daily and weekly newspapers, and some of the 
standard literary and scientific periodicals. 

A liberal supply of apparatus for the illustration 
of natural science has been provided for the High 
School and is freely employed by the students in 
class work. The cabinet of Mineralogy, Geology, 
Botany and Zoology embraces a large number of 
specimens, and illustrates quite fully the principles 
of these sciences. The chemical laboratory occu- 
pies a large room and is abundantly supplied with 
apparatus and chemicals, so that each student may 
perform all the experiments necessary to as thor- 
ough and practical a knowledge of this branch as 
can be obtained in the time devoted to it. 

The Board of Education is constituted as follows: 
N. M. Dodson, Superintendent; James Croft, Presi- 
dent; R. A. Christie, Clerk. 

Digitized by 




Commissioners: Wm. Stewart, C. A. Peck, First 
Ward; C. H. Wright, Mahloii Safford, Second 
Ward; James Croft, J. S. Mowe, Third Ward; H. 
G. Talbot, H. Buck, Fourth Ward; H. Luther, R. 
A. Christie, Fifth Ward. 

The teachers for 1889-90 are here named: 

High School: — A. F. Rote, Principal; Miss Nettie 
Jones, Miss Margaret T. Algoe, Assistants. 

Grammar Schools: — T. 0*Neal, Miss Jennie 
Christie, West vSide; Miss Helen D. Wlieeler, Miss 
Carrie B. Barr, East Side. 

Intermediate. — Miss Hattie Richardson, Miss 
Ellen Dohert}', East Side; Mr. Elbridge Buck, 
Miss Mary Nelson, West Side. 

Primary. — Miss Mary K. Pierce, Miss May Clark, 
Miss Daisy Bassett, Miss Belle Parsons, Miss Flor- 
ence Crego, Miss Ida Judd, East Side; Mrs. Emma 
Ellis, Mrs. Litta Matson. Miss Etta Michaels, West 

Mr. Bugh, in 1871, was succeeded by W. G. M. 
.Stone as Superintendent. Dr. N. M. Dodson be- 
came Superintendent in the Spring of 1882; D. P. 
Blackstone in the Spring of 1877; and Dr. N. M. 
Dodson again in the Spring of 1883, and has served 
continuously since. 

The Berlin Alumni consists of all the graduates 
of tiie Berlin High School, and has a membership 
of 203. Within the last four years the association 
has been placed on a firm footing. They have a 
banquet once a year with business meetings during 
the year. The association will receive nineteen 
new members next June. The banquet last year at 
the Wood worth was a very pleasant and successful 
aflfair and the following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year: Fred Peck, president; Fred Engel- 
bracht, vice-president; Walter Williams, treasurer; 
Eunice Strong, secretary. 


The first newspaper venture in Marquette 
County, then including Waushara and Green Lake 
Counties, was the Marquette Mercury^ established 
about 1850 by James H. Wells and George P. Gif- 
ford. It was Democratic in politics. Mr. Giflford 
was connected with the Merpury but a short time. 
Mr. Wells published the paper until the summer of 
1854, when it was discontinued. A copy of the 

Marquette Mercury is in the possession of Mr. L. S. 
Truesdell of Berlin. It bears date March 20, 1854. 
The title is in the good old Roman black-faced 
letter, and the columns run upon both sides of the 
title, penning it up, as it were, in a parallelogram 
bounded by heavy black rules. Below the lower 
rules, under the title is the editor's name, J. H. 
Wells, who tells us in the same line that the journal 
is devoted to politics, agriculture, literature, temper- 
ance and the mechanical arts, all for only $1.50 per 
annum, "invariably in advance." This particular 
copy of the Mercury is number 36 of the third 
volume, from which it is evident that Mr. Wells 
had at that time nearly completed the fourth year 
of his journalistic career in Berlin. The Mercury 
was a goodly sized four-page paper and an adver- 
tising cut shows it to have been printed on an old 
style Washington hand press. The work was well 
done, from which it is evident that Mr. Wells was a 
practical printer of experience. The paper used 
was of good quality, and its wear and tear for 
thirty -six years has made in it only a few open 
rents at the folds. The first, second and third pages 
are devoted to general news, local notices, editorial 
comments and advertisments. The fourth page is 
given up to tax sales and chancery notices. That 
advertising had not at that time reached any- 
thing like its present developement is manifested 
from a glance at these columns. It was evidentlj' 
far beyond the enterprise of the advertiser of that 
day to make his ad vertisment attractive or interest- 
ing by frequent change. Nov. 1, 1851, Doctors S. 
M. Mix and N. M. Dodson formed a partnership, 
and put a notice in the paper to that effect, politelj'^ 
notifying their friends of their business union, and 
soliciting a fair share of the public favor. Nearly 
three years later the same announcement was stand- 
ing that "on this day," etc., without the alteration 
of word, letter or date. Perhaps the good doctors 
were too busy to bother with such things. 

The next candidate for public favor in this line 
was tiie Berlin Messen^r^ by the late Colonel W. A. 
Bu^h, who, it is thought, had a partner, and started 
in 1852 or thereabouts. It was Whig in politics, 
and had a brief but brilliant career, expiring be- 
fore the Mercury, 

Next in chronological order comes the Berlin 

Digitized by 




Courant, which was established as a democratic 
paper in June, 1854, by James G.Tracy and James 
V. Fitch. After a few weeivs, Fitch retired. Tracy 
ran the paper alone until about Oct. 1, 1854, when 
he sold a half interest to T. L. Terry, who assumed 
editorial charge and at once hauled down the 
Democratic banner and hoisted the Reform, later 
known as the Republican flag, and a Republican 
paper the Courant has ever since been. Early in 
the following year, Tracy retired from the paper, 
and it was published by Terry alone for several 
years, except for a few months when J. G. Hunter 
was associated with Mr. Terry. Mr. S. Richards 
was connected with the paper as publisher for a 
time, the arrangement leading to a partnership 
which included W. B. Arnold as a member, under 
the name of T. L. Terry <fe Co. Mr. Richards' 
health failing, he retired Oct. 1, 1859, Terry <k 
Arnold succeeding to the assets and liabilities. 
The Green Lake Spectator was consolidated with 
the Courani Sept. 20, 1864. Terry <fe An'nold con- 
ducted the paper till the spring of 1872, when 
Terry sold his interest to D. P. Blackstone. The 
partnership of Blackstone <fe Arnold continued until 
Sept. 1, 1872, at which date David Junor became 
sole proprietor. From 1875 to 1879, Mr. Junor re- 
signed the editorial chair to teach school in Berlin, 
and later in Saginaw, Mich., Griff J. Thomas and 

F. F. Livermore editing it successively during this 
period under his proprietorship. The Saturday 
(7oi<ra/i< was first Issued Jan. 1, 1886. Mr. L. ¥j, 
Davis, the present proprietor, has had the paper in 
charge since Jan. 1, 1888, when he succeeded Mr. 
Junor as editor and manager, buying the oflSce soon 
after\?i'ftrd. 1 he Courani is a newsy, sparkling local 
paper, well printed and edited, and with a large 
and increasing circulation. Its printing depart- 
ment is one of the best in this part of the State. 

The Berlin Journal (weekly) was founded Au- 
gust 30, 1870, by Everdell & Williams. It failed 
in two months and was then bought by Charles 

G. Starks, who still runs it. As a weekly it made 
a fair success, job printing being a portion of the 
business, till 1883, when that department was sold 
to George C. Hicks. The Evening Journal was 
established January 1, 1881, and was a paying ven- 
ture from the start. This paper is ably managed in 

all its departments, and has come to be recognized 
as one of the institutions of Berlin. Mr. Sta'*ks 
seems to possess the sort of perseverance requisite 
for a good newspaper man. 

The Paring Cutters Union is the organ of the 
paving and stone cutters of the country. It is 
edited by Rev. W. D. Cornell, Secretary of the 
National Paving Cutters' Union. 

The Methodist Home Journul, recently removed 
to Berlin from Fond du Lac, is published by the 
Journal Publishing Company, and is under the 
able editorial charge of Rev. W. D. Cornell, who 
has changed its form and improved it in every way. 
It is fast becoming popular and gaining a large 
subscription list throughout this and neighboring 

In September, U' 89, Bert Williams issued the 
first number of the School Bulletin, devoted to the 
interests of the schools of Green Lake and Wau- 
shara Counties. 

Among papers of the past — papers ''dead and 
gone*' — may be mentioned the Green Lake Spec- 
tator, by Corruth <fe Williams; the Berlin News, by 
Frank Hyde, and the Berlin Independent, by Stan- 
ley Jewell. The first, established about thirty-five 
3ears ngo, was consolidated with the Courant in 
1864, and its material was removed to Dartford; 
the second was published a few weeks in 1861 ; the 
third entered upon a comparatively brief career in 
July, 1882. 

Berlin Lodge, No. 38, A. F. and A. M. 

This Lodge was constituted by dispensation Nov. 
18, 1851, and chartered June 11, 1852. Its char- 
ter members and oflScers were: John S. Willis, W. 
M.; Charles Bartlett, S. W.; Joel Newell, J. W.; 
Ithream Abbott, Treas.; John Megran, Sec. ; Mich- 
ael Myers, S. D. ; Moses North rup, J. D. Kach of 
the following named members has served one or 
more terms as Worshipful Master: JoLn S. Willis, 
James Ridpath, Carlo R. Taylor, Thomas J. War- 
ner, George D. Waring, Salmon Bridgman, George 
H. Stansbury, John W. WoorfhuU, Edward Bsssctt, 
Homer C. Snow, Alonzo G. Blackman, Hiram Sted- 
man, Seth C. Bassett, Ardin L. Buell, Thomas Mc- 
Kinney. The ofl^icers serving in 1879 were the fol- 
lowing : Thomas McKinney, W. M. ; John J. Wood, 

Digitized by 




Jr., S. W.; Charles H. Chatfield, J. W.; Covell A. 
Peck, Treas^j John Megran, Sec; Anlin L. Buell, 
S. D.; George BL Gates, J. D.; Davenport W. 
Thomas, Steward; AUeu Cooper, Steward ; Albert 
C. Mertz, Tyler; John J. Wood, Jr., Christopher 
C. Jenkins and Hit am Stedmaii^ Trustees. 

Berlin Chapter, No. 18, R. A. M. 

Berlin Chapter was instituted as Green Lake 
Chapter, No. 18, Jan. 6, 1859, and took its pres- 
ent name Feb. 1, 1870. The first officers elected 
and appointed were as follows: Thomas J. Warner, 
H. P.; Joseph Yates, K.; John W. Carhart, Scribe; 
Almon Bridgman, C. M.; Salmon Bridgman, P. S.; 
Charles H.Dunham, R. A. C; Joel Newell, M. 
of third Veil; Julius W. Clark, M. of second Veil; 
Charles M. Kimball, M. of first Veil; Charles Bart- 
lett, Treas.; John Megran, Sec; Jlenry Gams, 
Guard. The following have been elevated to the 
chair of High Priest: Thomas W. Warner, Joseph 
Yates, Salmon Bridgman. John W. Woodhull, John 
O. Baxter, George W. Graves, Hiram Stedman, 
Seth C. Bassett, James Macnish, Covell A. Peck, 
Piatt B. Wight man, Daniel L. Dewey, Sr., Thomas 
McKinney. The officers serving at date of com- 
pilation are as follows: Thomas McKinney, H. P.; 
Charles L. Kees, K.; Charles C. Ranous, S.; Hiram 
Stedman, Treas.; Josiah M. Root, Sec; Ardin L. 
Buell, C. H.; Seth C. Bassett, P. S. ; Eugene D. 
Kittredge, R. A.C.; Covell A. Peck, M.third Veil; 
Pliny F. Whiting, M. second Veil; Lucius H. Cur- 
tis, M. first Veil; Manson R. Campbell, Guard. 

Berlin Council, No. 7, R. A. §• Masters. 

This Council was organized in 1880, and char- 
tered Feb. 24, 1881, and is connected with Berlin 
Chapter, No. 18, R. A. M. 

Berlin Cominandery, No. 10, K. T. 

Berlin Commandery, No. 10, K. T. was organ- 
ized Nov. 15, 1870, with the following first ofl3- 
cers: Joseph Yates, E. C. ; Salmon Bridgman, 
Gen.; John W. Woodhull, C. G.; Edward Barrett, 
Prel.; George W. Graves, S. W.; John O. Baxter, 
J. W.; Almon Bridgman, Treas.; William Work- 
man, Rec. ; Cyrus F. Dodge, Std. B. ; Horatio E. 
Stebbins, Sd. B. ; James L. Bridge, Warder; A. C. 

Nye, Jason Hitchcock, H. P. Bateman, Guards; A. 
W. Pettibone, Sent. Joseph Yates, John W. Wood- 
hull, James L. Bridge, Piatt B. Wightman, George 
W. Graves, Hiram Stedman, and Seth C. Bassett 
ha^e served as Eminent Commanders. The oflfi- 
cers for 1889 were as follows: Seth C. Bassett, E. 
C. ; JohuS. Walbridge, Gen.; George W. Graves, 

C. G.; Covell A. Peek, Prel.; Hiram Stedman, S. 
W.; Ardin L. Buell, J. W.; Pliny F. Whiting, 
Treas.; Eugene D. Kittredge, Rec; Josiah M. Root, 
Std. B.; Alanson Wood, Sd. B.; Charles L. Kees, 

G. A. R. Post and Auxiliaries. 

John H. Williams Post, No. 4, G. A. R., was 
organized Sept 8, 1866, and is the oldest existing 
post in the United States with an unbroken record. 
The charter members were William A. Bugh, D. 

D. La Bar, O. F. Silver, William Kees, E G. War- 
ing, Thomas J. Davis, James A. Biggert, George 
W. Graves, Thomag C. Ryan, Chauncey Vedder. 
and Wiley B. Arnold. William A. Bugh was 
the first Post Commander. The present offi- 
cers are James A. Biggert, P. C. ; J. C. Wation, J. 
V. (\; A. Daniels, Chaplain. 

William A. Bugh Camp, No. 49, Sons of Vete- 
rans, was organized May 24, 1889, with the follow- 
ing charter members: Fred W. Briggs, William 
Russell, Cassius F. Biggert, Fred Engelbracht, Jr., 
William Jones, C. Engelbraciit, Lewis Roberts, F. 
McCormick, Elmer Wightman, Frank L. Carter, 
M. Whitman, John C. Evans, Frank Jones, William 
Freeland and Grant Thomas. 

Women's Relief Corps of John H.Williams Post, 
No. 4, G. A. R., was organized Dec. 7, 1888. Mc3- 
dames Lucy Morris, Florence Watson, Mary F^ord, 
Ida Croft, Lettie Watson, Emma Ellis, Nellie Rus- 
sell, J. C. Talbot, and Nettie Hamilton, and Misses 
Etta Nichols and Ida Ford were the charter mem- 

Berlin Lodge No., 7 K. of P. 

Berlin Lodge, No. 7, Knights of Pythias was 
instituted by the Grand Lodge, Nov. 3, 1871. The 
charier members were John W. Woodhull, G. W. 
Graves, William Kees, E. Hathaway, H. C. Snow 
and J. D. Turner. The Endowment Rank was 
added May 26, 1880. The lodge is strong and 

Digitized by 




growing rapidly. Tliere are now sixty members 
in good standing. The Cliancellor Commander is 
Hermann Timme. Tlie Kniglits of Pythias' hall 
is over the Reese store, and the lodge room is 
nicely furnished and fitted up. 

BerUn Lodge, No. 56, I. O. O. F. 

Berlin Lodge, No. 56, Indei>endent Order of 
Odd-Fellows was instituted Jan. 1,1870, with Dr. 
N. M. Dodson as Noble Grand. Other prominent 
charter member and officers were E. Fields, M. L. 
Kimball, William A. Bugh and J. Leach, The 
following officers were lately installed: W. N. 
Cooley, Noble Grand; A. L. Tucker, Secretary; 
K. T. Chamberlin, Treasurer. This lodge has up- 
wards of sixty members, and is in a healthy and 
flourshing condition. 

Berlin Camp, No. 1013, Modern Woodmen. 

.Tust what inspired the original organizers to call 
this society the Modern Woodmen does not appear, 
but so it is known and Berlin has a camp. No. 
1013, and it^ field is mutual insurance. It was 
organized June 20, 1889 with the following officers: 
F. P. Sweeting, Consul; G. W. Cunningham, Ad- 
visor; F. A. Clark, Banker; A. L. Tucker, Clerk: 
n. H. Olson, Escort. The present consul is T. E. 
Decker. Charter members not above mentioned were 
Patrick Burns, William A. Drake. Thomas Mc- 
Kinney, Horace Miner, H. H. Hamilton, P. O'Brien 
and J. S. Wal bridge. 

Good Templars. 

An organization which will, in the future, be 
known as the Berlin Home Lodge, L O. G. T., was 
orsranized on the evening of Jan. 23, 1890, at the 
Baptist Church, with a charter membership of thirty- 
five. The officers elected for the ensuing quarter, 
are as follows: C. T., W. M. Freeland; V. T., 
Belle Parsons; C, D. Sherman; R. 8., Charles 
Hitchcock; F. .S., Eva Terrill; T. T., H. Curtis; M., 
Fred Bushey ; G., Charles Dunham ; P. C. T., C. W. 

BerUn Lodge, No. 53, A. O. U. W. 

Berlin Lodge, No. 53 of the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen was organized in 1879, and gives 
promise '^^ a long and successful career. 

Friends In CoiinciL 

The Society of Friends in Council, No. 3, was 
organized in July, 1873, by nine ladies who were 
desirous of securing increased facilities for self- 
improvement. The founders were Mrs. Charlotte 
A. Mason, Mrs. Celinda N. Smith, Mrs. Mary 
J. Jenkins, Mrs. Adelaide Bellis, Mrs. Maggie 
Stcdman, Mrs. Malvina E. Bridgman, Miss Eliza 
A. Brown, Mrs. Sarah H. Woodhull and Mrs. Mary 
C. Snow. For a considerable time the lines of 
study pursued were somewhat desultory, embrac- 
ing topics of practical interest, the members finally 
concentrating their efforts upon historical literature. 
For a number of years the Friends in Council pur- 
sued their studies so quietly that few accessions 
were made to their numbers. They were for the 
first time brought into special notice by a lecture 
given under the auspices of the Society by Julia 
Ward Howe, in the winter of 1876. This lecture 
was followed by others, by Elizabeth Cady Stan- 
ton and Susan B. Anthony, the same winter. They 
were so well received that during the two succeed- 
ing seasons some of the best talent of the country 
was brought to the city by the little society, which 
had for itself become a candidate for public favor 
and was steadily increasing in membership. Dur- 
ring these three lecture courses the ladies attended 
to all the details of business and correspondence, 
introducing the lecturers — both ladies and gentle- 
men, with care and dignity. 

In 1879 the C. L. S. C. course was adopted by 
the society, the class graduating in 1883. As this 
was the tenth annlversity of Friends in Council, the 
two events were jointly celebrated by a banquet 
given in Library Hall, attended only by the mem- 
bers, their husbands and a few invited guests. 

The membership had been limited to twenty- 
five and was now full. Having finished the C. 
L. S. C. course of study and being thrown once 
more upon their own resources, the Friends decided 
that a more thorough acquaintance with the past 
was necessary to a proper understanding of the 
present, and a course of study was mapped out be- 
ginning with the most ancient times of which we 
have any historical record. The social, political, 
and intellectual history of nearly all the nations of 
the earth has been traced from their first manifes- 

Digitized by 




tations of civilization down to the present time. 
The Iiistory of England comprised tlie work for 
the year 1889, and in 1890 the continent of Amer- 
ica will occupy the attention of the societ}'. It is as 
impossible to slate in exact terms what has been 
accomplished in the line of self-culture by this in- 
defatigable society which never takes a vacation 
as to calculate the influence for good which it has 
exerted in the community where it exists. The 
social event of the year is the C. L. S. C. Sympo- 
sium held on August 18, of each year, in commem- 
oration of the day on which the class of '83 
''passed under the arches" and received their 
diplomas at the Chautauqua Assembly grounds. 

A midwinter social meeting is also held dur- 
ing the holiday season when the year's coui-se 
of study is completed and the members enter new 
fields of research with ever increasing interest and 

For two years after the organization of the 
society the election of officers occurred twice each 
year. Mrs. C. N. Smith being the first president 
followed by Mrs. C. A. Mason, Mrs. S. H. Wood- 
hull and Mrs. M. J. Jenkins. It was then decided 
to elect officers only at the annual meeting and in 
July, 1 876, Miss E. A. Brown was elected President 
and held the office two years. In 1878 Mrs. A. 
Bellis was called to the office and filled the chair 
until 1880 when she was succeeded by Mrs. S. 
Maesurh, who also held the office two years. Mrs. 
N. D. Scare was elected president in 1882, and in 
1883, Mrs. L. E. Morris was called to the chair 
and has been unanimously reelected for six succes- 
sive years. 

Of the founders only four remain in the city, 
Mrs. Mary J. Jenkins, Mrs. Maggie Stedman, Mrs. 
Adelaide Bellis and Mrs. Eliza Brown Taylor. 
Only once has death entered the societ}', remov- 
ing Mrs. Mary C. Snow, who had left the city 
for another home, and was therefore, according 
to the rules of the society, an honorary member at 
the time of her death. 

The society holds its meeting once in two weeks 
on Thursday afternoon. During its infancy the 
meetings were held at the houses of the members, 
but in 1878 a parlor in the Bellis House was per- 
manently secured. 

The names of the members are appended: Mre. 
Adelaide Bellis, Mi*s. Eliza Brown Taylor, Mrs. 
Maggie Stedman, Mrs. Mary J. Jenkins, Mrs. 
Lucy E. Morris, Mrs. Sarah Maesurh, Mrs. Nannie 
D. Sears, Mrs. Flora C. Rounds, Mrs. Lottie S. 
Wright, Mrs. Juliette S. Truesdell, Mrs. Eveline 
F. Phelps, Mrs. Harriet L. Kendall, Mrs. Lizzie A. 
Dodson, Mrs. Ida M. Craft, Mrs. Ida J. Reed, 
Mrs. Mary Turner Buell, Mrs. Allie D. Sackett, 
Mrs. Nellie Porter Fitch, Mrs. Minnie M. Murphy, 
Mrs. Nettie Slater, Mrs. Ida L. Mason, Mrs. Lizzie 
8. Dodson, Miss Letitia Megran, Miss Emma 
Strong, Miss Loma Br it ton. 

Other Social, Educational and Musical 

The temper and taste of a great part of the 
inhabitants cause them to form societies of a liter- 
ary, artistic and musical character, which con- 
tribute to the pleasure and profit of all and foster 
the <levelopment of a higher form of life and 
thought than is possible without such aids. The 
society above referred to is a conspicuous example. 
The Berlin Lyceum, a body of young men, holds 
weekly meetings in their suite of rooms for debate 
and other literary exercises. They have had open 
meetings which are largely attended and much 
enjoyed. A flourishing branch of the Young Men's 
Christian Association is established in the city, and 
in its comfortable hall the leading papers and 
magazines are kept on file, as well as a quantity of 
other literature. Its open meetings are well 
attended and profitable. Courses of lectures under 
the auspices of this association during the winters 
of 1888-89 and 1890 formed the most popular 
of amusement programmes of the season. The 
West Side Shakespeare Club, composed of twenty- 
five ladies, was organized in 1885 for studying the 
works of the great dramatist. From October to 
May the stud}- is prosecuted with great enthusiasm. 
The Reading Club is another society of ladies, 
their object being the reading and study of 
standard works of fiction. Another circle of young 
ladies takes the course laid down by the Chautau- 
qua Society. 

Berlin has always been noted for its musical 
talent, having sent forth some of the finest singers 

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in the West. The Philharmonic Society, which 
includes the leading musicians, has successfully 
produced several operas and many of its members 
perform on different instruments with more than 
ordinary ability. The Arion Club has a band of 
twenty members, ladies and gentlemen, which is 
one of the finest organizations in the State, and an 
orchestra of eight pieces. The Keystone Orchestra 
is composed of young men. It has ten pieces and 
furnishes excellent music. The Berlin Orchestra 
is another band of eight pieces. St. Stanislaus* 
Polish Church has a band of six pieces and the 
Congregational Society has an orchestra of six 

Man uf ac turiug. 

From a comparatively early period in the history 
of Berlin, manufacturing has been carried on more 
or less extensively. Many enterprises in this line 
have " had their day " and lived it and died with 
it. Some of the more recent ventures are thought 
wortliy of note in these pages. 

One of the most important concerns is the boot 
and shoe manufactory of H. Putnam <fe Son, which 
was established about ten years ago. The firm 
employs seventy-five men and supplies a very large 
jobbing trade. 

The merchant flouring mill of Stillman Wright 
<fe Co. was built in 1860 with a capacity of 100 
barrels per da}'. It was rebuilt in 1868 with a 
doubled capacity. It was again rebuilt in 1888 
and its capacity was increased to 300 barrels. 
There is a cooperage attached, in which the barrels 
for the use of the mill are made. The second 
flouring mill is a large frame structure, fitted with 
improved machinery and having a capacity of 150 
barrels per day. It has during late years been 
known as the De la Motte mill and the Wells mill. 
It has recently changed hands again and is owned 
by non-residents. C. S. Morris has a large flour 
and feed mill. The cooper shops of H. Carley & 
Son, H. L. Wright and Murphy <fe Co. manufacture 
many thousands of barrels, casks, butter tubs, etc., 
annually. These are used by the mills, cranberry 
growers and commission men. 

The Berlin Marble and Granite Works was estab- 
lished in 1863 by R. G. & S. N. Campbell, under 
the firm name of Campbell & Co. S. N. Campbell 

withdrew eight years later, and R. G. Campbell 
was sole proprietor until 1 885, since when the busi- 
ness has been conducted by Campbell <fe Sons, ( R. 
G. & M. R. Campbell. 

The Berlin Machine Works, of which Porter 
B. Yates is president and manager, Joseph Yates 
secretary and Louis D. Forbes treasurer, was 
established by Davis <fe Pugh in 1881. The com- 
pany is incorporated. Planing and polishing 
machinery is manufactured. 

The washboard factory of Henry Luther is 
another well established and successful industiy. 
Since 1884 the business has doubled each year. 
Three kinds of washboards are made. About 
6,000 dozen are made annually. Mr. Luther has 
also invented and manufactures to some extent a 
camp chair, a boat stool and a lady's sewing table. 

The Berlin Whip Company, (Jonathan N. 
Morris, Henry O. Slay ton and Duane Doty) manu- 
factures a large variet}' of whips and gloves. J. 
P. Luther also has a glove and mitten factory. 

The Berlin Pump Factory was started over 
twenty years ago by the late A. Brown and is 
owned by his son James P. N. Brown, who manu- 
factures improved pumps and windmills. 

The brick and tile yard of Mr. C. S. Morris was 
established about four years ago. Its output is 

The cigar factory of Schaefer & Styer was estab- 
lished about eight years ago and has been a 
success from the first. 

Berlin has two tanneries owned by H. D. Sears 
and S. C. Basse tt, employed chiefly in custom 

One of the older institutions is the machine and 
enofine works of Mils Johnson. 






I The town of Berlin, situated in the northeast 

corner of the county, is bounded on the north by 

I Waushara County; on the east by Winnebago 

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County; on the south bj the town of Brooklyn, 
and on the west by the town 'of Seneca. Its great- 
est length north and south, is nine miles; its breadth 
cast and west, six miles. The city of Berlin, taken 
mostly from its territor}-, leaves its outlines irregu- 
lar. The village of Sacramento originally belonged 
to Marquette County, and was by an act of Legis- 
lature attached to Waushara County, at the or- 
ganization of that county, contrary to the wish 
of Sacramento's inhabitants, and, as some con- 
tended, contrary to the constitution of Wiscon- 
sin. By a subsequent enactment it was attached to 
the town of Berlin. 

One of the first settlements in this town was 
made about 1847, by Mr. Atkins, who built a log 
cabin near where the dwelling of Mr. Peck was af- 
ward built, which for many years was a tavern. 
This must have been one of the simplest of primi- 
tive taverns. It is said it had but two rooms and 
a loft overhead. The first frame house built in the 
town, was that, about half a mile north of Peck's 
Corners, which afterward was the residence of Mr. 
Decker. The settlement of the town rapidly ex- 
tended from these corners at the Atkins place. 

Near the center of the town, two miles west of 
Peck's Corners, on the east side of the Fox, quite 
a large settlement of Seventh Day Baptists grew 
up. It had its beginning in the location there in 
1847, of D. E. Lewis, J. Larkin, and J. F. Brown. 
The church at this settlement was organized in 
1850, under the pastoral care of Rev. J. M. Todd, 
and a neat house of worship was afterward erected. 

The log house in the Payne neighborhood, which 
was once Mr. Payne's residence, was the first cabin 
or house erected in that part of the town. It will 
be remembered from its location about half a mile 
north of the school-house, at *Hhe corners." 

Among the old settlers of the town of Berlin, 
were Nicholas Bush, J. C. Burdick, Owen J. Fuller 
and John McClelland. 


Sacramento, in the north part of this township, is 
a small village which once had quite brilliant hopes. 
At the organization of Waushara County, it was 
temporarily the county seat. The village was regu- 
larly platted in 1849. Its original owjier was 

James Flobden, and he sold it to one Townsend. 
At that time the population numbered but six per- 
sons. A steam sawmill was built in 1857, and 
Morse, Abbott <fe Co. were among its early owners. 
In 1860 the place contained this industrial estab- 
blishment, a tavern, a store-house and landing, a 
cooper shop, two shoe shops, and about 300 inhab- 
itants. The inventive genius of its citizens, led, 
about that time, to the establishment there of two 
washing machine factories; but they were small and 
short-lived. A bridge formerly spanned the Fox 
River at this place, which was washed away by a 
flood. A ferry superseded it a mile below, and 
was in its time an accommodation to the traveling 
public. A later bridge was the ruin of ihe ferry- 
man's business. The old race course was estab- 
lished half a mile south of Sacramento, and a mile 
and a half from the center of the city of Berlin, on 
S. Barlow's farm. 

Early Events.. 

Many of the early events in the history of this 
town occurred within the borders of the city of 
Berlin, and they will be found recorded in the his- 
tory of that municipality. 


This town is bounded on the north by the town 
of Berlin, on the east by Ripon, Fond du Lac 
County, on the south by the town of Green Lake, 
and on the west by the towns of St. Marie and 
Princeton. The surface of the town is rolling, par- 
tially timbered with oak opening. In the eastern 
part is a fine tract of prairie. The town is indented 
by Green Lake on the south. This is the largest 
body of water in the county, and one of the most 
beautiful and attractive in the State. It lies nearly 
in the center of the county, making part of the 
towns of Brooklyn and Green Lake. 

Its banks are generally high with conspicuous 
headlands, and it is surrounded by small bays. 
Along its shores are some of the finest farms and 
residences in the county. There are several estab- 
lished summer resorts in the town of which Oak- 
wood and Sherwood Forest are perhaps best known. 
Pleasant Point, Forest Home, and the Root an<l 
Mill houses at Dart ford are also popular sojourn- 
ing places. Dartford is the central point and trad* 
ing place, as well as the county seat. 

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Puckyan Creek, an outlet of Green Lake, six 
miles long, runs through the town, having its course 
northwest about four miles to the vicinity of the 
high grounds at Bluffton, then turning upon its 
course, and passing through a ravine for half a 
mile, until leaving this narrow valley, its general 
course is northwest into the town of St. Marie. 
Throughout its entire length it passes through a 
marshy strip with an average width of a mile. 
Marl and peat are found along its banks and marl 
elsewhere In the town. Near this creek peat beds 
have been explored to a depth of eighteen feet, 
without their bottom being reached. 

The first settler in this town was William H. Da- 
kin, who located east of the lake in 1843. He took 
a prominent part in aiding settlers to locate lands, 
and his house was a stopping place and favorite re- 
sort of all new comers. In 1845, Anson Dart set- 
tled where now is the village of Dartford. About 
a year later, J. C. and William Sherwood, Marshall, 
Thurston, and several others established themselves 
at this i)oint. Mr. Dart and J. C. Sherwood built 
a grist mill in 1847. A sawmill was also early | 
built here. The more detailed history of Dartford i 
is given under a separate head. i 

Other Early Events. 

The first birth in this town was that of Amos 

Marshall, son of Giles Marshall. A Miss Eaton I 

was the first bride. Death first claimed Mr. Stearns. ' 

The first sermon was preached and the first church I 

was organized by the Rev. Mr. Lathrop, a Metho- ' 

dist preacher. ! 

Blumon. I 

Of Bluffton, once a place of promise, Gillespy 
wrote as follows: 

" Bluffton, once so celebrated as having the best 
waterpower in the State, is situated in the north- 
west part of the town. Here was a grand chance 
to have made a fortune if the owner had 
been less sanguine and visionary. Nothing less 
than a large city was to be built at this place, having 
th(; whole of Green Lake and Puckjan Marsh 
as a reservoir, some eighteen miles long by an avcr- 
a<i:e of two miles in breadth, with a fall or head of 
cij'itien feet. No bounds could be put to its fu- 

ture growth and extension. The owner was of- 
fered for one-half of the waterpower $10,000. No! 
No! it was worth $40,000. But alas, for all specu- 
lative calculations for the future, this magnificent 
power was in a measure destroyed in the bud by 
some roaming Yankees locating upon the low- 
lands which a dam would overflow. The water- 
power at present, having a fall of some eight to 
ten feet, is considered very good, but is shorn of 
its glory. Other places have grown up and be- 
come business places, which must always affect or 
retard others in the neighborhood. Capital and 
enterprise may yet do much, as it is some four or 
five miles to Dartford or Brooklyn Mills. Nature 
designed Bluffton for a place of trade and com- 
merce, but the desire to have the cake and eat it 
too has frustrated its prosperity. To explain the 
why of this failure as a waterpower: Government 
has always allowed fii*st settlers to build dams and 
overflow lands, provided lands so overflowed have 
not been taken up or located before the dam was 
built, giving as is just, to the pioneer, advantages 
which in after years cannot be obtained unless pur- 
chased of the owners of the soil." 

Orgranization aud Nomenclature. 

In the days of its early settlement this town 
was called Lexington. At its organization, Jan. 
10, 1849, it was named Arcade. In the winter of 
1 850 it was re-christened by its present name. Its 
first election was held April 3, 1849. The number 
of votes cast was fifty-seven. The following were 
elected: B. B. Spalding, Chairman; John S. Ward, 
Treasurer; John W. Vars, Charles De Groff, 
William Dakin and H. A. Buck, Justices of the 

Village of Dartford. 

Dartford is beautifully situated on Green Lake, 
seventy-six miles northwest of Milwaukee and six 
miles west of Ripon, its nearest banking point. It 
is a section (Green Lake) on the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railway, and has become justly cele- 
brated as a summer resort. The village is on an 
outlet of the lake, on a quite high ridge of sandy 
land between the lake and Puckyan which runs 
through the lowlands north of the town proper. 

The first settlement in the town of Brooklyn waa 

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made here by Mr. Dart who located in 1 845. The 
first frame house was built on the corner of Main 
and Hill streets, and owned by Mr. Simf son. L. D. 
Olin moved into the town in 1 848. At that time 
there were but two houses in the village, one frame 
and one log. In connection with Mr. Sherwood, 
Mr. Dart, in 1849, built a grist-mill and a saw-mill. 

The grist-mill was four stories high, had three 
run of stone capable of manufacturing 150 barrels 
of flour per day and had all modern improvements. 
This, under the ownership of J. C. Sherwood, be- 
came one of Dartford*s chief claims to trade 
among the farmers round about. 

Among Dartford's prominent merchants at dif- 
ferent periods may be mentioned Samuel W. Wol- 
cott, Keene & Osborne, Ward <fe Son, James Catlin, 
George W. Aunin, E. A. Keene, II. A. Phinney, 
L. D. Olin, George W, Cooper, Cooper & Thayer, 
Thomas S. Sherman, Clawson <fe Brooks, Thomas 
& Brooks, L. Clawson, Thomas & Clawson, E. P. 
Locke, Edwin Quick and Edward A. Long. 

John Stinson kept a hotel on the site of the 
court house about 1850. James C. Mills, lately de- 
ceased, was a hotel keeper in Dartford over thirty- 
five years. His house was well known to the 
traveling public. lie was a man of some eccentricity 
and originality, and many pleasant stories are told 
of his quaint sayings. John L. Root became known 
widely as a hotel keeper. Valorus Root, the pres- 
ent proprietor of Root's Hotel, has been in business 
about three years. The hotels along Green Lake 
are usually accredited to Dartford, though they 
are not within the village limits. '^ The Oakwood" 
was opened abont twenty years ago by David 
Greenway, its present proprietor. The '^Pleasant 
Point " house has been running nearly fifteen 
years, and is under the management of the Ross 
Brothers. The ''Sherwood Forest*' liouse was 
opened about 1873 by John C. Sherwood, and has 
been lately under the management of John C. 
Thompson. The boarding house of Jackson 
Walker, at Dartford, has long been liberally pa- 

In 1859 Dartford had its flouring mill; a ma- 
chine shop, consisting of a lathe, planing machine, 
etc.; cabinet and wagon makers; a cabinet ware- 
room; two blacksmith shops; two boot and shoe 

shops; one harness and saddle shop; two tailors' 
shops ; one tavern ; four general stores ; one drug and 
apothecary store; one cooper shop; one lawyer and 
one doctor. Ten years later it possessed a flouring 
mill, a woolen factory which was quite prosper- 
ous and was able to supply the country for many 
miles around with cloth of home manufacture, 
(which was (»f course preferable to cloth made far 
away of doubtful materials) two dry goods and 
general merchandise stores, a boot and shoe shop, 
a drug store, a planing mill, sash door and blind 
factory, a blacksmith shop, a coo[)er shop and 
three hotels. The following was its business direc- 
tory at that time: I. Arnold, harness maker; J. H. 
Brooks, postmaster, conveyancer and insurance 
ageni; David Greenway, proprietor Oakwood 
House; Henry Groff, nursery and lime-kilns; H. 
Kopplin, blacksmith; Bernard Kozmhek, stone ma- 
son; E. P. Locke, drugs, stationary and hardware; 
J. C. Mills, proprietor Lake House; E. Morgan, 
physician and surgeon ; S. S. Parrish, mason; Edwin 
Quick, proprietor woolen mills and dealer in lum- 
ber; D. M. Rounds, meat market; T. S. Sherman, 
general store; J. C. Sherwood, flouring mill; John 
Stewart, proprietor Union House; Mrs. H. Stewart, 
dressmaker; Thomas & Clawson, boot and shoe 
manufacturers and general merchants; Mrs. S. II. 
Walker, homeopathic physician; John Weisgerber, 
proprietor Dartford House; Wright <fe Ailing, door, 
sash and blind manufacturers; O. Wormwood, car- 
penter. Rev. J. Wiltse was pastor of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church; Rev. R. H. Fairbairn of the 
Congregational Church. 

In 1853, by a vote of the people, the county 
seat of Marquette County was removed to Dart- 
I ford, and the count}' oflScers brought the records 
; and established themselves there. In November 
I of the same year the Board of Supervisors, forcibly 
' and without authority of law, seized the records 
and hurried them back to Marquette. For some 
reason the people submitted to this high-handed 
affair, and the county seat remained at Marquette 
until 1858. At that time Green Lake County was 
formed by detaching the eastern portion of Mar- 
quette County, and the count}' seat of the new 
county was established at Berlin. In the fall of 
1862, by a vote of the people, it was returned to 

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Dartford, when it rested in peace until 1866, when, 
on agitating the vexed subject again, a vote was 
taken on removing it to Princeton, and a major- 
ity of the Board of Canvassers decided in favor of 
Dartford. A minority reported, however, in favor 
of Princeton, aud their decision was supported by 
the opinion of tlie Attorney General of the State. 
The citizens of Princeton forcibly took the records 
and at a very early hour one morning, removed 
them to Princeton. An appeal was then made by 
the people of the eastern part of the county to the 
supreme court of the State, and on a ruling in their 
favor the county seat was once more removed to 
Dartford, where it has since remained undisturbed 
and unassailed, except by the indirect means men- 
tioned elsewhere. 

The court house was built in 1863 by the Dart- 
ford Building Association, and leased to the county 
in 1864. It is a sightly stone structure, ample for 
the requirements of the courts. The jail was added 
in 1870 and, during the same year most of the 
present county offices were built. 

The act of the Legislature incorporating the vil- 
lage of Dartford was approved March 20, 1871. 
The first Board of Trustees was organized thus: 
Edwin Quick, President; T. S. Sherman and 
George H. Churchill, Trustees; Albert Long, 
Clerk. The present Board (1890) is constituted 
thus: J. R. Brooks, President; J. Morgan and L. 
Clawson, Trustees; J. Bodle, Clerk. The village 
is as well supplied with sidewalks and other im- 
provements as any place of its size. The present 
population is about 400. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Dartford 
was organized by Rev. R. S. Hay ward, pastor, No- 
vember, 1849. There were thirteen members, and 
D. A. Olin was made Class-leader. For more than 
forty years he has labored for the spiritual welfare 
of the community. The church has maintained 
regular weekly services from the time of its organ- 
ization. It also organized a Sunday-school at the 
outset, and has since maintained it for the instruc- 
tion of the youth and children in those duties 
which have a tendency to develop Christian char- 
acter, and make them men and women of the best 
I yp'*. The church edifice that the society now oc- 
iii lis was erected in the spring and summer of 

1850, and was probably the first regular church 
building in (then) Marquette County. Mr. Anson 
Dart, of Washington, D. C, presented the church 
with a ver}' fine-toned bell, which called the peo- 
ple to woi-ship for twenty-five years, until it was 
cracked, rendering it unfit to longer perform that 
duty; when a much larger and more resonant one 
was put in its place and has done service to the 
present time. In its forty years of life the church 
has received the instructions of the following 
named ministers: R. S. Hay ward, S. D. Barringer, 
J. Pearsall, Ezra Tucker, T. T. Kitchen, William 
Stevens, William Sturges, I. Searles, C. Gr. Lathrop, 
William Morse, E. K. Burkee, R. M. Beach, Wil- 
liam Teale, J. Wiltrie, T. T. Allen, D. O. Jones, 
T. H. Walker, R. Henry, F. F. Teetes, E. B. L. El- 
der, E. A. Wanless, H. Curtis, F. W. Sherwin, T. 
H. Dey^ J. E. Henderson, W. E. Morris and A. J. 

The Congregational Church was organized as 
the Central Congregation of Brooklyn. The 
church edifice was erected in 1857, and dedicated 
December 23, of that year, by Rev. Mr. Richards, 
of Berlin. This church has had the following pas- 
tors: Revs. S. Bristol, William CaUin, M. M. Fern- 
field, G. W. Weinwright, E. N. Buddoe, Robert 
Fairbairn, Frederick Fairfield, E. G. Baldwin, W. 
J. Warner, F. B. Demarest, Edward Peet, A. A. 
Safford, and Mr. Freeman. The church has been 
supplied on the Sabbath to some extent by the 
professors of Ripon College. 

The Green Lake Spectator was published at 
Dartford for some years. It was established about 
1860. The issue of Nov. 8, 1865, was number 7, 
volume 5, <»f the "old series," and number 5, vol- 
ume 2, of the "new series.'* It was then issued 
by J. M. Phinney & Co , from an office opposite 
the court-house, at $2 per annum. In 1889 an at- 
tempt was made by George Abbott to establish an- 
other paper at Dartford, but poor encourngement 
and an untimely fire nipi)ed the enterprise in the 
bud. An idea, and perhaps a grotesque and exag- 
gerated one, of the vicissitudes of journalism in 
Dartford may be gained from the following news- 
paper clippings, which are appended because they 
have a lively local interest, if they may not be re* 
lied upon wholly in a historical sense ; 

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Peck's /Swn: "Last summer I was for a few 
weeks up around Green Lake, and had occasion fre- 
quently to pass through the ^little village of Dart- 
ford, the county seat of the county. O, how quiet 
it was! When court is in session » * » * the 
streams of commerce move, but ordinarily all is 
calm and serene. * * Twenty-three yeai-s ago 
two friends of mine, Joe Oliver, now of the Wau- 
pun Leader^ and Martin Short of the Brandon 
Times ^ were partners in the publication of a paper 
at Dartford, and I have often wondered how they 
lived and enjoyed themselves. I saw Oliver re- 
cently and asked him how they managed to main- 
tain their engine of civilization in that little vil- 
lage. He said when they were there the fishing in 
Green Lake was splendid. That was all the answer 
he gave me, so 1 concluded ^that, brain food was 
the main3tay of the two families. I asked him 
how they came to move their paper away from 
there, and he said it was to ^ve bloodshed. It 
seems the boys had to have some fun, and they 
picked on the wrong man. Deacon Mills keeps the 
village hotel. When court is in session the Dea- 
con is on deck, and runs it. * * The Deacon 
bad a white dog that was probably the whitest dog 
that ever was. There was not a dark hair any- 
where on the dog. Oliver and Short did not have 
much amusement, as there were no theatres or ope- 
ras, so they put up a job on the Deacon. They got 
a druggist to fix up a concoction of some kind 
that they covered the dog with, and colored the 
dog jet black. He was the blackest, shiniest dog 
that ever was when he was turned loose. The boys 
sauntered down to the Deacon's hotel and sat there 
with their feet on the window sills, reading papers, 
while the Deacon sat with his feet on the stove, 
dreaming the happy hours away. The dog came 
in and jumped up with his forefeet on the Deacon, 
and woke him up. The Deacon opened his eyes 
and saw a strange black dog with his mouth open, 
apparently about to take him by the throat, and he 
yelled nine kinds of murder, and jumped up and 
kicked the dog out of doors, and threw a stick of 
cordwood after him. The dog went across the 
street and stared at his master in a painful manner. 
The boys kepi from laughing some way, and Oli- 
ver said there were too many dogs in town. The 

Deacon said he wanted it understood that all the 
strange dogs in town couldn't make themselves at 
home around his house. The dog waited until the 
Deacon was calmer and went in the door again, 
and wagged his tail in an uncertain way, and find- 
ing the storm had blown over, he got up on his 
hind legs and was lapping water out of one of the 
tin wash basins, as was his custom. The Deacon 
heard the lapping of the water, and opened his eyes 
and saw the strange dog taking liberties with the 
water, and he clubbed him out of the house and 
used profane language about dogs generally. The 
black dog was driven out of doors forty times dur- 
ing the day, and the Deacon had become frantic, 
when the dog thought he would try the kitchen, 
where the Deacon's good wife at once recognized 
the dog, and came in and told the Deacon the dog 
had been painted. The Deacon investigated the 
case and found it was true, and before the boys 
could get away from the house he registered a sol- 
emn vow to murder, in cold blood, the person who 
painted that dog. He said he would camp on the 
trail of the artist, and though he might not kill 
him for weeks, or possibly for months, he would 
kill him sure as fate. The Deacon was a man of 
his word, so understood, and the young men, mere 
boys then, held a council of war and decided to 
move away from there, and to move quick. So 
that night they hired a wagon and placed their 
printing office on it, and before morning they were 
safely out of the wa3^ of the enraged Deacon. It 
is probable that time has softened the Deacon's 
resentment, and that he will not kill the boys for 
that old crime, at this late day. He will be more 
likely to kill me for telling it. If he does not no 
doubt Oliver or Short will." 

Waupun Leader: " Peck's Sun of last week tells 
a pretty good story about how a white dog belong- 
ing to * Deacon Mills,* the tavern keeper at Dart- 
ford, was dyed a coal black twenty odd years ago; 
how the Deacon clubbed the dog out of the bar- 
room for a whole day, and swore eternal vengeance 
upon the artists when he found out that the dog 
had been trifled with. The story is principally 
true, except that Capt. Short had no hand in the 
dye. The writer had to wear gloves for a week ; 
'Little Dr. Moore' the principal conspirator, had 

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urgent business elsewhere as soon as ^&v was de- 

Harry Randall Post, No. 202, Grand Army of 
the Republic, of Dartford, was organized by Capt. 
Blackman of Berlin, who also mustered it in. The 
date of the charter is Sept. 5, 1885. There were 
fourteen charter members: Daniel Reilly, Henry 
H. Marshall, Christian Brisval; Charles F. Taylor, 
David Wilson, Thomas B. Davis, Lester Clawson, 
Charles A. Brown, James C. Boice, Joseph Taylor, 
James H. Prume, Nathaniel Pierce, Jr., A. Eugene 
Dunlap. The post at this time has a membership 
of twenty-four. Lester Clawson, of the 12th Bat- 
tery Wisconsin Light Artillery, was the first Com- 
mander. He served until Jan. 1, 1886. The sec-' 
ond was Charles A. Brown, of the 1st Wisconsin 
Heavy Artillery, whose term of service expired 
Jan. 1, 1887. The third was Henry B. Lowe, of 
the 5th Wisconsin Infantry, who served two years, 
until Jan. 1, 1889. The fourth was Ira E. Smith, 
of the 3d Battery Wisconsin Light Artillery, whose 
time of service expired Jan. 1, 1890. The officers 
elected for 1890 are: H. H. Swett, Commander; 
Lester Clawson, S. V. C; Joseph Taylor, J. V. C. ; 
H. B. Lowe, Qmr.; Charles A. Brown, O. D.; Ira 
E. Smith, Chap.; J. A. Forbes Adjt.; B. F. Parker, 
Surg.; James H. Prume, O. G. This post is named 
in honor of Elisha Harrison Randall, a Dartford 
"boy," and one of the first to enlist from this place, 
in Company B. 4th Wisconsin Infantry, afterward 
cavalry. He was killed by having his head car- 
ried completely away by a rebel shell while acting 
as a sharp-shooter on the gunboat Tyler, near the 
mouth of the Yazoo River, Mississippi, July 5, 
1862. The post is in an independent condition, and 
is doing a good work in looking after the interests 
of old soldiers and their dependent ones, and in 
keeping alive that fraternal feeling which has so 
strongly bound old comrades together. 

Green Lake. 

Green Lake is the largest town in the county. 
It lies on the eastern border, and is bounded on the 
north by Brooklyn, on the east by Fond du Lac 
County, on the south by Mackford and Manches- 
u r, and on the west by Marquette. This is re- 
*^ .riled as the best agricultural town in the 

county, and it is doubtful if there is a better one 
in the State. A large portion of the town is prai- 
rie, and the soil is of , unsurpassed richness. The 
farm residences are large and tasty, and the barns 
and outbuildings are such as to be seen in a pros- 
perous farming community. Groves of timber, 
planted by the settlers, dot the prairies in every 
direction Green Lake skirts the northern bound- 

The Dell. 

Mr. Gillespy, in 1859, thus described the dell — 
a unique and interesting natural feature of this 
town : *'The dell, on what is now called the Powell 
Place, one mile south, one half-mile west from the 
residence of Mr. Dakin, is a dried-up waterfall. It 
has become quite celebrated as a place of resort to 
hold picnics as well as to gratify the curiosil}'^ so 
common in man to explore and admire the works 
of nature. How long ogo the watei-s ceased to 
pass through the gorge made through the sand- 
stone of which the hill is composed is hard to tell 
— there must have been quite a large stream pass- 
ing between its banks, for it can hardly be sup- 
posed that the little water now passing over it in 
the spring and fall could ever have made so wide 
and extensive a cavern in the face of the stone 
even supposing the material world to be as old as 
geologists are determined to have it, contrary to 
the history of Moses and the declarations of St. 
Paul. It is my belief Jehovah is just as competent 
to make a globe like ours in six days, as is told, 
as that He could only make a ball of matter for 
the nucleus of our world, and that it has taken 
thousands of years to bring it to the state it is now 
in. God spake, and it was done; he commanded, 
and it stood fast. The fall of water, if it has any 
now, is twepty-five or thirty feet, worn down 
some twelve or fifteen feet from the top of the 
hill. It may be at the bottom three feet wide, 
spreading out to about ten feet at the top. The 
gorge immediately widens, like entering an arch 
from tlie wedge or crown to some five or six rods 
in width, gradually widening for some ten rods, 
when the hill falls to the level of the ground at its 
base. The face of this gorge on the west is 
perpendicular, while on the east side it slopes 
somewhat to the top. The depth or height is some 

Digitized by 




sixty feet. A tiny stream runs winding along 
through the bottom^ its banks covered with the 
debris fallen from above, in some places to the 
height of eight or ten feet, which, with trees 
fallen from the heights, make it a task of some 
labor and difBculty to pass up over the brook to 
the head or the foot of the fall, wliich is called 
a spring, or more certainly is a well made long ago 
by the accumulation of the debris and the fall of 
water, and which is, no doubt, supplied by water 
passing and finding its way through the fissures in 
the sandstone. This well or spring is stated to be 
some twelve feet deep. Whether this wild, pic- 
turesque gorge is, as was believed in ancient times, 
the dwelling of some sprite or spirit, or whether 
its waters are of fabulous eificacy in curing the 
ills that flesh is heir to, I have not been able to 
learn. One thing is certain — it is famous with the 
girls and boys, and probably no young gentleman 
can in any way give more p'easure to his lady-love 
than according her an invitation to visit this place 
and partake of the Jixuiga which are generously 
provided at the numerous festivals of jollity and 
good feeling that often occur, whether for lovers* 
rambles, curiosity or amusement. And, by way 
of parenthesis, I would advise any young lady in- 
tending to visit this place to leave her slippers and 
gaiters at home; so precarious and uncertain is the 
footing, and in many places spongy and wet, that if 
she has more regard to health than the display of 
a neat gaiter boot she will wear shoes or boots of 
some reasonable material to walk s-ifely and with 
dry feet over this by no means easy or safe path- 
way to the head of the gorge. As to getting down 
the path or up it, which >ou will find a rather 
steep cattle path to the water, I have no advice to 
give, believing if a man has gallantry enough to 
ask 3^ou that he will prove himself a true knight 
to the damsel in distress. Abouo eighty rods in a 
southwest direction from the glen is a large spring, 
which is a natural curiosity. In high water it is 
some ten or twelve feet in diameter at its source, 
boils up to the height of two or three feet, making 
a considerable mill stream flowing therefrom, but 
after a protracted drouth it is entirely dry, and re- 
mains so perhaps three or four months. One raav 
cross the stream dry-shod, and returning in two 

two or three hours find a large brook. It was near 
this spring, known, in honor of the fii-st settler, as 
''Powell Spring," that that worthy erected the 
first log house in the town. 


James Powell was undoubtedly the first settler 
in this town. He had 160 acres of land fenced in 
and part of it under cultivation as early as 1835, 
or 1836. A part of this property was afterward 
owned by A. Long. Mr. Dart and two sons came 
next. They located at the outlet of Twin Lake in 
1840, and in 1841 built a small grist-mill. Theirs 
was the first frame house. They came by the way 
of the Fox River from Green Bay, in row-boats; 
entered the mouth of the Puckyan, passed up the 
creek to the lake, and up the latter to their point of 
seetlement. They had a fatiguing voyage of eleven 
days, and probably were the first, and doubtless 
the last white men to navigate the Puckyan. Lieut.- 
Gov. Beal came next the same year, and broke up 
the first land, Mr. Bazelcy and a Stockbridge In- 
dian, named Pyer, doing the work m the fall of 
1840. 8. R. Lathrop came in January, 1847. At 
that time S. Burdick and E. Cable occupied a room 
in Beals* house as a land oflflce, locating land for 
settlers, and Mr. Bazeley had taken to himself some 
of the comforts and conveniences of life, and his 
house was a recognized stopping place for traders 
and intending settlers. The house of Satterlee 
(Hon. Sat. Clark), besides being the first location 
of the post-ofl3ce, was the general intelligence oflSce 
for the whole section. Later, the post-oflSce wf\s 
removed to the store of K. Smith, a mile north of 
the '^Center House." This was, doubtless, the sec- 
ond store in the count}'. The county at that time 
was in three electoral divisions, or voting pre- 
cincts, the centre of one of which was **Big Green " 
when there was a store, a post-ofl3ce and a black- 
smith shop. A Mr. Pomeroy, a relative of J. Fen- 
nimore Cooper, the novelist, a man of worth and 
wealth, was an early resident here, but he returned 
to Cooperstown, N. Y. S. H. Palmer was the first 
to make a settlement on the open prairie, locating 
half a mile east of the meeting house, and south- 
east from the Centre House he built a comfortable 
fame house, which was a popular slopping- place. 

Digitized by 




Mr. Jewell, of Algoma, built a frame house at 
Little Green, and had a store and post-office. His 
house was a place of rest and refreshment before 
entering uix)n the broad land for Ceresco or Green 
Bay. Little Green became a place of note in the 
county's settlement. The first settlers there were 
Henry Pratt, J. Burt, William Seymour, R. Day, 
"Squire" Akins, from Boston, and others. J. L. 
Millard opened a small store. M. B. Swift, with 
a large family, came in 1848. N. Gleason, J. S. 
Gardner, G. Rector, N. Pool and others came 
about the same time or earlier. Jacob Cook was 
also an early comer. 

Early Events. 

The first school was taught by Miss Ellen Ly- 
man, in Mr. Bazeley's Jog house. The first school- 
house in the town was that built in School District 
No. 1 , in 1846, or 1847. Oliver Dart was the first 
Justice of the Peace in the connt3-,and at his house 
was held the first religious service in the town. 
Rev. Mr. Kasson held meetings at this place and at 
Mr. Palmer's occasionall3\ The Methodist Episcopal 
circuit preachers held meetings once in two weeks 
at S. Burdick's, on the Bcal's place. The Congre- 
gationalists organized a society in August, 1851, 
with Rev. E. Bradford as Moderator and Rev. J. 
H. Kissam as Clerk, with ten members. They 
built a church near the center of the town in 1854. 
A very respectable society of Protestant Metho- 
dists met early, at the red school-house, on the 
Marquette road, near the town line. Rev. John 
E. Fridd was their pastor. The Methodist Epis- 
copal adherents also organized a society, and met 
early at the stone school-house, east of the Centre 
House. The first birth was that of Alice Bazeley, 
daughter of William Bazeley. 

Town Organization. 

Green Lake was organized in January, 1849, 
then a part of Brown county. The number of 
votes cast at the first town meeting was seven. 
The first supervisor was Moses B. Swift. Before 
the establishment of the local postoffice, the near- 
est postoffice was at Fox Lake. Milwaukee was 
the nearest market town. The nearest grist mill 
until 1847 was at Watertown or Columbus. Ten 

days or two weeks time was often consumed in a 
trip to mill. 

Green Lake Postoffice. 

Green Lake is a post town in this town ten miles 
south of Darkford and eight miles south-west of 
Ripon, the nearest railway station and banking 
|x>int. It contains a church, a school and about 
100 inhabitants. Among its prominent citizens 
are James Welch, postmaster; W. T. Burdick and 
George Day and Albert Long, justices of the 
peace; George E. Russell, constable; A. S. King 
and T. S. Pickett, merchants. Evidences of thrift 
abound here. 


rtley, on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 
branch to Markesan, is eleven and one-half miles 
south of Dartford. J. I). Sherwood is the post- 
master and merchant at this point. Here are the 
crushing works of the Green Lake Granite Com- 
pany. Fine granite for monumental and pavement 
work is sh'pped from here in large quantities. 
The quarry was opened by James Densmore, and 
John Loper in 1883 and during that year Loper's 
part of the bluff passed into the control of W. C. 
and J. D. Sherwood, who further developed the 
quarry during 1884. In 1885 the Sherwoods 
merged their property with that of Hon. J. D. 
Caton, of Chicago, who had an extensive ci usher 
plant there, and organized the Green Lake Granite 
Company, which purchased the Densmore property 
and afterward the O. P. Reed ledge, thus acquiring 
the entire control of all the Pine Bluff granite 
property. The working capacity of the quarry is 
about eight carloads of paving blocks and about 
an equal output of crushed stone per day. The 
officers of the company are J. D. Caton, president; 
A. J. Caton, vice-president; C. E. Town, treasurer; 
J. D. Sherwood, secretary. The works are super- 
intended by C. C. Benin. 


Kingston is the south-west corner town of the 
county. It is bounded north by the town of 
Marquette, east by Manchester, south by Columbia 
county and east by Adams county. The face of 
the town is much broken, presenting a rolling 
aspect, with one noted rise, Mt. Moriah, the highest 

Digitized by 




land in the county, which stands like a sentinel, 
breasting the storms that sweep it« plains, a land- 
mark and a guide for miles around, stretching 
eastward as if to protect the valley lying at its 
base. The town is well watered and raises much 
ha}'. The pasturage is good and it may in time 
become somewhat noted as a dairy town. 


The actual settlement of this town began in 1846 
when George Bentley, Isaac Fuller, A. D. C. 
Knowlton, Anson Babcock, Harry Dart, Isaac 
Hewett, O. W. Bow and Thomas Mosley came and 
located their lands. The first white man who 
located in the town had come as early as 1828, 
however. This was Poquctte, and some say he 
was a French half-breed. He was an Indian trader 
and government agent. He married a squaw and 
was killed by Indians in some quarrel. He is said 
to have been a man of massive proportions, being 
six feet and six inches in height and weighing 
nearly 300 i>ounds. After his death the post 
at Belief ontaiue, as the locality' was called, was 
broken up. His widow married Judge Wads- 
worth, of Portage. 


The town was organized in 1849 with Marquette. 
Twenty-five votes were cast at the first town 
meeting. Charles Mede, chairman; F. B. Hawes, 
and R. Williams, side supervisors; E. 8tevensi 
town clerk. 

Elarly Kvents. 

The first school was taught by Mr. Bow in 1846 
and 1847. His neighbors turned out and built 
fence for him in return for his services in behalf 
of education. The first church was the the Bap- 
tist, organized in 1846. with Elder Sargent as 
pastor, the second was the Methodist, in 1847, 
Elder Stone, pastor. The first death of a white 
person was that of a 3*oung emigrant girl who fell 
from a wagon near Mr. Bow's and was killed. 
I^his town was the scene of a terrible murder of an 
innocent boy, the particulars of which are given 

YiUage of Kingrston. 

This village, like Markesan and Manchester, is 

on Grand River, which furnishes power for a flour- 
ing mill here. It is pleasantly situated upon 
elevated land. It was platted in 1855 by Edward 
H. S. Dart, and Fox and Millard's addition was laid 
out the same year. Eight miles east of Marquette, 
the nearest railway station and eighteen miles from 
Fox Lake, the nearest banking point; the place 
contains a flouring mill, two churches, a school and 
about three hundred inhabitants. 

J. H. Dart made the first settlement here, and 
Mr. Kilmer came in 1846 and built the first frame 
house. -The first general store was opened soon 
afterward by E. R. Stevens in a building covered 
with split logs, so poor a roof that it is said the 
merchant had, at times, to set up nights, when it 
rained and catch the dripping water in pans to 
prevent it soakiiag his goods. The first tavern in 
the village was kept by D. M. Phelps. The nearest 
grist mill in the early days was at Watertown; but 
the inhabitants of this place were not exempted 
from the unfair rule which obtained at the grist 
mills nearer by and consequently often had to go 
to West Troy, one hundred miles distant, with 
oxen, to get their flouring done. 

A grist mill was built here in 1818 by Drum- 
mond <fe Jewett and was later own:::! by J. E. 
Millard <fe Bros. The local miller no v is Henry 
Pettit. The water power here is sa :l to be the 
best on the river. Thirty years ago Kingston had 
a population of 900, about three times its present 
population. The business interests and features of 
the village at that time are said to have been a 
carding mill, a wagon shop, a saw mill, a tavern, 
three blacksmith shops, two wagon shops, one paint 
shop, two tailor shops, two shoe shops, two tin 
shops, one cooper shop, one cabinet shop, one drug 
store, one jewelry store, four general stores, one 
grocery, a leather store, a meat market, two 
school houses, a church and a postoffico. The 
Baptists owned the church. Services were held 
also by the Methodists and the Episcopalians. 
The church building later become the propert}' of 
the Methodists. It was built in 1855. 

A depressing evil here at at one time was the 
choice of the place as the headquarters of a gang 
of thieves, counterfeiters ami incendiary rioters 
who occasionally varied the pleasant monotony of 

Digitized by 




their business avocations by the perpetration of 
other quite serious criines. In the fall of 1868 a 
fire destroyed five of the best store buildings, nnd 
is thought to have been the work of part of this 
gang. Later some of them were arrested for 
offenses against the United States laws and this 
fact and other good influences brought about the 
overthrow and the departure of most of their 

E. G. Boynton, George S. Greenleaf, Henry 
Vinz and Henry Volkman are merchants here at 
this time. Dr. James Lawn is the resident phy- 
sician. W. M. Chapel is a resident lawyer. James 
M. Chapel is postmaster. The Kingston Spy is a 
four-page paper published by W. E. Williams and 
devoted to local and general interests. 

Newton Wilson Post, No. 28, G. A. R. 

The charter for tliis post was granted March 18, 
1888. The charter members were as follows : E. 
C. Brayton, J. M. Chapel, G. A. Joslen, William 
W. Hunter, Thomas Gundei-son, John Milli^an, 
Fred Koh, C. P. Hewitt, WiUiam Garner, Frank 
Knight, H. R. Price, August Gelanman, George 
Brayton. The first oflScers were E. C. Brayton, Com. ; 
J. M. Chapel. S. V. C; George Brayton, J. V. C; G. 
A. Joslen, Quar. and Adjt. ; John Milligan, Surg.; H. 
R. Price, O. D.; Frank Knight, O. G.; C. P. Hew- 
itt, Chap. The present officers are J. M. Chapel, 
Com.; E. C. Brayton, S. V. C; William Garner, 
J. V. C; A. J. Joslen, Quar. and Adjt.; H. R. 
Price. O. D.; John Milligan, Surg.; William W. 
Hunter, Chap.; Frank Knight, O. G. The post 
now numbers twenty-five members. 


Mackford is the southeastern town of Green 
Lake County, bounded on the north by Green 
Lake, on the east by Fond du Lac County, on the 
south by Dodge County, and on the west by Man- 
chester. Most of Lake Maria lies in the southwest 
part of this town. This lake, which extends into 
Manchester, covers about 600 acres. Lake Emily 
is near by, to the southward. Grand River flows 
westwardly, through tiie village of Markesan, 
through the northwestern part of the town. There is 
no known outlet to Lake Maria, except at very high 

water, when it overflows into a swale adjacent. A 
remarkable occurrence was the destruction of the 
fish in this lake during the '*hard winter" of 1S47. 
It is believed they were smothered, as the lake was 
entirely frozen over and the ice was covered with 
four feet of snow. In the spring winrows of fish 
were cast ashore here, all bearing evidence of this 
natural supposition. The greater portion of the town 
is prairie. The soil is one and a half ^[ to two feet 
deep. Good water is found in all parts of the 
town from six to ninety feet below the surface. 
Limestone cro|)s out in places. 

Name of the Town. 

This town derives its name from the first part of 
Hiram McDonald's name ("Mac*') and a crossing 
place (*'ford") on the river, at a point where Mr. 
McDonald was sanguine of building up a town. 
Gillespy says : '^Nothing but the dog in the man- 
ger policy of some of his old neighbors prevented 
this pla(;e fiom becoming a place of business and 
importance — sociable, free, companionable, as well 
ns gentlemanly, his future plans were frustrated 
not onl}' to his own detriment, but the disappoint- 
ment of the speculators." 


The town of Mackford was organized in 1849. 
At the first town meeting there were seven votes 
cast. *' Squire" McDonald was elected Chairman; 
L. Wooster and John S. Toby, Supervisors ; John 
Chai)el, Justice of tiie Peace ; J. C. Matthews, 
Town Clerk. 


Hiram McDonald had the honor of being the 
first settler. He located where he afterward lived, 
in 1837. Samuel McDonald, his father, came 
soon afterward. In 1843 Hiram McDonald built 
a sawmill at his place and it is a curious fact that 
twelve out of the fourteen male inhabitants of 
Wail pun at that time were present at the raising. 
Lyman Austin and George Pratt came in 1844 and 
in 1845 and 1846 there was quite a number added 
to the small settlement. Among these were Aus- 
tin McCracken and his sons, William Butler and 
son, James Densmore, William Hare, S. M. Knox, 
John Larkin, J. L. Millard, Abram Moore, Barlow 

Digitized by 




Swift and William Shaw. Austin McCracken built 
a sawmill in 1848 and a large gristmill in 1855. In 
1850 Messrs. McDonald, Carhart and Whit^ erec- 
ted a large four-story gristmill at Mackford vil- 
lage. This was destroyed by fire. John B. Seward 
started the village of Markesan in 1845 and built a 
saw and gristmill. 

First Things. 

The first white child born in the town was John 
McDonald, son of Hi ram McDonald. The first 
wedding was that of Mr. Vedder and Miss Patter- 
son. The first death was that of a Mr. Lyon, 
Who was killed by a tree falling upon him. The 
first church was built by the Presbyterians, Rev. 
Mr. Kaison, pastor. 

\ illage of Markenau. 

Markesan is pleasantly situated on the uneven 
land lying on both sides of the Grand River, in 
the town of Mackford on the branch of the Chicrgo, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway' which penetrates 
this county. It is seventeen miles south of Dart- 
ford and twelve miles northwest of Fox Lake, the 
nearest banking point. 

Markesan was platted in 1849 by John Chapel 
and C. K. Russell, propiietors. The original plat 
was one and one-half mile square. Parker's addi- 
tion was platted in 1858. The village was incor- 
porated in May, 1853, and its first ottlccrs were : 
President, Ira Manky ; Trustees, John Parker, P. 
Nelson, G. Harris, E. A. Wilder, M. George; Clerk, 
R. Lexington. 

The first frame house built in the present site of 
the village wa3 erected by John B. Seward in 1844. 
Mr. Seward afterward put in operation a sawmill 
and gristmill which was afterward remodeled and 
made a flouring mill Qnly. The early settlers were 
of good stock, mostly Yankees, but with a sprink- 
ling of English. 

In 1859 Markesan contained the gristmill, then 
owned by Mr. Parker, four stories high, with two run 
of stones and a daily capacity of 100 barrels; three 
blacksmith shops a wagon shop, two cabinet shops, 
one cabinet wareroom, three shoe shoi)S, two tav- 
erns, one drug and book store, two saloons, four 
good general stores, one variety store, one hard- 

ware store, one stove and tin shop, one harness 
shop, two cooper shops, a livery stable, a tailor 
shop, a watch and jewelry shop, a millinery shop, a 
meat market and a bank with a capital of $75,000 
— C. P. Dearborn, Cashier, — besides an insurance 
agency and a printing oflflce. The population was 
then estimated at 800. 

The village now contains a gristmill, a feedmill, 
a grain elevator, a cheese factory, carriage and 
wagon works, several churches and a live weekly 
newspaper, the Herald^ George H. Larke, editor 
and proprietor. Much live stock, grain and pro- 
duce is shipped. 

In point of natural advantiges, trade and enter- 
prise, Markesan is the leading village in the south- 
ern portion of the county. It is the center of a 
rich and beautiful farming country in which it 
possesses no rivals to be feared and it is predicted 
that its progress will be steady and satisfactory. 
The district school house is well located and one of 
the best buildings in the county. The Universal- 
ists have a neat church, built in 1857, the year in 
which their society was organized. The Congre- 
gationalist Sf)cict\' was organized in 1847 and their 
church was built in 1S58. The Methodists organ- 
ized in 1859 and have a neat church. 

Half a mile east of Markesan, on the Grand 
River, a lime-kiln was long kept running con- 
stantly. There was also a manufactory of a super- 
ior kind of building material, composed principally 
of lime and gravelly sand. Buildings put up of 
this kind of composition appear to the eye, when 
coated with a cement or varnish used, as durable 
as stone, and a person unacquainted with the ma- 
terial would readll}' believe that sandstone had 
been cut out to make the walls. 

The Markesan Herald is in its eighth 3'ear. Its 
publisher is George H. Larke. It is a neatly prin- 
ted, newsy sheet, well patronized by subscribers 
and advertisers, and has had its influence for good 
upon the development of Markesan and that por- 
tion of the country round about. 


Iklanchester is located in the center of the county 
east and west, and on its southern border. It is 
bounded on the north by Marquette and Green 

Digitized by 




Lake, on the east by Mackford, on tlie south by 
Columbia County and on the west by Columbia 
County and the town of Kingston. Lake Maria 
cuts into tlie town near its southeast corner, and 
the large Kingston mill pond on its western border 
north of its center. Grant River flows westwardly 
through the town and receives through a swale the 
overflow from Lake Maria at times of high water,that 
lake having no outlet at other times. This town is 
quite equally divided into openings— timber tim- 
ber openings, prairie and marsh lands. The East 
Branch of the Fox River heads in the southwest 
corner of this town. The surface of the town is 
undulating. The soil is strong in the eastern and 
central parts, growing lighter and more sandy to- 
wards the West. 


The first settler in the town was an old soldier 
named McGee, who located on the Henry Vinz 
farm. He built the first log house and broke up 
land first in his neighborhood. This was in 1837. 
R. Langdon came in 1843, Sawyer Carter, W. R. 
Carter, Norman Stewart, James Carter, Madison 
Miller and Robert Robinson came in 1844. In 1845 
S. W. Matthews, A. Barlow, David Jones, Lucius 
Clark, Walter Burlingame, J. Teal, and J. Stickles 
came. Mr. Miller brought with him some 1,500 
sheep, but soon lost most of them by misfortune 
and mismanagement. Messrs. Barlow and Math- 
ews had no families and were strangers to each 
other, but they pooled their means and endeavors 
and built and occupied a log shanty together. The 
nearest gristmill in the early days was at Wau- 
pun, but the settlers more often had to go to Water- 
town or to Janesville, eighty miles, the nearer 
mill frequently making them wait a week for their 
grists,while the millers ground their own grain and 
compelled them to buy their flour or wait longer 
than they could afford for their own. In those 
days a man could get for flour what money would 
not command. A. Miner built the sawmill at the 
village of Manchester in 1847. Dr. Hoyt laid out 
the village and built a flouring-mill in 1853. The 
first school was opened in 1847. The first church 
organized was by the Methodists the same year, the 
Rev. Mr. Welcome, pastor. The Rev. (i. W. 
Freeman organized the Baptist Society in 1860. 

The first white child born in the town was born in 

McGee's family. The first marriage was that of a 

.Mr. Bates to Miss Margaret Stalker, daughter of 

Joseph Stalker. The first death was that of a child 

of Mr. Stewart. 


The town of Manchester was organized in 1849, 
with A. Barlow as Chairman of the Board of Su- 
[)ervisors; J. Stalker and II. A. Millard associates, 
and M. B. Lathrop, Clerk. At one of the early 
elections a sugar bowl was made to serve as a bal- 
lot box. 

The Welsh and Geniiaii Settlements. 

In the southwest corner of the town is a good- 
sized German settlement; there is also a Welsh set- 
tlement in the town. 

ViUagre of Manchester. 

The village of Manchester is prettily situated on 
high land nearly in the center of the town, and has 
a population of about 300. Itw\as laMout in 1857 
by E. R. Hoyt, and is eighteen miles southwest of 
Dartforrl, and three miles southwest of Markesan, 
the nearest railway poiiit. (Irant River furnishes 
a good water-power. 

W. A. Millard was probably the first settler on 
the village site and arrived in 1846. He was long 
a Justice of the Peace. M. Seward built a sawmill 
here in 1847, which was later superseded by a flour- 
ing-mill of good capacity. Mr. Seward built the 
first frame house in 1857; the first store was opened 
by Dr. E. R. Hoyt, the founder of the village, in 
1856. Thirty years ago the place contained two 
stores, one shoe store, a blacksmith-shop, a tin shop 
a wagon-shop, a school, a post-office and a gristmill. 
The present business men are: John E. Wiselvinca, 
proprietor of flour mill; Fogel Wolfgang, dealer in 
farm implements; George C. Rhein, harness-maker; 
William Elliott, dealer in live stock; A. M. Houke 
and Louis Klatt, shoemakers; V. K. Babcock and 
V. Schwandt, carpenters. 


The town of Marquette is bounded on the north 
by the town of Princeton, on the east by the town 
of Green Lake, on the south by the towns of Kings- 
ton and Manchester, and on the west by Marquette 

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County. This town is very irregular in form and 
is noted for its large marshes and the peculiar ridge 
of granite rock that crops out about a mile south- 
east of the • village of Marquette. This out-crop 
covers about five acres. The mass of rock is thirty 
feet high, broken and uneven, the south side fall- 
ing oflf into a«andy flat, terminating in (iranl River 
marsh. Westward, beyond an interval of twenty rods 
of marsh rises another mass of the same formation, 
covered with a growth of small cedars and oaks. 
Half a mile further north, on the north shore of 
marsh, rising from its edge, is an uneven mass of 
the same formation, extending west for nearly a 
mile. The soil is sandy in some places, and in others 
a sand and clay loam. Lake Packaway lies in tlie 
north and west parts of the town and is an expan- 
sion of the Fox River. 


The first settler in this town was one. Gleason, an 
Indian trader. H. McDonald, of Mackford, stated 
that when he passed up the Fox River with his 
company of United States Regulars, on their way 
to Ft. Winnebago, in 1830, he found Gleason deal- 
ing with the Indians at Marquette. He had a log 
store and stockade, and a number of acres under 
cultivation. He claimed to be from Vermont. 
Passing through again, several years later, Mr. Mc 
Donald saw him again ; but as settlers began to come 
in he moved further West. F. B. Hawes opened 
a store at Marquette in 1845, and the village was 
soon afterward platted by Messrs, Sutherland, 
Myers and Page, and in 1849 it became the first 
county -seat of Marquette County. In 1846 Van 
Valkenburg, John S. Vine, J. M. Crandall, Gard- 
ner Green, D. M. Green, Samuel McCracken, M. J. 
Byington, Alexander Patrick, Aikin, Porter, Seely 
and Butterfield came in and secured homes. 

Organization and Early Events. 

The town was organized in 1849, with H. A. 
Butterfield, J. Conley, and J. Boyle as Supervisorar; 
S. W. Aikin as Clerk. Forty votes were cast at the 
first election, and the voters lived throughout the 
west part of Marquette County. The first birth was 
that of Lovinia Hunt Aikin, daughter of Dennis and 
Mary Aikin, in 1849. The first marriage was that 

of Mr. Merrilon to Miss Rachel Aikin, by the Rev. 
G. R. Bartlett. The first death was that of a child 
of John and Rebecca Conley. 

Village of Marquette. 

The village of Marquette is situated in the town 
of the same name, eighteen miles southwest of 
Dartford, and nine miles northwest of Markesan 
(on a branch of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul 
Railway and the nearest railway station) and fif- 
teen miles south of Princeton, the nearest banking 
t)oint. The population is about 275. The village 
was laid out as a si)eculatiori, as early as 1836, by 
Sherman Page, of Otsego County, N. Y.; Joel B. 
Sutherland, of Philadelphia; Andrew Palmer, of 
Toledo, Oiiio, and Albert G. Kllis and John P. 
Arned, of Green Bay, Wis. The original plat on 
file looks like a map of some beautifully laid out 
city of 3,000 to 6,000 population. There is no 
tradition that much of anything else than the plat- 
ting of the village was accomplished at that early 
period. The survey was altered in 1854. 

This has a more picturesque situation than any 
other village in this or the surrounding countries. 
The business portion is principally built on low, 
sandy ground, but tasteful dwellings surmount 
the hill, presenting a fine appearance from any ap- 
proach. Lake Packawa}', on which the village is 
situated, is eight miles long and from half a mile 
to a mile wide. It is really an expansion of the 
Fox River. Marquette is consequently one of the 
many flourishing villages lining the banks of that 
stream, and is a natural shipping point for a large 
extent of country. In 1848, when Marquette 
County was fully organized and detached from 
Brown Count}', the county-seat was established 
here. In 1 853, by a vote of the people, the county- 
seal was removed to Dartford. In November of 
the same year the Board of Supervisors, forcibly 
and without authority of law, seized the records 
and conveyed them ba»ck to Marquette. For some 
reas(m the people submitted to this bold movement, 
and the county-seat remained at Marquette until 
1858, when it was established at Berlin after the 
erection of Green Lake County. The old Marquette 
county buildings, long diverted from their original 
uses and something of architectural eflfect to the 

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scene, the castle-like lookincr jail having been a 
long familiar sight, standing sentinel-like on the 
hill south of the flat. 

The first settler on the village site (and it is 
thought the first in tlie county) was the Verinonter, 
Gleason, who was an Indian trader there as early as 
1831, with a store and cultivated land. The first 
tavern was built in 1848. Some of the county build- 
ings were used for church purposes after the re- 
moval of the seat of Justice. 

The village was thus made up twenty- five or 
thirty years flgo, according to the best recollection 
of an old resident. There was a large brick tavern 
house in the eastern part, a temperance house near 
the center; a steam window, blind and cabinet fact- 
ory, a wagon and carriage shop, two general stores, 
three store-houses and docks, a slioe-shop, a sad 
dler's-shop, a cooper-shop, a tailor-shop, two car 
penter's-shops, and two law ofBces and a school- 
house. The Metho<list and Baptist Societies used 
the court-house for public worship. There were 
also three lumber yards and docks, and Mr. Green 
had a dock at which steamboats stopped regularly. 
The population was about 400, and it was believed 
that, as the country settled up and the wants of the 
people became more numerous, Marquette would 
become a place of much im|)ortance, it being the 
nearest point on the river for the shipment of pro- 
duce for the southern parts of Green Lake and Day- 
ton (now extinct) and for Mackford, Manchester 
and Kingston. 


The town of Princeton is on the western border 
of the county, a little north of the center. It is 
bounded on the nt)rth partially by Marquette 
County and partially by St. Marie, on the east by 
Brooklyn and Green Lake on the south by Mar- 
quette and on the west by Marquette County. It 
is watered by the Fox River, which crosses it 
circuitously in a southwesterly course. 

The surface of this town is rolling and partially 
timbered with the several varieties of oak com- 
mon to this region. The soil is a sandy loam and 
clay underlayed with limestone. In the central 
part of the town a chain of limestone bluffs makes 
a prominent feature in the landscape. East of the 

Fox River the land is high and rolling. Between 
Darlford and Princeton is a handsome valley 
which gave to this town its first name, Pleasant 


The first cabin erected in this town stood on 
what was afterward known as the Simpson farm, 
three miles east of Princeton. It was kept oi^en 
as a tavern by John B. Winchell. At this house was 
held the first town meeting and the first ''court" of 
this town, the latter, of course, being presided 
over by a .Justice of the Peace. Eighty votes 
were cast at the first election, of which number 
the now village of Princeton cast only three. 
South of the site of this primitive dwelling and 
hostelry, is a bluff about fifty feet in height with 
an almost perpendicular front, with limestone 
visible its entire length. 

In 1 846, John Knapp, Ezra Rosebrooks, P. Wicks, 
Sr., N. Lowe, A. L. Holmes and Delos Maxonmade 
their homes in the town. These men, in connection 
with others who soon followed, opened woods, 
built school houses and churches and introduced 
other substantial improvements. Among those 
who located in this section from 1846 to 1850 were 
William C. Briggs, Dr. T. Millard, Enos Moe, A. 
M. Parsons and Edward Harroun. 

The village of Princeton was platted by R. C. • 
Treat, in 1848. Other pioneers there were H. B. 
Treat, Anson Randall, John Randall, W. O. Flint 
and P. M. Knapp. A more extended history of 
this village under a separate heading. 

First Things. 

The first white child born in the town was Jack- 
son Ross. Mr. W. Glendenning and Miss Julia 
Duane were the first couple married. The first 
death was that of Mrs. Henry Treat in 1848. The 
Congregational Church at Princeton was the first 
religious organization effected in the town. Rev. 
E. Bradford was pastor. 


Princeton was organized in 1849 as Pleasant 
Valley and then included St. Marie. St. Marie was 
setoff in 1852. At that time Delos Davis was 
chairman of Princeton and D. P. Rawson was 

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Local Peeuliarities. 

Ple&sant Valley is sandy. The lowlands in 


western part are broken and were not early culti- 
vated. In the valley of the Fox there is some 
high roiling land. From the town line east to the 
river is an extensive marsh oxteading into the town 
of St. Marie. 

Villag:e of Princeton. 

Princeton is the terminus of the local line of 
the Chicago and Northwestern Railway and is 
otherwise important as one of the leading villages 
in the three counties treated in this work. Not the 
least among its claims to notoriety is the fact that 
it was to all practical intents for a short time the 
county seat of Green Lake County. In 1866 a 
vote was taken upon removing the seat of justice 
from Dartford to Princeton and a majority of the 
Board of Supervisors decided in favor of Dart- 
ford. A minority reix)rted, however, in favor of 
Princeton, and their decision was supported ty the 
decision of the attorney general of the State. 
Some of the citizens of Princeton forcibly took 
possession of the records and at a very early hour 
in the morning removed them to Princeton. An 
appeal was then made by the people of the eastern 
part of the county to the Supreme Court of the 
State, and on a ruling in their favor the county 
seat was once more moved to Dartford where it has 
since remained. As it was, Princeton was only 
second best upon the original election. Although 
there were towns in the county which had voted in 
their own interest which had at least one- third more 
inhabitants when the votes were canvassed, Prince- 
ton stood second and came within eighty votes of 
securing the county seat; and nothing short of the 
entire vote of the city of Berlin defeated the 
praiseworthy desire of making the village of 
Princeton the place where lawyers, sheriffs, peace- 
breakers, each in their several departments, should 
learn and hear what the statute declares. It is a 
brisk business point with a population of 1,300, an 
assured personal and real property valuation of 
$225,000 and no boniled debt. 

Royal C. Treat, Esq., arrived on the present site 
of the village, April 15, 1848, and onthe2ndof 
July* sU^ked out a claim on what was afterward 

Block B. of the village plat. He soon put up the 
first building, a shanty, for which he hauled the 
boards from Steven's Point. This building stood 
on Main street, near the bridge, nearly opposite the 

E. Mantley residence. The Indians were very 
troublesome at this time and the pioneer at times 
found it hard to hold his own against them. They 
pulled off the boards from his humble habitation 
and without knocking or expressing thanks com- 
mitted depredations upon his flour and pork bar- 
rels, and also carried away his bedding and cooking 
utensils, doing their utmost to break him up in 
his primitive housekeeping. In order to fortify 
himself against those too fnquent and unwelcome 
visitors, he built a log house. This the red men 
could not so easily tear down as they had to a cer- 
tain extent torn down the board one, yet even af- 
ter that Mr. Treat suffere I more or less from their 
encroachments. In September, 1848, Nelson M. 
Pai*8ons joined Mr. Treat. John Knapp, who af- 
terward became the first postmaster, came with 
his family in February, 1849. About this time 
Mr. Treat and his brother H. B. Treat went to the 
land office at Green Biy and in June returned own- 
ers flf 132 acres of land. For a time the place had 
been known as Treat's Landing. Now these broth- 
ers laid out the vill.ige and called it Princeton. 
That was the original i)lat. A part of it was vaca- 
ted in 1878. Princeton addition was laid out July 
12, 1855, by Henry B. Treat and Nelson M. Par- 
sons. Parsons* second addition was platted about 
this time. Flint and Treat's addition was platted 
in 1857; Rosebrook's in 1867; R. C. Treat's in 
1872, and W. S. Flint's in 1875. 

Other early settlers were Philemon Weeks, 

F. Durand, E. B. Simpson, John Blend, Charles 
Stacy, Delos Maxon, Anson Randall, Edward Har- 
roun and P. M. Knapp. Of these Wright was the 
property owner; Weeks was an extensive farmer. 
Durand and Harroun were merchant and clerk, res- 
pectively; Blend and Stacy were carpenters; Max- 
on kept hotel two miles and a half south of Prince- 
ton ; Knapp was a grocei*. 

Among early business men were F. Durand and 
Alexander, Anson and John Randall, merchants; 
W. H. and A. L. Flint, imrsery; Hall and Seeley. 
merchants; Richipond Tucker, werphant; John ]», 

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Winchell, Newton M. Parsons and John Knapp, 
hotel keepers. R. P. Rawson, Salem T. Wright, 
Davis H. Wnite and La Fayette Fisher were also 
early merchants. P. M. Knapp and D. P. Rawson 
opened a store in the fall of 18.53. They were suc- 
ceeded by R. P. Raw.«on in 1858. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rawson & Thirl in 1862. This house 
long since went out of trade. Prominent among 
the merchants from the close of the war to the 
present time have been Teske Brothers, 8. M. Eg- 
gleston, H. E. Hopkins, Green & Carman, W. F. 
Luedtke, Leek <fe Manthey, Warnke Brothers, An- 
tone Rimpler, H. H. Harmon, Martin Manthey <fe 

Early physicians were Drs. Randall, Millard, 
Everhart, (who lived in St. Marie and practiced 
here), Terwilligcr and De^ve3^ 

John B- Winchell, Newton M. Parsons and John 
Knapp have been mentioned as early hotel men. 
Chauncey Boylan was another and the firm of Par- 
sons & Stiles was well known. 

G. E. Lamont was interested in building what is 
now the American House. This house was burned 
down and rebuilt in 1885. Among those who 
have done the honors there have been D.ivid^I. 
Waite, John Hore3% John Thompson, W. J. Frank, 
August Shiele, F. W. Cooke, J. P. Snyder and H. 
K. Priest, the present proprietor. This house dates 
from 1850, or earlier. It is one of the most popu- 
lar in the county. The Hubbard House was opened 
after the war and was destroyed by fire in April, 
1880. Among its landlords were Captain Baldwin, 
Lant Burroughs, Wilkins & Eggenbroad, J. H. 
Hubbs, George Callick and J. H. Hubbard, the 
latter at the beginning as well as at the close of its 
history. The City Hotel was built about a dozen 
years ago by its present proprietor, Fred Schin- 

The first village election was held Jan. 30, 1865. 
The following officers were elected : R. C. Treat, 
president; D. M. Green and A. Thiel, trustees; 
Zclutus Fisher, treasurer; A. B. Dick, clerk; C. 
Pi I HI", marshal. The following is the copy of the 
0^1, ' resoluiion of importance framed at the first 
meeting of llie village board: *'Whereas, the village 
of Princeton, being desirous of filling their quota by 
raising money to pay volunteers for enlisting in 

the United States service to fill said quota and the 
present call of the President for 300,000 men, be 
it resolved, that the Board of Trustees of the village 
of Princeton be instructed not to add the name of 
any person to the enrolled list of said village who 
is known to be already enrolled in any other town^ 
city or village in the State of Wisconsin, to the 
detriment of the village and tax-payers of the said 
village." The successive presidents of the village 
have been R. C. Treat, 1865; Wahlo S. Flint, 1866; 
Alvin L. Flint, 1867-68: Philemon Wickes, 1869; 
Waldo S. Flint, 1870; D. M.Green, 1871; F. A. 
Wilde, 1872-73; H. H. Hopkins, 1874: A. E. 
Thompson, 1875; J. P. Schneider, 1876-80; John 
C. Thompson, 1881; R. P. Rawson, 1882; J. P. 
Schneider, 1883-84; Gottlieb Luedtke, 1885-88; 
August Swanke, 1889. The present trustees are 

E. Mueller and August Teske, Henry Manthey is 
clerk. The fire department was organized in 1882 
and is supplied with a hand engine. Among promi- 
nent members and officers have been G. A. Teske, 

F. W. Cooke, G. A. Kreger and William Luedtke. 
Thirty years ago the following summary of 

Princeton's interests and professions was made: 
Eleven stores, three taverns, two drug and apothe- 
cary stores, two doctors, two lawyers, two shoe- 
shops, four blacksmith-shops, two carriage and 
wagon shops, one tailor-shop, one tin-shop, four 
saloons, one chair and cabinet factor3\ The popu- 
lation was about 900, less than two- thirds of the 
present population. The village includes the set- 
tlements then west of the river,where in 1857, W. S. 
and A. L. Flint built a substantial stone gristmill, 
three stories high, with two runs of stones, capable 
of manufacturing fifty barrels of flour in twenty- 
four hours,the water used having been brought from 
the Mecan river in a canal six miles long and ten 
feet wide. A float bridge formerly furnished 
means of crossing the Fox at this point. It has 
given place to a more modern structure. 

The old agricultural society used to hold county 
fairs at Princeton regularly from 1854 for a num- 
ber of years, with the exception of 1857. The fair- 
grounds consisted of about two acres of level 
ground in the east part of the village, surrounded 
by a substantial fence. The yearly assembling of 
people from all parts of the county gave, for the 

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time being, life and variety quite a variance witli 
the every day experience of the localities. Tavern- 
keepers rejoiced and prospered, and general trade 
flourished. The (ierraans smoked their pipes and 
drank their beer and extended greetings to all 
comers with more than common gusto, and the 
•Yankees seized the opportunity to make promising 
bets on the acting events. The old fairs have 
been referred to as being like the old fashioned gen- 
eral trainings, but ^'without the firelocks, fuss and 
feathers," so characteristic to such affairs. 

The oldest church organizations in Princeton 
arc the Congregational and Methodist societies. 
The Catholics, Lutherans and German Congrega- 
tionalists also have stated worship. 

The Princeton Congregational Church, like most 
American churches, had for its birthplace the dis- 
trict school-house. It occupied the village sciiool- 
house in company with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church for some months, but owing to a disagree- 
ment as to which church should hold the morning 
service in the building, it was resolved by this 
society to erect a church house of its own. The 
church was organized Feb. 8, 1852, with fourteen 
members, the Rev. Ebenezer Green Bradford be- 
ing pastor; Sylvester Hawkins, Darius II. Waite 
and Alvin L. Flint were the trustees. Rev. Mr. 
Bradford's pastorate lasted four years. He re 
tired from the vicinity on closing his connections 
with the church of March 30, 1856. He was sue- 
ceded in the pastorate by Rev. B. Miller, who ac- 
cepted the call of the church April 9, 1856. Mc 
continued with the church until his death which oc- 
curred in 1861, caused by a fall from a load of ha}-. 
The next minister was the Rev. Lucius Parker, 
who was called Feb. 25, 1862. He remained until 
Christmas, 1864, when he retired to engage in a 
secular occupation. In April, 1865, the Kev. Rich- 
ard Fairbairn was called. During his pastorate 
the church was enlarged and beautified by the 
addition of a bell-tower and vestibule. He retired 
March 30, 1868, after a pastorate of three years. 
August, 9, 1868, Rev. William Bichard was called 
from the Berlin Congregational Church. He re- 
mained as pastor until his death, July 31, 1HH2, 
terminating a service of fourteen years. After his 
death tb^ church had only occasional preaching 

until the arrival of Rev. Arthur Spooner, May 1, 
1887. He was graduated from the Chicago Theo- 
logical Seminary and was ordained in Princeton, 
October, 1887. He withdrew September, 1888. 
During his pastorate the church began various im- 
provements which were completed by his successor. 
Bev. Alexander Chambers, the present pastor, is a 
graduate of the East London Institute, Loudon, 
England. He was installed as pastor Feb. 19, 1889. 
Tnder his ministry the church has Increased in 
membership. A German congregation has been 
formed and the church building has been reno- 
vated and improved inside and outside. 

Among the early settlers of Princeton were a 
handful of Methodists, who with the Methodist zeal 
and enthusiasm, organized a class in 1849, and for 
sometime held their meeting in the bar-room of 
WinchelTs hotel, there being no other convenient 
or available place at that time. In 1851 the dis- 
trict built a small school house in which the society 
held religious services weekly, until 1854 or 1855, 
when its present neat and commodious church was 
built. The church has maintained itself well, has 
had a steady growth and is at present in a fairly 
prosperous condition. Some of the first members 
are still living, ^'pillars of the church" through all 
its history. Among the early pastors were Rev. 
Haywood, Holmes, Shroff, Martin, Whitney, 
Pierce, Watts and Slater. Later pastors have been 
the Revs. Boggess, Seely, Day, McHenry, Doolittle, 
Bullock, Graves and Symons. 

The Catholic Church of Princeton is attended 
by Rev. J. Raster of the Neshkoro Church. 

The Princeton Republic is in its twenty-fourth 
volume. It was published four years by Mr. Mc- 
Connell and later by Rowe and Thompson and J. 
C. Thompson. In 1881 it passed into the hands of 
Rawson k Beebe, who were succeeded by the pres- 
ent proprietors, E. R. Beebe and James H. David- 
son, under the firm name of Beebe & Davidson. It 
is a sjH'ightly eight-page, six-column paper, ably 
edited and devoted to the best interests of Prince- 
ton ^nd vi(;inity. 

The Princeton Lidepemlent was first issued ii 
1876 by n stock company, and published by Meyer- 
and (Joodell. Its name was changed, soon aftcj- 
ward, to the Green Lake County Demorraf. an(! jt 

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was published four years by S. D. Goodell, who 
moved it to Markesan, where it suspended in 188fi. 
The Merhur^ a German paper was published at 
Princeton from 1876 to 1878, by P. F. L. Warns 
and C. G. H. Marksteadt successively. 

The private banking house of F. T. Yahr, is one 
of Princeton's most useful institutions. Its capi- 
tal is $25,000. F. T. Yahr, president and treas- 
urer; E. F. Yahr, cashier. 

Among other important interests may be men- 
tioned its carriage and wagon factories, flouring, 
feed, planing and sorghum mills, foundry and 
machine shops, grain elevator and brewery. 

Wallace Dantz Post, Grand Army of Republic, 
No. 228, wns mustered Oct. 8, 1886, with the fol- 
lowing officers and members: A. Eggerbroad, 
Commander; G. T. Haraer, S. V. C; August 
Mittelstadt, J. V. C; William J. Frank, Qmr.; 
Henry Rose, Chap.; Frank S. Merrill, O. D.; 
Philo J. Heskins, Surg.; August Kleiner, O. G.; 
Edward Harroun, Adjt.; Henry Crowthe, S. M. ; 
M. C. Russell, Q*mr.-Sergt. ; Silsby Stevens, George 
Leiches, Caleb Washburn, Peter Zelner, Frank 
Tucker, William Santo, Julius Rimplos, and Loren 
N. Bennett. A. Eggerbroad was commander in 
1886 and 1887 and Frank Tucker in 1888 and 1889. 
The present officers are Frank Tucker, Commander; 
G. T. Hamer, S. V. C; Henry Pooch, J. V. C; 
Silbsy Stevens, Qnr.; Henry Rose, Chap.; A. 
Eggerbroad, O. D.; A. M. Vars, Surg.; August 
Kleinet, O. G.; Edward Harroun, Adjt. The 
membership is twenty-eight. 

St. Marie. 

St. Marie lies in the northwest quarter of Green 
Lake County. It is bounded norlh by Seneca, east 
by Berlin and Brookh'n, south by Brooklyn jind 
Princeton and west by Marquette County. The 
White and Fox Rivers flow along most of its north- 
ern border and the latter traverses the town in a 
direction from southwest to northeast. There are 
no other streams except small creeks. The Packayan 
and White River marshes encroach much upon its 
territory. The lands surrounding these marshes 
J re high, broken and marked by uneven sand hills. 
The balance of the territory is less broken but very 
san(ly,adapted to corn production and cattle raising. 

A Noted Pioneer. 

One of the earliest and the most prominent of 
the pioneers of this town was Colonel Shaw, of 
historic memory. Shaw came to Wisconsin in 
1845. He traveled over and explored nearly all 
parts of the State, and decided to settle on the Fox 
River about four miles below the City of Berlin, 
opposite the old Mason nursery. That was in 1846. 
He had 20 horses, 120 head of cattle, 168 hogs and 
some pigs. After a two years' residence there he 
moved to the site of the old village of St. Marie, 
called by Pere Marquette in his journal of his 
voyage to the Mississippi, ^' Lacote Ste, Marie** in 
English, St. Marie's hill or bluff. Before this time 
the Indians had stolen most of his hogs and killed 
many of his cattle. Such animals as the Indians 
did not take or kill, were killed bj' dogs. Soon 
after his removal to St. Marie some of his horses 
were stolen by white men and some died of distem- 
per. This was the beginning of his ill- fortune. 
His location at St. Marie was considered the best 
crossing place on the river, a point at which it was 
thought the trade and travel of the surrounding 
country must eventually center. Having his claims 
contested and impediments put in his way by the 
Board of Public Works who contended that his 
claim was too valuable for one man to own, his 
enterprise was handicapped so heavily that other 
towns soon outstripped St. Marie in growth and 
progress. Finally, when it was too late to do Mr. 
Shaw any good, the Legislature passed a law abro- 
gating the action of the Board and securing to him 
that which he had claimed. His whole claim was 
205 acres and at one time he was ofl'ered $10,000 
for one-fourth of it, but the action of the Board 
prevented his closing the bargain. Colonel Shaw 
was a noted Western pioneer who had traveled 
over nearly all parts of the country and made his 
home in many places. It is said he had an Indian 


Other Settlers. 

Other early settlers were Mason Whiting, David 
Rosebrook and Edward D. Dyke. The Catholics 
have a strong organization and a fine church at 
St. Marie. Mt. Tom, situated about two miles 
north of the village, is famous for its good lime, 
which is used extensivelyin the surrounding country. 

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Ylllagre of St. Marie. 

The village of St. Marie is pleasantly situated on 
the rather uneven high bank of land on the east 
side of the Fox River. In tiroes gone by it bade 
fair to become a place of considerable importance; 
but other localities as places of business have shorn 
it of its advantages for trade and commerce. Its 
appearance denotes dilapidation and shows that 
much means was at one time wasted in the endeavor 
to make a good village at this point. The village 
plat which was recorded June 28, 1851, embraces 
part of section 7, township 16, range 12. This 
village was thus described thirty years ago: One 
church edifice in an unfinished condition; a bridge 
across the river, a stiam boat landing; two 
hotels; one store; one shoe shop, two blacksmith 
shops, a post office, a district school, about 125 
inhabitants. There is now no post-office of that 



About half a mile south of this village is the 
site of the village of Hamilton, a competitor with 
St. Marie for metropolitan honors, which at one 
time had a population of 125. This town was 
platted on a showy and extensive scale and looked 
as well on paper as any town of 3,000 population 
does now. In the days of its prosperity it had two 
stores, two blacksmiths' shops, a tin shop, two 
taverns, a |K)stofl3ce, and a bridge across the river, 
which the fates in an angiy flood at the breaking 
ap of the river in the spring carried down stream, 
thus sealing the doom of this unstable product of 
speculation. An old settler thus describes Hamilton 
as it appeared about the outbreak of the war: 
'"What there was left of the place were four dwellings 
and a barn. Taverns houses and stores had gone 
off bodily — the College House of St. Marie moved 
off under the steady pull of fifty-three yoke of 
oxen, while some less cumbersome took a more 
lengthy flight to Princeton where one was occupied 
as a store by R. C. Treat. 

State Center. 

This was the name of another town that was 
begun in St Marie, back in the speculative days, 
and which was subsequently carted away piece meal 
after it was demonstrated that it would never hang 

together. It was so named because it was claimed 
to be in the geographical center of Wisconsin. It 
would have been easier to have shown that it was 
in the center of the superficial earth. 

Seneca is the northwest corner town of the 
county. It is bounded north by Waushara County, 
east by Berlin, south by St. Marie and west by 
Marquette County. It is one of the smaller towns 
of the county and is largely mai-sh. The land 
next to Ashford Isle is level opening. The isle 
consists of several hundred acres of fine timbered 
lands — mostly oak and hickory. A small creek to 
the west divides this isle from Rodney's Isle, which 
is the highest land in the vicinity and contains 
over 1,000 acres, with some prominent outcrop- 
pings of rock near its center. Pine Island has 
nearly as many acres, but is low and level and not 
much cultivated. These so-called '' isles " and 
^' islands *' are but solid patches of hard ground 
amid the marshes and partially surrounded by small 
creeks. Another,Seneca Isle contains over 1 ,500 acres 
and is partly cultivated. The town is better adapted 
to growing grass and raising stock than to ordinary 
agriculture. The rocky formation near the center 
of Rodney's Isle, rising to a height of forty to 
sixty feet, is quite like the stone quarried at Berlin 
and elsewhere but has never been developed to any 
extent. The outcropping is about forty acres in 
extent. White River fiows through the southeast 
corner of the town, uniting with the Fox near its 
southern extremity. The Fox forms the east part 
of its southern boundary. White River marsh is 
one of the most extensive in the town. 

Settlement and Population. 

The first settlement in town was made by a Mr 
Ashford on what is now known as Ashford's Isle. 
About one of the first houses in town was the 
Four-Mile House, formerly a tavern kept by a well- 
remembered boniface named Clogg. There is 
about equal American and foreign population. At 
a comparatively early period there was a small 
English settlement started near the P'our-Mile 
House. Rodney's Isle was mostly settled by Irish. 
During more recent years some Poles have come 
into the town. When Marquette County was 
divided two miles of the east part of Neshkoro were 
added to Seneca, 

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8ttk;Q7@i5t o! MaFquQ'tl^ Coiiijlj. 


^•: - I ♦♦• 




GREAT deal that is of in- 
terest in connection with 
the history of Marquette 
County will be found in the 
chapter on the settlement of 
Ireen Lake County. The first 
!Ht;ttlement within the present 
(■oonty limits was made in the 
town of Buffalo in the spring of 
(^^j 1848 by H. F. Owen and J. 1. 
J/ \a O^Blainis. A school-house was 
built sliortly afterward, and the first 
term of school was taught by a 
man named Birdsall. The lands 
south of the lake were placed in the 
market by the Government several years prior to 
the offering of those lands situated north of that 
body of water. 

The first religious services were conducted by a 
Catliolie priest, who officiated at a mission on an 
island in Spring Lake, in the town of Shields. 
This was as early as 1848. The first Protestant 
clergyman was Isaac Smith, a Primitive Methodist, 
who held meetings in the different settlements in 
the fall of 1848. 

S. A. Pease came to this county in 1850, and was 
its first practicing physician. The first entry of 
Government land was May 11, 183G, by John 
Noyes, in the present town of Packwaukee. This 
name is given in honor of a friendly Winnebago 

Early in the history of this county, before actual 
settlement had advanced or was well begun, foreign 
speculators, ciiarmed by the beautiful scenery 
which hire abounds, and encouraged by the pres- 
ence of the Fox River and Buffalo Lake and other 
bodies of water, located and platted several town 
sites, which they advertised throughout the East, 

without accomplishing much in the inducement 
of settlement, however. The first deed of laiid in 
Marquette County (then in Brown County) was 
dated Aug. 22, 183G. 

The western towns are peopled mustl}^ b^' 
Americans, while in the eastern and northern parts 
of the county the foreign element is well repre- 
sented. James Daniels was the first settler upon 
the site of Montello, locating in 184i). About the 
same time the Darts, J. M. and Joseph R. came. 
Between 1850 and 1852 came John Lewis, Dr. 
II. S. Pratt, the Kelleys and others, including 
Phillips <fc Giddings, merchants, and E. K. Smith, 
hotel keeper. Among other pioneers in various 
parts of the county were the following: William 
Morgan, George Reed, Robert Lytic, James Foley. 
John Bremner, George, Robert and William Mc- 
Kay, ,John iVIadden, John Campion, James Graham, 
James Mair. David Taylor, David Eggleston, John 
Annis, Neil Diamond, Stephen and William May- 
nard, in Buffalo; William Murphy, II. 8. Thomas, 
Patrick Clark, P. Mason, John Cleary, James 
Slowey, William McGinnis, James Briggs, LI. H. 
Parrott, in Douglas; Christian Togats, in Crystal 
Lake; Alexander Potts, James D^as, F. M. 
Wicks, Michael Barry, John Barry, William A. 
Stebbins, James Harris, Jose[)h Farrington, W. II. 
Peters, in Harris; the Darts, Patrick McDonald, 
James Barry, L. O. Evans, Richard Giddings, 
Bonaparte Baker, Joseph Lake, Elkanah Smith, 
Solon Davis, William and John Cogan, John Stin- 
son, Timothy Hayes, Edward Murray, in Montello; 
Stei)lien and William Fallis, in Mecan ; William 
Boydon, the Slades, in Newton; Robert Hume, 
M. G. Ellison. He v. Isaac Smith. Thomas Mills, 
Isaac Brown, W. L. Gaylord, H. Brown, L. Felton, 
R. Wells, D. Coon, George Skinner, William Wal- 
son, George Denby, George Bain, in Moundville; 

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Michael Powers, Nicholas Gernon, L. D. Ralph, 
Benjamin Hayes, William Clay, Andrew Scobey, 
J. A. Wells, in Ncshkoro; E. Pcttengill, E. T. 
Older, C. G. Barker, Jesse Older, William Ewen, 
David Phelps, 8. A. Pease, John Chapman, E. 
King, Samuel Wayman, E. McCoffrey, Robert 
Page, William Peet, Charles Metcalf, Chestei 
Frink, Town Whitson, in Packwaukee; D. K. 
Deveney, James Clavin, P. Curley, James Cro- 
arken, in Shields; David Sands, William Stiles, 
in Springfield ; Robert Cochran, Samuel Crockett, 
Frank and Samuel Russell, Thomas Hamilton, 
Thomas Block, Charles Crantz, Philo Lackey, in 
AVestfield; William Alford, the Ormsbys, H. H. 
Taylor, William Johnson, Eli McNutt, in Oxford. 

Old Settlers' Re-Unions. 

An Old Settlers* Club was formed in Marquette 
County some years ago. A meeting was held in 
1876, at which the following programme was car- 
ried out: Address by Dr. S. A. Pease; subject, 
"On Top of the Hill;'* Addresses and papers suit- 
able to the occasion, by D. K. Devanejs H. H. 
Taylor, F. Abbott, C. S.- Kelsey, William JL Pet- 
ers, H. M. Older, and Mrs. C. G. Barker. Songs 
were rendered by Frank Russell, and James Foley. 
The address of Hon. W. H. Peters is given, not be- 
cause it was more eloquent and scholarly than the 
the others, but for the reason that it contains more 
of historical interest: 

"I did not think it was in the programme that I 
should say anything, and am wholly unprepared. 
But I think it proper that I should say something 
on this occasion. 

'»T was raised in the State of New York, and 
came to this State in the spring of 1850, landing 
in Montello on the 17th day of May, of that ye&r. 
There was no Montello here then. There were four 
families of us together. We pitched our tente at 
the junction of the Fox and Montello Rivers. 
Loomis had a log house there, and we got permis- 
sion for the women and children to sleep on the 
floor at night, while the men lay out doors under 
logs, and on the ground. We prospected through 
the country two days for claims. Everything 
looked desolate and wild. There were no roads, 
bridges, or school-houses, and no dwelling houses, I 

with the exception of a few huts along the banks 
of Buffalo Lake; there never had been any crops 
raised here north of the Fox River. The third 
morning we held a council, and all present voted 
to hire teams and go back to Milwaukee, except 
myself. I voted to remain; and when they found I 
would not go, they all concluded to stay. 

'*We had a hard time the first year. All the set- 
tlers that were here were poor, and no work to be 
had. I bought potatoes to plant, paying $1.25 per 
bushel for them, and backed them seven miles. On 
the 14th of July, 1850, I with three others, started 
for Madison to find work. We had to travel fifty 
miles on foot. The first day we passed through 
what is now Portnge City. The only buildings I 
noticed, were a hotel and store, on the flats east of 
Portage. The hotel was kept by Henry Carpenter. 
We stopped the first night at a little village south- 
east of Portage. I slept in a new building partly 
finished. I had but two shillings in money, and 
thatslipi>ed out of my pocket while lying upon the 
floor. 1 did not miss it until I went to pay for 
my breakfast in the morning, five miles away; but 
1 got my breakfast anyway. The next night we 
stopped at a place called Cottage Grove, consisting 
of a tavern and a barn. Having no money, I slept 
upon the barn floor, with neither hay, straw or 
blankets, and was nearly chilled. In the morning 
a man said he would hire one of us, at $1 per day, 
to rake and bind. T went with him, and during the 
time I worked for him, I learned his name was Will- 
iam R. Taylor. I found him to be a gentleman, 
and a first rate cradler. I bound for him four 
days. That William R. Taylor was Governor of 
this State for the past two years, and a good one 
too. I work fifteen days and earned $15, traveling 
over 100 miles to earn it. I did it to get some- 
thing to eat for my little family. 

"But things are changed now. All through here 
we see fine farms and farm houses, fine barns, fine 
roads and bridges, fine school-houses and fine 
churches, and a refined set of people, the picture 
of health, and all prospering. We have no jails 
or poorhouses; we have no need for them. 1 will 
here venture to assert that nowhere else on God's 
earth can you find 9,000 people in one county that 
are so free from crime as are the people of Mar^ 

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quelle County. I will also assert that nowhere 
can you find so few paupers, according to the pop- 
ulation, as here; and what we have, have been re- 
cently imported from other States. Our soil is 
not the best in the world, but we are able to com- 
plete with almost any other county in the State for 
fine horses; we turn out annually a vast amount of 
pork, beef, butler, wool, and mutton; we have the 
finest grazing land in the State, with a great extent 
of natural meadows, besides, our wheat is as good 
as any raised in the United States; our corn crop 
never fails us, and for potatoes, we can't be beat 
this side of California; we have fine timber, good 
water, and the healthiest locality in the world. 

"I have traveled through Missouri, Kansas, 
Nebraska, Iowa and Minnesota, with the express 
purpose of ascertaining their advantages and dis- 
advantages. They have very good soil but they 
also have a thousand drawbacks that we know 
nothing about. I am satisfied that a man can do 
belter in this county, with a capital of from 
$1,000 to $10,000, than in any other part of the 
United States I have ever seen. If there are any 
here who intend to leave this country expecting to 
improve their condition, they had better give up 
the idea and remain here; because if they do go 
they will be sure to return, as hundreds have done 
before. I claim we are a favored people and in a 
favored location. We who have lived here for 
twenty-five years have never seen a failure in a 
crop, a pestilence or famine, riot, murder or 
robbery. And during my residence here, I have 
always met with the kindest treatment by all the 
citizens of the county. I have no reason to com- 
plain of any one, and will here assert that I have 
not now, and never did have, an animosity against 
any man, woman or child in the county." 

" May you all live long to enjoy the fruits of 
your labors, and meet here annually for many 
years to come at the re- union of the Old Settlers* 
Club of Marquette County." 

The reunion of 1878 was a successful and enjo}'- 
able one. Opera Hall, Montello, was comfortably 
filled at an early hour by members of the Old 
Settlers* Club and friends who had assembled to 
pirticipate in or witness the fourth annual festival 
of the Society. Pr. Russell, of Westfield, presi- 

i dent of the club, called the meeting to order and 

' the programme of the evening was announced by 

j Dr. S. A. Pease, the secretary. After music by 
the string and cornet band of Montello, Mr. Pease 

; read the following address, entitled, ''Spring, 

I Summer, Autumn and Winter,*' which was well 

i received. 

' " In what harmony and how illustrative are the 
times and things of nature. The spring buds are 
developed into the cradle by the home fireside. 

i They open into summer blossoms under the warm- 
ing and (!heering ways of the parental sun. They 

' ripen into autumn fruit under the combined 
influences of education, experience and observa- 

I lion, and finally drop from the limbs and branches 
of the old tree and hie away into winter quarters 
in obedience to the inevitable law of succession 
which rules and governs the animate and inanimate 
world. Generation succeeds generation and the 
seasons roll round and roll on without any appar- 
ent interruption in their progress and without any 
apparent falling off in numbers, because when one 
stops by the wayside «n»other comes aboard, and 
thus trains of human freight are always loaded and 
borne on to their final destination. 

''One or two first-class trains with first-class 
passengers have run into Montello, not, however, 
because it is the end of the track, nor because the 
road is out of repair, but as a place of rendez- 
vous for a brief consultation over the question 
whether it is not possible, after all, to transform 
the whole system and turn winter into spring or 
summer and ramble awhile among the rich and 
graceful blossoms and perhaps enjoy the privilege 
of another autumn season. 

" To-nigbt we are to settle the question whether 
we cannot turn our faces from the north, and with 
the heat of a little youthful enthusiasm melt down 
the icebergs of the frigid zones of old age, throw 
away the gray hairs of the frosty period and engage 
once more and for a season in the laugh of a young 
child. The joys of early life are not far away — 
they are only laid up in the open storeroom of 
recollection, and the door is not locked. We have 
only to knock at its portals, raise the latch and 
walk in. We need not tarry long enough to get 
in the way, but only to take another feast of the 

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honeymoon and drink again from the waters of 
primitive enjoyment and thus add one more inter- 
esting .volume to life's history. We all have the 
ability and it is but right and proper to vindicate 
a determination to play off once a year and go back 
to the spring and summer of life. The laugh is 
not all out of us, and we have come here to prove 
it, and if the memory is a little at fault and we 
make some mistakes because we have forgotten the 
precise rule, we will charge it over to a long 
experience on the Indian Land to be settled when 
our children shall prove to the world that this 
country of sand and good health will at a time 
not far distant become the wealthiest of the whole 
northwestern portion of this large continent. 

•' Whilst age with a good conscience has its 
pleasures and enjoyments — else nature has made 
some fatal mistake — oft it is better to have bread 
with faith, as a mixed diet makes a better feast. 
Thus, to-night, let us hash it up and turn all the 
seasons and all the stages of life into one pool and 
distribute dividends and perhaps exhaust the entire 
capital before morning. Let every individual 
member of this audience assume the position of a 
a special committee to solicit contributions to the 
stock of fun and mirth, not even refusing small 
gifts, nor stop to criticise the form in which they 
are bestowed." 

'' The past twenty -seven years* history of Mar- 
quette County was full of intense interest then, as 
its many pages were written and volumes made up 
and bound. It will be replete with interest now, 
in its repetition before those who know of its 
truthfulness and even to those who do not. The 
time has been when county linos formed no limits 
to the zealous laboi*s of some of our office-seeking 
politicians. The unsuspecting voters of Adams 
and Waushara Counties have often been set upon 
by the candidate for office in this connty. Elec- 
tioneering was not circumscribed by geographical 
lines when this countrj- was new. Local town offi- 
cers have been quite as much at fault in not know- 
ing a section corner or a section line. Many a poor 
fellow over in Adams County has been made to 
contribute money to the border tax gatherers. In 
fact it is but a few years Jigo that a load of candi- 
dates, with more zeal than geography in their pos- 

session, spent one whole day up in Waushara County 
and counted up votes enough to make success a 
certainty in advance, but after election the returned 
1X)11- lists were short and the candidates were sick 
for two years thereafter. I recollect well the large 
political meetings and the eloquent and stirring 
speeches made by Mark J)erham and Steve Fallis 
up at Roxo and Forrestville to the Winnebagoes and 
down in Mecan to the German voters — and they 
always made it count, because the}' were never 
beaten. While upon this range of thought, I am 
reminded of the ten thousand political snarls in 
this county where the biggest dog was not always 
on top. You know the battle is not always to the 
strong, and the adage has been many times verifled 
in Marquette County, but in that respect it is now 
all quiet on the Potomac, and the Turks have been 
badly cleaned out and Christianity vindicated — 
over the left. 

*' Twenty-seven years ago the country was new. 
As the politicians would say, it was a howling wil- 
derness, and many of the old settlers are mighty 
sorry they didn't let it howl. Then it was that the 
Indian dug his hole in the ground, and the wolf 
built his log hut, and the fox, the bear and wild 
cat played the fiddlje and banjo; and it is said by 
the Christian fathers who survived the Black Hawk 
War that they had a good time generally, and 
judging from the early camp-meetings and claim 
fights in times gone by I should say that religion 
was one thing very much needed and that the sup- 
ply was not equal to the demand. Twenty-seven 
years ago we had cold potatoes and cold prayer 
meetings ; we had plenty of pumpkins the first 
year, and the same kind of orthodox preacHing ; 
we had a small crop of beans and a few substantial 
church deacons ; we had screech owls and singing 
schools to correspond ; we had flat turnips and 
many other things that were flat, too, and we 
haven't gotten entirely over it yet. Yet, after all, 
we had some good times and sometimes it was hard 
getting up a good time. Perseverance, however, 
and faith in Uncle Sam and the prophets have kept 
the machine in running order. And finally here we 
are tonight; perhaps a little worse for wear in some 
respects, and in behalf of the old people generally 
and in behalf of the generous people of Montello, I 

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welcome you to this hall, hoping that this social 
occasion will amply compensate you for the trouble 
you have taken. Let us talk, sing, play, eat and 
be merry. (We belong to the Mendotas and don't 
drink any more.) While we have no banks or bags 
of gold, we are rich in contentment and good health, 
with pleasant homes and loving children — but none 
too many of them — large churches and intelligent 
ministers with a common sense Christian religion, 
flourishing schools under experienced teachers, good 
and instructive newspapers and nearly every town 
with its temperance organization. 

"Marquette County is really a good place to 
live. As the world moves on, the people of this 
county move with it, and as the future opens yearly 
its rich storehouses of good things our people are 
determined to get their share, and this yearly gath- 
ering is one of the appropriate ways of acknowl- 
edging and cementing a community and brother- 
hood. The canvas of life is checkered and mixed; 
but we soon learn to distinguish the dark spots by 
the few that sometimes go it blind and get stuck 
in the black pool, where is only heard the moans 
and cries of desponding and deluded victims. 
Others take warning and escape by going round 
upon the other side. We have ten thousand rea- 
sons to be thankful that so many have escaped and 
80 few have got caught in the trap set by the 
enemy. Again I welcome you to an intellectual 
and social feast." 

At the conclusion of this address of welcome 
there was music by the orchestra, and then the 
audience arose and sang " Auld Lang Syne.** Our 
informant says : " Dr. Pease led off and Dr. Rus- 
sel dropped in — or perhaps it was vice versa — the 
orchestra essayed an accompaniment ; then some- 
body else chimed in, then another and another, until 
every key in the scale was appiopriated a'ad ren- 
dered according to individual idea of time. One 
by one the singers discovered the discord and let 
up until there were but two left in the choir and 
these the honorable president and secretary, who 
were energetically beating time, one in long meter 
and the other in double time, but neither of whom 
was uttering a note. The situation was produc- 
tive of a huge smile, in which all united with the 
utmost harmony. Rev. K. G. Updyke was then 

introduced and addressed the audience upon the 
subject of " Home." Hearty applause was accord- 
ed the speaker and during the remainder of the 
evening his remarks were frequently alluded to in 
terms of warmest praise. Another attempt was 
made to sing — " Home, Sweet Home,*' this time — 
but the result was much as before, the success being 
attained in the hearty laugh created. The speaking 
being at an end, formality was dispensed with, and 
a pleasant season of visiting and social enjoyment 
followed. At about ten o'clock the company ad- 
journed to the hotels, where oyster suppers were 
served. Soon after returning to the hall, the floor 
was cleared, the baud took their station and those 
of the settlei*s, old and young, who were so inclined 
danced to their souls' delight. Many of the older 
people retired shortly after midnight, but not a few 
staid to the end, or about three in the morning. The 
officers elected for the ensuing year were : S. A. 
Pease, President ; S. Crockett, Vice President ; 
Philo Lockey, Secretary. It was decided to hold 
the next annual re-union at Westfield. 

The old settlers* meeting of 1879 was a very en- 
joyable affair. The meeting was called to order by 
President Pease. H. H. Taylor, of Oxford, read a 
pfiper and was followed by Frank Abbott, of West- 
field, and James Whitehead, of Buffalo. Mr. White- 
head's pai)er was a masterly effort and was well re- 
ceived by th3 old settlers. The paper prepared by 
Mr. Abbott, ''Between Cathartics and Emetics," was 
very able and carried his audience back to the time 
when Uncle Sam was 3'oung. Mr. Taylor took them 
back to the times of the patriarchs, so far indeed 
that the years that most of them had spent in Mar- ^ 
quette County seemed only a very short time. The 
*'old uns" then related reminiscences of the early 
days of the county. Mr. F. D. Forbes then sang a 
song entitled " Wax Work," and every one, young 
and old, joined in the hearty ''side shaking" that 
followed. Refreshments were served at about eleven 
o'clock and a dance followed. Among those who 
had more or less to tell of the early days were 
Robert Cochran, A. H. German, C. Houslett, John 
Coon, Frank Russell, Thomas Tibbits, Mrs. Rund- 
lett and others equally well known. The officers 
elected for the ensuing year were : President, S. A. 
Pease ; Secretary, M. G. Ellison. The next annual 

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meeting of the club was announced to be hel<l at 
Montello in February, 1880. 

The following report of the meeting of 1880 was 
made by Secretary Kilison : 

*' The annual re-union of the old settlers of Mar- 
quette County was held at Oi)era Hall, Montello, 
on the 29th of January. The meeting was called 
to order by the President, S. A. Pease, who then 
read a salutatarv address, congratulating tlie old 
settlers on the return of the anniversary of their 
social gatherings. Ttie address was followed by 
music by the Kuterpeans. 

**A paper written by David Taylor was then read 
by James Whitehead, Mr. Taylor being unable to 
attend on account of illness. Following this, Mr. 
Milo Gibbs sang ** (Grandfather's Clock," accom- 
panied on the organ by Miss Josie Crouch. Re- 
marks by C. Tagats showed the manner in former 
times in which people in his part of the country 
used to surmount or rather wade and pull through 

** Music by the band was next in order. Re- 
marks were then made by Dominick Devaney, who 
in asmiling manner gave a ludicrous de8cri|)tion of 
a scene in the first Justice's Court held in Mar- 
quette County, ending with a beautiful quotation 
from one of his favorite poets, Thomas Moore, 
K)ft in the Stilly Night,' after which the band 
pla^'ed again. Next a paper was read by James 
Whitehead, very ably composed and well read, 
<'arrying us awa}' back, but very pleasant to be re- 
membered. The choir, which 1 desire to say is one 
of the best in this part of the State, then sung a de- 
lightful piece of music, but its title I tlid not learn. 
A pa[)er was then read by the President, written by 
John Ellis, of Mound ville, Mr. Ellis not being pres- 
ent. Music by the band. 

** Mr. Ilouslett, of Oxford, being called upon to 
say something, made a few remarks, comparing the 
• economical habits of the young ladies of the past 
with the extravagant habits of the young ladies of 
to-day, the contrast being very forcil>le. They to 
whom it was addressed ought to profit thereby. 
Then followed a splendid character song by the 
the choir, * We'll have a Mortgage on the Farm,' a 
ver}' appropriate piece, and performed in a perfect 
manner, adding as much to the general entertain- 

ment of the occasion as anything advanced or 
brought forward during the evening. Then fol- 
lowed remarks by the lion. Frank Russell, couched 
in his own terse, pointe I way, which never fails to 
draw attention and carry conviction. Again fol- 
lowed music by the band. 

'• Supper was then announced, when we all re- 
paired to either hotel and partook of the bountiful 
repast set before us, and to judge from the manner 
in which the huge slices of meat and great slices 
of bread disappeared, one could but think that the 
'old 'uns'must in their earlier days have been 
just the material for ' pie-on-heres.' After supper 
the hall was put in order for a dance, when the 
young settlers mixed with the old and kept up the 
sport until a late hour. It was indeed a glorious 

In accordance with notice previously given the 
old settlers of Marquette County held their next 
annual reunion at Sim's Hotel, AV^estfield, Jan. 19, 
1881. The favorable weather and good sleighing, 
together with a growing interest in the old folks' 
festival, combined in drawing out an attendance 
larger than at any previous gathering. The meet- 
ing was called to order by the President, Hon. S. 
A. Pease, and the names of the committee were an- 
nounced, who were to elect officers and appoint the 
place of next meeting, followed by music by the 
band. A salutatory address was then made by the 
President, succeeded by the singing of " Old Hun- 
dred " by the audience, after which the reading of 
an address by the Secretary ; next music by the 
band. An abl^' prepared and highly interesting 
pa|>er was nest read by Frank Abbott. 'Called 
upon by the President and importuned by the 
audience, S. D. Forbes sang his popular song, 
'' Regular Wax Work," to the great amusement of 
all present. The Misses Abbott sang " When the 
Mists have Cleared Away." In the unavoidable 
absence of the author, a paper by David Taylor of 
Buffalo, was read by the Secretary, which in con- 
ception, poetic sentiment and language bespoke the 
writer's originality and high rank as a logical reas- 
oner and word-painter. There was more music. 
Then came a speech by Robert McMillen, of Doug- 
las, full of interesting reminiscences of the early 
times. Mr. John Gaughran, of Springfield, fol- 

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lowed with a speech in which lie dwelt upon the 
past, touched upon the present and character- 
ized the railroad in the county, as the " mill- 
stone upon the top of us instead of around 
our necks." Lulu O'Neil, a little girl, sang " I'm 
a Drunkard's Child " with touching effect, after 
which Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Ennis entertained the 
audience with a song. Mrs. Rundlett, Mr. Pond 
and William Page, of Douglas, made appropriate 
remarks. Mrs. Dr. Stoddard sang •' The Old Hick- 
ory Cane;" Miss Waldruff sang *' The Old Arm 
Chair," and the audience sang " In the Sweet Bye- 
and-Bye.'' After this the young people spent the 
remaining hours far into the dim twilight in amuse- 
ments congenial to their tastes, and the old settlers 
enjoyed a social visit not soon to be forgotten. An 
old-fashioned supper was one of the things enjoyed 
by old and young. The following reminiscence of 
the first day in a strange school by a boy settlor of 
twenty -six years before is extracted from a paper 
by Jonas Whitehead : 

•' Those of you who have gone from Packwau- 
kee or Montello to Portage, on what is known as 
the River Road, will remember an old red school 
house about a mile north of what in early times 
was known as the Oak Grove House. Passing it a 
few days ago, my thoughts naturally reverted to 
the times and days passed within its now decayed 
and crumbling walls. Among its associations no 
event made so deep and lasting an impression upon 
my mind as my first day's attendance there. Per- 
sonal reminiscences being the order of the hour, let 
us imagine that time not only pauses in her resist- 
less flight, but rolls back at our command her pon- 
derous wheels, and again I see myself a boy of 

eight barefooted, sunburned, with dinner pail in 

hand, and a younger sister by my side, on my way 
to school. Oncoming in sight we observed it was 
called; and. standing in the path which led from 
the road to the door, we held a council as to how 
we should proceed. It was, of course, decided 
that I, as a primitive specimen of manhood, should 
lead the way. Pushing forward, I bqjdly opened 
the door and took the hindmost seat I could find, 
hoping thus to escape the observation of the schol- 
ars, not one of whom I hai ever seen before. The 
boys, of course, acted with proper decorum, but 

the girls opposite, not satisfied with a shy, oblique 
glance, but with a curiosity that has ever charac- 
terized the fair daughters of Eve, turned boldly 
round in their seats, which caused my cheeks to 
burn with shame, noticing which they looked know- 
ingly at one another and smiled, which increased 
for the moment my confusion and embarrassment, 
For the moment. I say, for here my feelings un- 
derwent a change, which I have since discovered 
is common to mankind, and a peculiar phase of our 
organization and nature. All my feelings rose in 
revolt against such treatment. With no feelings of 
superiority, 1 was reasoning in my mind that I was 
entitled and deserved to be treated with civility as 
their equal till, by ray actions and deportment, I 
was proved unworthy. Amid this suppressed tu- 
mult of thought and passion, the teacher called on 
me to read. The piece selected was entitled " A 
Mother's Influence," and may be found in Mc- 
Guflfy's Fourth Reader. As my trembling voice 
broke the silence, I seemed endowed with more than 
ordinary strength. In the transformation I seem- 
ingl}' experienced in all their power the feelings of 
the mother depicted by the writer as she hopelessly 
abandoned the task of preparing her son for the 
exhibition — the grief, the shame, the mortification 
she experienced seemed but a reflection of my 
own wounded feelings, and when witnessing the 
anguish and unutterable despair of his mother, the 
light of reason dawned upon the intellect of her 
heart's fond idol, and he repeated with energy the 
lesson she had vainly tried to teach him, I exper- 
ienced feelings and emotions which in a lifetime 
are seldom repeated. Never have I, since attain- 
ing the years of manhood, though I have fre- 
quently tried, been able to read that piece with 
anything like the satisfaction to myself as upon 
the occasion referred to." 

» 0- 




Buffrilo is the southwest corner town of the 
county. It is bounded on the north by Montello, the 

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east by Green Lake County, on the South by Colum- 
bia County and on the west by the Town of Moun<l- 
ville. The surface is generally level. Ball's Lake 
is a small sheet of water in the western part. 

The pioneer settlers of this town were James Gra- 
ham, James Mair, David Taylor, David Eggleston, 
John Annis, Neil Dimond, Stephen May wood, 
William Maynard, William Morgan, George Reed, 
Robert Lytle, John Madden, James O'Blainess, 
John Campion, James P^oley, John Bremner and 
George, Robert and William McKay. 

The officers of this town for 1889 were Daniel 
Brown, Chairman; George Reid, Town Clerk, Wil- 
liam Morgan, Treasurer: Patrick Duffy, Assessor. 
The town has a commodious and convenient town 
hall near the center. 


Jeddo is a post-office in this town, near the cen- 
ter, eight miles south of Montello, the nearest rail- 
road station and banking point. Daniel J. Dixon 
is postmaster. Mails are received triweekly. The 
population in this vicinity is about seventy-five. 


Midland is four miles south of Jeddo, twelve 
miles south of Montello and eight miles north of 
Pardeevillc, on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. 
Paul Railway, the nearest railroad station. It con- 
tains the general store of Levi ^Reeves, two 
churches, a blacksmith shop and school house. 
Montello and Portage are the nearest banking 
points. D. W. Brown is postmaster. Population 
about 200. 


This is a recently established post-office eight 
miles from Montello and twelve miles from Por- 
tage, the nearest shipping point. It contains a 
general store, flouring mills and other interests. J. 
Graham is postmaster. 


This is a newly established post-office in the 

Town of Buffalo. 


Douglas is the southwest corner town of the 
county, and is bounded as follows: North by Ox- 
ford, east by Moundville, south by Columbia 

County and west by Adams County. Neenah 
Creek flows south through the center of the town. 

William Murphy, II. S. Thomas, Patrick Clark, 
P. Mason, John Cleary, James Slowey, William 
McGinnis, James Briggs and H. H. Par rott were 
among the early settlers here. 

The town officers for 1889 were W. W. Page, 
Chairman ; Eben Mills, Clerk; Fred Brangil, As- 
sessor; Robert Heberline, Treasurer. 

The surface of this town is generally level 
though slightly irregular in places, and the soil is 
well adopted to grazing and general farming, 


Briggsville is a post-village in this town twenty 
miles southwest of Montello and eleven miles 
northwest of Portage, the usual shipping point and 
banking town. It was settled in 1 849 and has a 
population of about 150. It contains two churches, 
flour and carding mills, a district school and several 
stores. William Murphy is postmaster. The other 
principal business men are F. J. <fe W. C.Kimball, 
P. E. Peterson and Charles Waldo, proprietors of 
general stores; Joseph Champney & Son, propri- 
etors of flouring mills, A. O. Dean, dealer in pianos 
and organs; II. T. Dean, harness-maker; H, H. 
Dyer, hotel-keeper; J. H. Dyer, carding-mill 
owner; E. C. Gray, millwright; Evan Hanson, 
dealer in boots and shoes; W. C. Kimball, dealer 
in sewing-machines; and Thomas O'Connor, wagon- 
maker. Briggsville was platted in 1854 by E. A. 


Douglas Center. 

This is a small village with a population of about 
50, near the center of Douglas. It is eighteen 
miles southwest of Montello, seven miles southwest 
of Merritt's landing, on the Wisconsin Central 
line, its nearest railroad station, and fourteen miles 
nortlieast of K^lbourn City, the nearest banking 
point. The principal business interests are the 
general store and post-office, York <fe Moore ( W. H. 
Moore, postmaster); the blacksmith shop of J. 
Blume; the flouring mill of I. W. <fe G. E. York; 
and the wagon shop of Andrew Swemlive. Among 
the lending business and professional men are Dr. 
H. H. Parrotl; James Starkey, miller; and P. H. 
McMahon, railroad contractor. 

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Crystal Lake, 

Crystal Lake is one of the northern tier of towns, 
east of the center of the county north and south. It 
is bounded on the north by Waushara County, on 
the e^ast by Nishkoro, and on the south by Shields, 
and on the west by Newton. Lunch Creek flows 
through the northeast corner and the Mecan River 
centrally from the northwest to the southeast cor- 
ner. Turth Lake is a small body of water a little 
southeast of the center of the town. Mount Fizgah 
is a piominent elevation north of the center. One 
of the most prominent early settlei*s of this town 
was Christian Tagats who has long been one of the 
best known men of the county. The town has no 
postofflce within its limits and its inhabitants de- 
pend on Neshkoro, Germania, Harrisville and 
other post offices beyond its borders for their mail 
facilties. The town has two churches and an ade- 
quate number of school houses. 

The present town officers are J. A. Wegenke, 
Chairman; August Schauer; Town Clerk; William 
Zabel, Assessor; Ernest Kreager, Treasurer. 


Th^ town of Harris is situated north and west of 
the geographical center of the county, bounded on 
the north by Newton, on the east by Shields, on the 
south by Packwaukee and on the west by West- 
field. Montelio and Duck creeks flow through 
and have their junction in this town. The surface 
is generally level and the soil is adapted to all the 
crops common to this climate and latitude. The 
Wisconsin Central Railroad crosses the southwest 
corner of this town and Hank's Station is a con- 
venience to the residents round about. 

Among the early settlers of the town were James 
Harris in honor of whose family the town was 
named, Alexander Ports, James Dyas, Michael 
Barry, F. M. Wilkes, John Barry, William A. Steb- 
bins, Joseph Farrington, W. H. Peters and George 

The present town officers are Charles E. King^ 
Chairman; Herman Schmitz, Town Clerk; Henry 
Thalacher, Treasurer; S. A. Laing, Assessor. 


Harrisville is a village of about 100 population 

on Montelio Creek, in the northeast part of the 
town. It is eight miles northwest of Montelio 
and five miles east of Westfield. It was settled in 
1850, and contains a church, and water power 
gristmill and saw-mill. It was platted in 1856 by 
Joseph Farrington, C. L. Farrington and William 
Stebbins. Its list of leading business interests is 
as follows: cooper shop by William Dee; flouring 
mill by S. B. Delert <fe Co.; general store by M. J. 
Farrington; sawmill and furniture shop by Her- 
man Schmitz; hotel by John Kilbride; blacksmith 
shops by Theodore Schmitz and August Frank. 
Mecan is an irregularly outlined town on the 
eastern border of the county, containing no vil- 
lage or post office and having a distinctively rural 
population. The Mecan River flows through it 
from the northwest to the southeast. Among the 
early comers to this town were the Fallises, Stephen 
and William, who have since been well known 
throughout the county, the former holding numer- 
ous town and county offices. The town officers 
are: Frank Crown, Chairman; Fred Breise, Town 
Clerk; Gottlieb Schultze, Assessor; August Bethke, 


This town, in which is included the village of 
Montelio, the seat of justice of Marquette County, 
is in the east part of the county and ])artially on 
the eastern county line. It is bounded by Shields 
on the north, Mecan and Green Lake County on 
the cast, Buffalo on the south and Packwaukee on 
the west. This town is well watered, having White 
Lake at its northeast corner and the east end of 
Buffalo Lake northwest of the center. Fox River 
and branches including Grand River extend across 
most of the town, and Peters Lake, Birch Lake 
and Kilby Lake, in the northwest comer are 
drained into Buffalo Lake through the expansion 
of Montelio creek north of the village of Montelio. 
The Packwaukee and Montelio branch of the Wis- 
consin Central Railroad penetrates the town as far 
as Montelio. The soil is sandy but productive 
and yields all the common farm products and some 
sorghum. The Montelio granite quarries mark 
what was formerly the most picturesque feature 
of the scenery of this town. 

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Among the names of settlers of this town may 
be mentioned those of George Dartt, J. N. Dartt, 
Riley Dartt, Jason Daniels, Patrick McDonald, 
James Barry, L. O. Evans, Richard Giddings, 
Richard Williams, Bonaparte Baker, Joseph Lake, 
Elkanah Smith, Solon Davis, William Cogan, John 
Cogan, John Stinson, Timothy Hayes and Edward 
Murray. Some of them and otheis will be found 
mentioned in the sketch of Mont^llo village, where 
is located the only post-office in the town. 

Montello's officers in 1879 were S. Fallis, Chair- 
man; John Barr^', Town Clerk; L. Holman, Treas- 
urer; John Collins and T. Vaughan, Assessors. 

The Village of Montello, 

Montello, the seat of justice of Marquette 
County, is located on the AVisconsiu Central Line, 
on both sides of Montello River or creek, which 
furnishes good waterpower, and at the foot of 
Buffalo Lake, a beautiful sheet of water extending 
nine miles west from the village and affording the 
town one of the most delightful locations in Cen- 
tral Wisconsin. 

The village contains a population of nearly 
800 people, who are supported by manufacturing 
industries and by the various trades and commer- 
cial pursuits required to supply the demands of a 
fast growing, thriving, and enterprising town. 

It is the terminus of a ''spur" of the Wisconsin 
Central Railroad, a Grand Trunk Line running 
through the center of the State, north and south, 
to its metropolis, the city of Milwaukee, which has 
extended its track to Chicago, making the Central 
a through route from Chicago to St. Paul. 

The country surrounding Montello is of sandy 
loam soil, well covered with timber and dotted 
with numerous lakes of clear, cold water, where 
wild fowl and flsh abound in countless numbers. 
The country is fast settling up with an enterprising 
and industrious people. Montello (it is expected) 
will have at no distant day, the benefit of the 
western extension of the Chicago <fe Northwestern 
Railroad, a survey of which was made some time 
ago. This road would open up a vast country 
west and would be of immense value to the place. 
Thus it will be seen at a glance that Montello is 
located in the right place, a natural center for an 

immense trade and commerce, possessing one of 
the best water powers in the State, sufficient to run 
miles of machinery, and having the advantage of 
steamboats and railways to carry off the products 
of the factories. 

Montello aspires lo become a leading trade and 
manufacturing center. The country tributarj' is 
rich but as yet undeveloped, and it ought easily to 
support and maintain a large city. Montello has 
every advantage that nature, in her magnificent 
bounty, could well give it, and already has a good 
start towards its manifest destiny. The position of 
Montello is such that manufactured articles can be 
shipped east, west, north or south, by rail or by 
water, thus securing the cheapest transportation 
rates possible, for material, or manufactured goods. 

Montello has an extensive brick yard, a planing 
mill and sash and door factory, two large lumber 
yards, one grist mill and one feed mill, an immense 
granite quarry where stone for monuments, build- 
ing purposes, paving and macadam is quarried in 
great quantities, four dry goods and general stores, 
two wagon and carriage shops, blacksmith shops, 
tailor shops shoe shops, bakery, meat-market,and a 
large list in the various lines of business and trade. 

The following paragraphs, laudatory of Montello 
as a resort for invalids and sportsmen are from the 
columns of the Montello Express: 

"It is admitted by the most intelligent people 
that Montello is most favorably situated to make 
it an attractive and delightful Summer Resort. 
100 miles from Milwaukee, and 185 miles from 
Chicago, it is the center of the finest brook-trout 
fishing in the Northwest, while lake bass, black 
bass, pickerel, perch and pike are found in abund- 
ance in the lakes, streams and ponds in its vicinity. 
The village is situated on high ground and in eve- 
ry direction are charming views. Buffalo Lake, at 
the foot of which the village is located, is a beau- 
tiful sheet of water, nearly land-locked by wooded 
shores. The atmosphere is very dry, and invalids 
can find no more healthful place of residence in 

**The climate of this part of Wisconsin is a sure 
relief for "Hay Fever," that scourge which afflicts 
so many people living in hot and dusty cities and 
in the eastern States of the Union. Sufferers who 

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have tried the White Mountains, the PaeiQc Slope, 
and even a tour of the Eastern Continent, find 
Wisconsin far exceeds them ail in curative powers. 
This is no idle talk, for almost every year brings 
people who have been sent here by others that have 
Sjoent a summer in Montello. In every case the 
distracted, worn-out invalid has found almost im- 1 
mediate relief. The [lure, bracing atmosphere, in- i 
vigorates the system, gives the patient a good ap- 
petite?, while the cool nights are conducive to 
sweet, healthful sleep, and hence the much required 

-Montelk) has her full complement of springs 
and fountains of mineral waters. Many of them 
are highly charged with mineral ingredients, while 
others have only a small mineral constituent, but 
are not for that reason the less valuable. The car 
bonates of lime and magnesia, and the oxides of 
iron, are almost universally present. The Mon- 
tello fountains and springs are among those best 
known. These contain from twenty-five to twen- 
ty-eight grains of mineral substances per gallon. 
Alumina, several salts of sodium, and iron carbo- 
nate are among the constituents. Water from 
these is used in large quantities b}' our citizens and 
visitors to the place. 

"The waters from these fountains and springs 
are recommended by persons competent to judge 
of their merits, and their use has often been at- 
tended with remarkably good results. The waters 
from these fountains carry a high percentage of 
mineral matter, and are as truly 'mineral* as those 
of natural springs." 

Not only is Montello a health resort of much 
merit, and a sportsman's paradise, but it is an anti- 
quarian's paradise as well. No one who looks 
with care at a map of this country can fail to see 
that in an age when traveling was chiefly by water, 
Wisconsin must have been the State through which 
the canoes of the primitive inhabitants were pro- 
pelled between the Great Lakes and the Gulf. 
History indeed tells us that much, for the Indians 
who met the Jesuits and the fur traders of Canada 
knew of the route from Green Bay up the Fox and 
across the Portage, to the Wisconsin, and it was 
along this course that Marquette and Joliet pad- 
dled their birch canoe. 

Such a country is peculiarly the home of early 
races and it is not strange that the valley of the 
Fox should be rich in antiquities of the Indian 
and of his obscure predecessor — the Moun<l Buil- 
der. From the copper mines of Lake Superior, the 
latter fashioned his implements of war and of the 
chase; the furs, the game, and fish of the winding 
Fox were to him a veritable hunter's paradise. 
The rolling banks of Buffalo Lake through which 
this river runs had the precise characteristics which 
he chose for the site of his habitations and are 
therefore rich in groups of burial tumuli, and 
mounds fashioned in the shape of bird, lizard, tur- 
tle, and unknown forms, accompanied by long 
lines of embankment that seem to have been erec- 
ted for defense. 

While both sides of the lake contain these 
mounds, probabl}' the richest group is one contain- 
ing thirty mounds of various kinds, situated on 
the farm of J. Kratz, on the south shore, about 
three miles above Montello. Occasionally an arch- 
eologist or curious layman opens up these hillocks, 
whose antiquity is attested by the large trees of- 
ten found upon them, and as the result of his dig- 
ging, there comes to the sunlight of this modern 
world the moulded bones of men who walked be- 
neath the primal forests of this continent when the 
Indian was not, — in a past so far away and so un- 
knowable that the mind is filled with awe at the 
sight of these ruins of an extinct race. 

A mound opened in July, 1886, was a typical 
burial mound, thirty feet in diameter, four feet in 
height at the summit, and containing a human 
skeleton in the center on a level with the surround- 
ing ground, closely imbedded in dark earth, that 
seemed to have baked above the remains. The 
skeleton, together with the bit of pottery found 
with it. has been sent by the finders to the State 
Historical Society. 

In the future, some penetrating mind may solve 
the problem of the Mound Builders: they may 
prove to be the ancestors of the race that degener- 
ated into the less advanced Indians; they may be 
connected with the comparatively civilized people 
whom the Spanish conquest of Mexico and Peru 
extinguished, and whose temples yet remain to 
bear them witness; but whatever may be their 

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status in history, certain it is that the vicinity of 
Montello will offer one of the mobt fruitful pages 
to the student of American antiquities. 

When tliis primitive people passed away the In- 
dian came into possession of these hunting grounds. 
Hardly a streana or lake about Montello but on the 
sandy hills along its banks are to be found arrow- 
heads, spears, hatchets, and other flint implements, 
stone mortars for grinding corn, and occasionally 
copper ornaments and weapons. So rich in arrow 
and spear heads are some of the sand drifts near 
the village that they seem to have been the loca- 
tion of some fierce battle for the possession of the 
region. A skull was not long ago exhumed in 
which was imbedded an arrow-head of flint. That 
the remains were those of an Indian seems probable 
from the state of preservation and because below 
this skeleton and the two others found with it, 
there was found a still older one that crumbled 
on exposure, and was doubtless the remains of a 
Moand Builder. Such "infringements" by the 
Indians are not unknown to archeologists. 

When it is remembered that within the memory 
of men, the country adjacent to Montello was one 
of the places most frequented by the Indians of 
this state, it is not remarkable that abundant evi- 
dences should remain of the regard in which they 
held this country. Some one has said that the 
antiquarian and the angler have much in common 
—both find fascination in what may be discovered 
beneath the surface. Certain it is that Montello 
ofifers to both an exceptionally fertile field for the 
exercise of their activities. 

This flourishing little town in the historic high- 
way of the Fox River Valley was at one time the 
site of an Indian village. Being so near "the por- 
tage,'* Father Marquette is said to have done much 
missionary work at this point, when he landed from 
his canoe, preparatory to making his voyage to the 
Mississippi via the Wisconsin River. Missionary 
work by the Catholics was also continued when the 
first white settlers came in 1 849. 

Jason Daniels was the first white settler on the 
site of the village, locating in June, 1811). About 
the same lime the Dartts, J. N. and Joseph R., 
located at Montello, which hnd been named ''Ser- 
alTQ" by Mr, Daniel, In th^ fall of 1849, a meet- 

ing of half a dozen settlers was held at the house 
of J. M. Dartt, to give the settlement a name, as a 
post-office was soon to be established there. Five 
or six propositions were made, but Joseph R. Dartt, 
who had read of '^Montello" in a novel, carried the 
day for his favorite name. 

Between 1850 and 1852 came John Lewis, Dr. 
H. J. Pratt, the Kelseys and others. Phillips <fe 
Giddings erected a store and E K. Smith opened a 

July 3, 1851, the first plat of the village wag 
made by Henry Menton, surveyor, for G. H. Bar- 
stow, E. B. Kelsey and Henry S. Crandall, pro- 
prietors. This plat was filed for record Aug. 22, 
1851. The village, however, as now located, covers 
the plat made Dec. 31, 1855, by W. H. Gleason, 
surveyor, for E. B. Kelsey and George H. Dartt, 
proprietors. This was filed for record, under the 
name of North Montello, in 1856. 

Montello was incorporated as a village by Act of 
Legislature in 1868. Some years ago its corporate 
jjowers were abrogated in favor of a popular de- 
mand, and Montello is a distinct municipality in 
name only. One of the early names of this place 
was Hill River, derived probably from the juxta- 
position of the high granite outcropping the river 
at this point. 

During its brief history, the people of Marquette 
County have been called upon to vote seven times 
on the question of changing the county seat. The 
coveted prize was hotly contested for, and for years 
it was the main issue in local elections. The ill 
passions engendered have given place to an era of 
good feeling, and the county seat rests at Montello. 
The court house is a plain, substantial building of 
stone and brick, erected in 1864. 

Early in the business history of the village, there 
was something of a *'boom," as it would now be 
called, in real estate, and speculation was pushed to 
the utmost possible limit. During 1856-57, the 
following plats were filed for record: Rose <fe 
Kellogg*s addition to Montello; Kelsey <fe Hard- 
wick's addition to North Montello; Smith's addition 
to North Montello; John Lewis* addition to Mon- 
tello; and Dawes* addition. 

The first hotel in the place has been referred to. 
Its first proprietor was succeeded by Mnrk Dorln^u, 

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he by John Stemsson, he by James Stafford, and he 
by E. McCaffrey, the present proprietor. It is 
known as the American House. The first proprietor 
of the Fountain House was A. P. Clayton, the 
second was Thomas Eubanks, the third was William 
Ennis, of whom John Ennis was at one time a 
partner. The Ennises were succeeded by the 
present proprietor, P. Croarken. S. D. Perkins 
was the first landlord of the Perkins House* His 
successors were Dolese & Shepherd, who changed the 
name to the Montello House, as it is now known. 
Their successor and the present manager is L. N. 
Stevens. The Eagle Hotel was opened by Mr. 
Loomis, who gave place to John Lewis. 

The Bank of Montello was organized in 1854, by 
E. B. <fe C. S. Kelsey. It long since went out of 
existence. The present Bank of Montello was 
opened in 1880, with E. G. Newhall as president, 
and A. E. Moore as cashier. They were succeeded 
by the present owners, John <fe A. J. Barry, father 
and son. This bank has an adequate capital, and 
does a conservative business. It is an institution 
helpful to the business interests of Montello and its 
surrounding country. 

Among Montello's business interests of all kinds 
at the present time, may be mentioned the following: 
Barry Brothers <fe Pratt, M. Henry, druggists; 
Andrew Burns, marble and granite works; Campion 
& Campion, J. Lyman Cook, C. F. R(«skic and 
Austin Wilkins, proprietors of general stores; 
Lawrence S. Chittenden, farm implement dealers; 
M. G. Ellison and Samuel P>b, hardware merchants; 
Axel Kehlet, dry goods merchant; Theodore H. Lee, 
harnessmakcr ; Martin D. Leonard, grocer; James 
McDonald, lumber dealer; Norcross Brothers, 
proprietors of planing mill; Ira Ward, jeweler; 
Evan R. Williams, furniture dealer and undertaker; 
Montello Milling Company, proprietors flouring 
mills, L. N. Stevens, manager. A large woolen 
mill was formerly in operation here. 

The Marquette Express was removed from 
Oxford to Montello in the spring of 1862, and its 
naini; was changed to the Montello Express. Its 
edi or :ind proprietor was Dr. S. A. Pease, who at time bccan)e a resident of the village, where 
fur years he had been well known. Dr. Pease 
conducted the paper until February, 1874, when it 

was sold to Goodell <fe Cogan. In March, 1 877, the 
firm became Cogan <fe Bissell, the partners being 
J. T. Cogan and C. H. Bissell. In 1879, C. H. 
Bissell and J. T. Cogan assumed control of the 
Exp7'ess, Mr. Bissell has succeeded Mr. Cogan, 
and has made a success of the paper. It is his 
boast, in this day of ^'patent outside," and "patent 
inside** country newspapers, that the Express is 
printed entirely at home, and when the extent and 
population of his field are considered, he may well 
be proud of this fact. He has a well equipped 
oflSce with steam power. The paper is bright, well 
written and printed, independent politically, and 
devoted at all times to the upbuilding of Montello 
and the development of all the county interests of 
Marquette County. The Marquette Young Ameri- 
can was stsLvted by F. A. Hoffman in 1855, and 
suspended in 1862. 

The interests here of the Berlin and Montello 
Granite Company are so extensive as to furnish 
employment to a large number of men, and so im- 
portant as to make the name of Montello known in 
all parts of the west. Tlie site of the Montello 
quarries was early known as ''the hill,** but it was 
not until 1879 that the possibilities of the unsightly 
pile of granite were realized. It remained for Mr. 
Claude B. King, a Chicago newspaper man, to make 
the discovery which led to Montello*8 present fame 
as a granite producing point. He was a brother- 
in-law of Mr. L. A. Perkins of Montello, and while 
visiting him in the year mentioned, conceived the 
idea which has since taken form in the great quar- 
ries. Upon his return to Chicago, he unfolded his 
idea to J. H. Anderson, a dealer in granite and 
stone, and manufacturer of monuments. Mr, 
Andei'son saw that Mr. King's idea had much in it, 
and he joined Mr. King in forming the Montello 
Granite Company. About six months later a stocK 
company was formed, of which Messrs. King and 
Anderson, and John and Hugh 0*Neil were active 
members. In the fall of 1883, Anderson bought 
the interest of the O'Neils, and soon afterward he 
and King became involved in litigation, which was 
ended only by the death of the latter, whose interest 
passed to Mr. Anderson. Meantime, in 1883 the 
name of the concern had been changed to the Wis- 
consin Granite Company, in which E, S. Pike and 

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Mr. McGinnis had become partners. In 1884, 
Anderson acquired the interest of Pike and McGin- 
nis. Previous to this (in 1883) Anderson, Pike <fe 
McGinnis had acquired title to the quarry property 
at Berlin. The name of the concern was now 
changed to the Berlin and Montello Granite Cora- 
pan}'. Of this Company, Jason H. Shepard is 
president; J. H. Anderson is vice-president and 
general manager; C. B. Beach is secretary and 
treasurer; and William H. Bairstow superintendent 
of the Berlin quarries, and John Dolese are the re- 
maining members. William McBain became super- 
intendent of the Montello quarries in 1879, and was 
succeeded by £. Burns, the present superintendent, 
in 1884. The office of the Berlin and Montello 
Granite Company is at 162 Washington St., Chicago. 
The plant at Montello for quarrying, manufacturing 
and handling stone cost about $12,500. Improve- 
ments put in within the year just closed cost up- 
wards of $10,000. From eighty to one hundred men 
are employed, and an annual business of $85,000 to 
$100,000 is done. The fact that the stone at Mon- 
tello is so little affected by frost that it splits in cold 
weather about as easily as in warm, is greatly in 
favor of the place, as operations can be «.arried on 
here through the winter months. A visit to the 
quarries is not the least of many inducements to 
people from abroad to tarry awhile in Montello. 

The church history of Montello began with the 
missionary labors of the Catholic priests. Then 
came the foundation of St. John's (Catholic) society 
in 1856, when the first church was built. While 
the improvement of the Fox-Wisconsin River was 
going on, in 1848-49, which was virtually the 
origin of Montello, a priest traveled on foot among 
the workmen, engaged in religious labors. Until 
he declared his identity, his occupation was not 
suspected. The first resident priest was Father A. 
Fagan. The house of worship was completed in 
August, 1876. The pastor at that time was Rev. 
John Larmer. The church and priest's house stand 
on an eminence overlooking the village and the 
Fox River. From this point may be obtained as 
charming a view as may be found in any part of 
the State. The present pastor is Rev. P. M. Honey- 
man. The Methodist Episcopal society was or- 
ganized in 1869, and the church was built in 1873. 

All Protestant denominations worship in the Metho- 
dist church. 

W. S. Walker Post, No. 64, G. A. R. was mus- 
tered Tuesday evening, Feb. 23, 1883, by chief 
mustering officer. Col. 0. L. Holmes, assisted by D. 
A. Hanks, both of Baraboo. The officers elected 
and installed were: John Lewii, C; J. Daniels, S. 
V. C; C. F. Roskie, Chap.; M. G. Ellison, Qm'r.; 
P. Croaken, O. D.; William Hartwig, O. G.; F. H. 
Couse, Adjt.; S. Eastman, Sergt. Maj.; John Gra- 
ham, Qm'r. S. John Lewis was re-elected Com- 
mander, Dec. 21, 1883. His successors have been: 
Jason Daniels, elected Dec. 6, 1884; F. A. Hotch- 
kiss, elected Dec. 11, 1885; John Lewis, elected 
Dec. 10, 1886, and re-elected Dec. 9, 1887; M. G. 
Ellison, elected Dec. 14, 1888, and re-elected Dec. 
13, 1889, and now serving. The other officers now 
serving are: Austin Wilkins, S. V. C; Simeon 
Eastman, J. V. C; James Kelly, Qm'r.; J. H. Val- 
entine, Adjt.; L. S. WUkins, Surgeon; Samuel Far- 
rington, Chap.; Gordon Reynolds. O. D.; William 
Hartwick, O. D.; C. F. Roskie, Serg't. Maj.; C. B. 
Ayers, Qm'r. Sergt. 

The Montello branch of the Wisconsin Central 
Line, from Packwaukee, was completed and put in 
operation in January, 1882. Below is given an 
editorial from the Montello JEkcpresSj which voiced 
the general sentiment of satisfaction and hopeful- 
ness prevalent at the time. Not even railroads 
are always satisfying. There arc people in Mon- 
tello at this time who think the local railway service 
could be improved greatly, and then not be any 
too good: Let us rejoice! The railroad is built, 
and trains are running. 

'*Ver3' few men get ready to live, before they are 
called upon to die and go hence. Expectation is 
food, meat and diink, without which, very few 
could stand up under the load of disappointment 
and procrastination. But the longer and hotter the 
battle, the greater and more satisfactory is the vic- 
tory. Ever since 1866, Montello has had lively 
aspirations, and from time to time, what seemed to 
be well-grounded hopes of a railroad. Then in the 
vascillating and fluctuating combination, it would 
unexpectedly disappear, and hope would languish 
and slumber for a season. Other influences and 
other combinations would present and again (Ijg^ 

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appear, leaving scarcely a shadow bohind. Finall}', 
a providential event (no doubt it was) peered 
through the clouds. A magnet was quickly ap- 
plied, which became strong in its attractions, with 
no breaking or letting up, until just the amount of 
force necessary for the purpose was brought into 
requisition, and the result has brought into Mon- 
tello for the first time, the terrible, the awful, the 
snorting locomotive, the live iron horse! 

"The Railroad! Yes, Montello has got a railroad! 
Tlie culmination of fluctuating hopes — the thing 
coveted for so many long years, and the reward of 
a sleeple3S anxiety. Do you hear.^ We have a 
railroad ! Now don't get drunk, but let us have a 
sober jubilee. It is a thing of life, of beauty, of 
interest, not to be worshipped, but to be admired. 
Do not stop now to inquire about the mysteries or 
the influences which brought it. We have got it, 
and like a new-born babe, it has come to stay; so 
now let the people settle down and enjoy the fruits 
and proceeds of a long warfare. We are now open 
to the rest of the world; let us all rejoice and be 
glad. Now to business. 

"If anybody doubts the great benefit to Montello, 
they have only to wait a very short time to have 
their doubts removed. When the elements of 
prosperity are put together, utilized and developed 
by the transparent and enlivening influences of a 
railroad, Montello will begin to take a stride up- 
ward and onward, as certain as that effect will fol- 
low a natural cause. Montello has now reached a 
point when every man will have enough to do to 
tend to his own business, only departing from that 
rule in matters common to the welfare of the whole 
community. Of course there will be some, and a 
few such can be found in every town, who are spe- 
cially given to small personal bickering; but men 
of business should let them alone and pass them by 
with indifference, if not contempt. It now requires 
a general, uniform and harmonious combination of 
all business men, of all good men, and of all honest 
mm, to properly and effectively improve and take 
advantaoe of the opportunities and advantages pre- 
pared and presented for our use. Selfish men, and 
men indifferent to their own and the public interests, 
need to be cured if possible; if not cured, to be 
left behind. The people in Montello have only to 

work together, act in accord, be agreed in every 
public enterprise, to make a large, prosperous busi- 
ness town. Very much depends upon harmony, 
good order, civility, and promptness on the part of 
officials and the people in the discharge of their re- 
spective duties." 


Newton is on the northern border of the county, 
in the second tier of towns from the west, and is 
bounded thus: North by Waushara County, east 
by Crystal Lake, south by Harris and west by 
Springfield. Crystal Lake encroaches a little in 
its territory near the northeast corner, and a 
short distance west of this another small body of 
water. Near its southern border Montello Creek 
is formed by the junction of Bart*s Creek and 
Worton's Creek, both of which flow through the 
western parts. 

This town is agricultural in the strictest sense. 
It contains neither village, hamlet nor post-ofl3ce, 
although there was formerly a post-office named 
Ordino in the northern part. The soil is sandy, 
but productive, and yields fair crops in good sea- 

Among the pioneers in Newton were the Blades 
and William Boyden. Its history in detail is 
much the same as that of similar townships in this 
section of country. Its religious and educational 
interests are well developed and supported. 

The following were the town officers of Newton 
in 1889: Julius Schaur, Chairman; August Krentz, 
Town Clerk; William Weishaar, Treasurer; Fred 
Krentz, Assessor. 


This town is so named from the numerous re- 
mains of a prehistoric age found here, which are 
elsewhere referred to. It is situated on the south- 
ern border of the county, and bounded north 
by Oxford and Packwaukee, east by Buffalo, 
south by Columbia County and wet^t by Douglas. 
The Fox River flows through this town circuit- 
ously although in a generally northerly ani 
southerly direction, and Buffalo Lake, an expan- 
sion of this stream, pushes its southern extremity 
far down into its territory. Jones Greek and 
other small streams are tributary. 

Settlements in this town began in X648, The 

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first comers were Isaac Brown, W. L. Gay lord, 
H. Brown. L. Felton, R. Wells and D. Coon. Soon 
afterward came some men sent out b}' the Potters' 
Society, of England. The association paid the ex- 
penses of emigration to this country of a certain 
number of potters, in order that those who re- 
remained in England might derive benefit from in- 
creased wages incident to the decrease in skilled 
labor. Among otlier early settlers were Robert 
Hume, M. G. Ellison, Rev. Isaac Smith, Thomas 
Mills, George Skinner, William Watson, George 
Denby and George Bain. 

The town oflicers of Moundville for 1889 were: 
Isaac Smith, Chairman; B. II. Chapman, Town 
Clerk; Matthew Mason, Treasurer; S. D. Townley, 

Moundville Station. 

This is a post village on the Wisconsin Central 
line, which runs north and south through this town. 
It was settled in 1848, and now has a popula- 
tion of about 400. This place is fourteen miles 
southwest of Montello, and ten miles north of 
Portage, the nearest banking point. It contains a 
church and a school. Following is a summary 
of its principal business interests: C. A. Merritt, 
lumber <lealer and proprietor of a general store; 
H. Ennis, merchant; J. Smith, blacksmith; C. Elli- 
son is Postmaster. 

Merritt's Landing:. 

This is a hamlet of twenty-five Inhabitants in 
the town of Moundville, twelve miles southwest of 
Montello, and on the line of the Wisconsin Cen- 
tral Railroad. C. A. Merritt, dealer in lumber 
and proprietor of the only general store, is the 



Neshkoro,the smallest town in Marquette County, 
is situated at the extreme northeast corner of the 
county, and is bounded on the north by Waushara 
County, on the east by Green Lake County, on the 
south by the town of Mecan, and on the west by 
the town of Crystal Lake. It contains no streams 
or bodies of water of importance, except White 
River, and is strictly agricultural in its character, 
having within its borders no villages but Neshkoro, 
and no other postoflice than the one there located. 

Prominent among the early settlers of this town 
were Michael Powers, Nicholas Gernon, L. D. 
Ralph, Benjamin Hayes, William Clay, Andrew 
Seobey and J. A. Wells. 

The oflicers of the Town of Neshkoro for 1889 
were: N. Gernon, Chairman; James Sexton, Town 
Clerk; C. Dahlke, Treasurer; J. K. Balderson, As- 

The Villagre of Neshkoro. 

The village of Neshkoro, on the White River, 
sixteen miles northeast of Montello and ten miles 
northwest of Princeton, the nearest railway point, 
was settled in 1848, and has a population of about 
300. It contains three churches, flouring and saw- 
mills, a foundry and a woolen factory, and is a 
good local market for farmers. The village was 
platted in 1852 by Helen M. White. Dakin's two 
additions to the town plat were platted three years 
later. The Postmaster is James Sexton. 

The following list of names and occupations 
will give a fair idea of the present business inter- 
ests of the village: Thomas Wells, woolen mills; 
Thomas Wells, James Sexton and J. W. Johnson, 
general stores; Christopher Dahlke <fe Son, flouring 
mill; I. H. Scibey <fe Son, foundry; James Knowl- 
ton and Fred Abendt, shoemakers; J. Tagatz and 
John Black, carpenters; J. Tagatz, hotel. 

In the spring of 1874 the Catholics in and 
around Neshkoro planned the building of a church 
proportionate to their number and their means. In 
the y^ar 1875 they erected the frame of the pres- 
ent building, which was finished a few years later. 
This was done under the direction of the Rev. 
John Larmer, who took charge of the mission in 
1876. Before this time they had services in pri- 
vate houses. Under Father James O'Malley the 
church was begun. Rev. Eleazer De Nilt followed 
and attended the mission for a year and a half 
until 1876. In the summer of 1884 Father Larmer 
had a small vestry built to the church for the con- 
venience of the pastor when he came from Montello 
(eighteen miles) as well as for the proper trans- 
action of affairs. 

The members of Neshkoro Church up to 1884 
were comprised of Catholics from Marquette, Green 
Lake and Waushara Counties, some coming as far 
as fifteen miles. General peace reigned in the mis- 

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sion during the time of Father Larmer's adminis- 
tration. He was loved and esteemed by all, and 
no eye was without a tear at his departure. The 
priests who attended before Father O'Malley are: 
Rev. Fagan, now deceased; and Rev. I. Monaghan, 
who died in a convent in Detroit, Mich., when 
over eighty years of age. It is a frame church. 
The membership is about twenty-five families, Irish 
and German. Wautoma Church was begun in 
1885 and completed in 1888. It is the best and 
largest of the mission churches, and the congrega- 
gatiou comprises about twenty families. Three 
other stations in Waushara County are attended 
from Neshkoro — one near Hancock, one near Oasis 
and one near Wild Rose. The Princeton Church 
was formerly the St. Marie Church. 

The town of Oxford is on the western border of 
the county, bounded on the north by Westfield, on 
the east by Packwaukee, on the south by Mound- 
ville and Douglas, and on the west by Adams 
County. The surface is generally level and it is a 
good agricultural town. The head waters of Nee- 
nah Cieek flow through the western part of the 
town, and in the eastern part several small tribu- 
taries to Buffalo Lake have their sources. On the 
southern border there is a small marshy lake, ex- 
tending into Douglas. There is another in the east 
part and still another in the northwest part, the 
latter crossed by the road. 

William Axford, the Ormsbys, H. H. Taylor, 
William Johnson and Eli McNutt were among the 
early comers to this town. 

The town officers of Oxford for 1889 were: B. K. 
Johnston, chairman; W. J. Ogle, town clerk; S. W. 
Strouse, treasurer; A. Franklin, assessor. 

Oxford Village. 

Oxford village is on Neenah Creek, fifteen miles 
west of Montello, and seven miles west of Pack- 
waukee, on the Wisconsin Central Line, the nearest 
railroad station. The nearest banking point is 
Montello. The village contains a water-power 
flouring mill, two churches and a public school. 
The population is about 400. Jason Daniels is 
pos. tnaster. 

Oxford was settled about forty years ago and 

the village plat was filed in 1854 by C. J. Pette- 
bone, David Ormsby, W. V. Miller, P. B. Hillyer, 
Cornelia Smith, Franklin Abbott, V. G. McCul- 
loch, and J. B. Sanderson. Robert and David 
Baker's addition was platted in 1857. 

The present business interests may be thus sum- 
marized: General stores, Mr. S. J. Fish, A. F. My- 
ers, R. L. Nickerson ; hardware stores, Jason Daniels, 
Alonzo Roberts; boots and shoes, E. Hall, (stjre,) 
Charles Nickerson, (shoemaker) ; drug store, Ben- 
jamin Chilson; sorghum mill, A. Houghtaling; 
farm implements, W. N. Johnson; blacksmith shop, 
C. Lloyd; harness shop, Alonzo Roberts; hotel, 
Samuel Stowe; flouring mill, James Summerton; 
wagon maker, H. H. Ward. 


The town of Packwaukee is so located that the 
geographical center of Marquette County falls 
within its borders. It is bounded on the north by 
Harris, on the east by Montello, on the south by 
Mound ville, and on the west by Oxford. Most of 
Buffalo Lake lies in this town and Ox Creek dis- 
charges its waters into it near the center. Birch 
Lake is partially in the northeast corner, extending 
into Montello and there is a small marshy lake near 
the east town line nearly a mile south of Buffalo 
Lake. The surface of the town is level and well 
adapted to farming, though in some parts quite 
marshy. The Wisconsin Central Line runs through 
this town from north to south, on and along its 
western border, and at Packwaukee is intersected 
by a branch from Packwaukee to Montello. 

Packwaukee was the scene of speculative trans- 
actions in real estate long before actual settlement 
began. As early as 1837 a town named Buffalo 
was platted by John Noyes and James Lyman on 
section 29, township 15, range 9, on the south 
shore of Buffalo Lake, opposite the site of Pack- 
waukee. It was laid out on a liberal scale that 
made the plat resemble that of a town of 3,000 to 
5,000 inhabitants; but, as a matter of fact, there 
was never really any town there. Tiie land upon 
which these operations were based was entered by 
Noyes in 1836 and this was the first land entry in 
the county. ''Roxo" was platted iu 1850 on 
section 15. 

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The tide of immigration in 1850 flowed mainly 
to Packwaukeo, which was named after a friendly 
chief of the Winnebagos, and for several years it 
was the leading business center of the county. The 
Fourth of July was appropriately celebrated here, 
on the shore of Buffalo Lake, in 1850. ' James 
Cook, the first lawyer of the county delivered the 
oration and a prayer was offered up by Rev. Jona- 
than Port, a resident of the county, who with his 
wife was afterward murdered and mutilated by an 
insane son. Amongthose who came in 1849 and '50 
were E. Pettingill, E. T. Older, C. G. Barker, Jesse 
Older, William Ewen, David Phelps, S. A. Pease, 
John Chapman, E. King and Samuel Wayman. 
Among later comers were E. McCaflFrey, Robert 
Page, William Peet, Charles Metcalf, Chester Frink, 
and Town Whitson. 

The town officers of Packwaukee for 1889 were: 
C. L. Kendall, chairman; C. H. Chapman, town 
clerk; W. H. Neale, treasurer; J. IL Clark, assessor. 

The Village of Packwaukee. 

Packwaukee is a prosperous incorporated village 
of about 200 population, located in this town on 
Buffalo Lake and on the Wisconsin Central Line. 
It is eight miles southwest of Montello. It con- 
tains a church, a school and a water power flouring 
and saw mill. Its business interests may be thus 
enumerated : general stores, by Samuel A. Phoenix 
and Wilber Brothers; a furniture store by William 
Haynes; a hardware store and harness shop, by C. 
L. Kendall; hotels, by Abram Collins and Thomas 
Leahy; millinery stores, by Mrs. M. Montgomery 
and Mrs. A. E. Reeves; a flour and saw mill, by 
Charles E. Richards; a jewelry store, by E. Rosen- 
grant; a boot and shoe store, by William Smith. 
Mrs. L. F. Seaman is postmistress. The village 
was platted in 1853 by Ira B. Reed and Samuel 


Shields is just north of the center of the county 
and is separated from its eastern boundary only b}' 
the narrow town of Milan, which forms its eastern 
boundary, while it is bounded south by Montello, 
west by Harris and north by Crystal Lake. The 
surface of the town is generally level. Mecan 
River crosses the northeast corner and Mud Lake 

and another small body of water are in the north- 
west corner. Corastock Lake is in section 11, 
southwest from Germania. Montello Lake crosses 
the extreme southwest corner. On an island in 
Spring Lake a Catholic society existed as early as 

Among the early settlers in ShielJs were K. D. 
Devaney, James Calvin, P. Curley and James 
Croarken. The town oflflcers in 1889 were William 
Warmbier, chairman: Peter Dunn, town clerk; 
Rudolph Fenske, treasurer; Julius Hebbe, assessor. 


This is a village of about 250 inhabitants, situa- 
ted on the Mecan River, in the northeast corner of 
the town of Shields, eight miles northeast of 
Montello and eight miles north-west of Prince- 
ton, the nearest railway point. It was settled in 
1859 and contains two churches, a water-ix)wer 
flouring-mill and a school. The following-named 
persons are engaged here in the lines of business 
mentioned: Henry Cook, harness making; the Ger- 
mania Company, general store and stock farming; 
R. W. Parker, land agent; E. J. Phillips, hard- 
ware; Herman Teske, blacksmithing; Warnke 
Brothers, flour and saw mills; William Thomas, 
shoe maker. 


Springfield is on the northwest corner of the 
county. Its boundaries are as follows: north, 
Waushara County ; east, Newton ; south, Westfield ; 
west, Adams County. Wood and Pine lakes and 
some other small bodies of water lie within this 
town. Bart's Creek rises west of the center and 
Worton's Creek in the northern part. The Wis- 
consin Central line travefses the town north and 
south in the eastern part. 

Among the prominent settlers were Oliver P. 
Warden and Lurenus Luse. Among those who 
came a little later were David Sands and William 
Stiles. A town named Forrestville was platted on 
section 32 of this town in 1855 by Oliver P. 
Warden and Lurenus and Rachel Luse, although 
no town marks its site now. 

Liberty BlnfL 

This is a postofRce on the Wiconsin Central 

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line in the north-east comer of tiie town of 
Springfield, eighteen miles northwest of Montello. 
The business of the place begins and ends with the 
lime kiln of J. A. Glover and the general store 
of William Guderjohn. Etta Smith is postmistress. 
There is no other village or postoffice within the 
bounds of the town which is almost entirely given 
over to agriculture. 

Springfield's town oflScers in 1889 were: Julius 
Berndt, chairman: J. A. Glover, town clerk; Henry 
Alexander, assessor; Wm. Guderjohn, treasurer. 


Westfield is located on the western border of the 
county just north of the center. It is a level tract 
adapted and devoted to agriculture and is bounded 
on the north by the town of Springfield, on the 
east by the town of Harris, on the south by the 
town of Oxford and on the west by Adams 
County. A small stream flows eastwardly through 
the northern part of this town and Duck Creek has 
its source near the center. On the western border, 
extending into Adams County, is a small body of 
water. Northeast of it, in sections 17 and 18. is 
another of about the same size. The Wisconsin 
Central line passes through the northeast part of 
this town with a station at Westfield village. 

Among the early settlers in diflferent parts of 
this town were Robert Cochrane, H. B. Cochrane, 
Samuel Crockett, Frank and Samuel Russell, 
Thomas Hamilton, Thomas Black, Charles Krantz 
and Philo Lockey. 

The town oflScers of Westfield in 1889 were: J. 
N. Lawton, chairman; George B. Crockett, town 
clerk; W. G. Scott, treasurer; J. B. Campbell, 

Westfiem ViUagre. 

Westfield village is located in the northeast part 
of the town on Duck Creek and on the Wisconsin 
Central line, twelve miles northwest of Montello. 
It is the center of a large agricultural district and 
is comparatively a large shipping point for produce 
and stock. Its general trade is good for a village 
of its size and it has some small manufacturing 

The village was platted in 1856 by Pickens 
Boynton for Robert Cochrane, who with bis 

brother H. B. Cochrane, located before any one 
else within the limits of this town. They came in 
1849 and located on the site of the present village. 
When the town was organized, in 1854, H. B. 
Cochrane became one of the supervisors. After 
the Cochranes came Samuel Crockett, Austin 
Stone, William Phillips and others to settle in the 
village. The Cochranes built a house on the bank 
of Duck Creek, just south of the saw mill in the 
village. It was a log structure 16x24 feet with an 
addition in which the proprietors lived. They 
boarded fifteen mill hands and kept hotel. This 
was the first house erected in town. In 1850 the 
saw mill was built. The postoflfice was also estab- 
lished this year and Robert Cochrane was ap- 
pointed postmaster. He brought the first mail bag, 
containing one letter, on his back from Packwau- 
kee. There were no wagon roads in those days. 
In 1853 Joseph Wood built the first hotel in the 
village. Among the earliest general merchants 
were Alneck <fe Older. 

The business houses of to-day may be thus 
briefl}' mentioned : General stores — Breitenfelt <fe 
Just, Samuel Crockett, Carl L. Krentz, Ferdinand 
W. Meinke, Julius Warnke, Andrew Waterson; 
druggists — Frank Abbot, Dr. Herbert D. Hill; 
blacksmiths — Walter W. Bissell, Kalmnete <fe 
Hallender, Meneke <fe Springborn; miller — Robert 
Cochrane; lumber dealer — Robert Cochrane: 
produce dealers — Robert Cochrane, H. B. Deneby; 
furniture dealer and undertaker — Robert H. DuflF; 
photographer — John Fenner; livery — William Me- 
gill, A. C. Fuller; stationer— Caleb F. Fuller; 
tanner and glove manufacturer — William Fuller; 
shoemaker — Charles W. Gay; hardware and imple- 
ment dealers — Ilamillon Brothers, Roberts <fe 
Brown; jeweler — Frederick W. Kline; milliners — 
Miss L. J. Peck, Mrs. Julius Warnke; dentists — 
Melvin O. Straight, E. L. Perry; real estate agent 
William Phillips; butcher — William Quinn; insur- 
ance agent — Harvey R. Rawson; hotels — A. T. 
Wooster, William L. Sims; harness maker — George 
A. Waldo. 

The Central Union a republican paper devoted 
largely to local interests, is in its fifteenth volume 
and is published by S. 1). Forbes. This paper has 
done much toward the upbuilding of Westfield, 

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The high school house at WestGeld was erected a 
few years ago at a cost of $8,000. There are three 
churches — the Congregational, the German Metho- 
dist Episcopal and the Methodist Episcopal. The 
latter was organized in 1867 and the house of wor- 
ship was erected in 1863. 

Thomas B. Crawford Post, Grand Army of the 
Republic, of Westfield was mustered March 5, 
1883, by Col. O. L. Holmes, chief mustering officer 
and D. O. Hanks, both of Baraboo. The officers 
chosen and installed were the following: S. D. 

Forbes, Commander: P. Lockey. 8. V. C; J. 
Waldo, J,\.C.; R. D. Malloy, Qmr.; J. Craw- 
ford, Serg.; L. M. Preston, Chaplain; J. Perkins, 
O. D.; H. M. Ormsby, O. G.; H. 8. Ball, Adjt.; C. 
A. Parker, 8. M.; W. Fuller, Quar. Serg.; W. Ful- 
ler, J. Crawford and W. Pond, trustees. 


This is a small hamlet, formerly a post-office, 
which was laid out on section 9 in this town in 
1857, by Aaron Chesbro and Joseph Bell. 

tt!-eii}0i?l ©f Waiisl] 



> » < < 

HE first settlement within 
the present limits of Wau- 
shara County was made 
Sept. 24, 1848. At this time 
Isaac and William Warwick, 
brothers, who had just been 
discharged from the Mexican 
War, made a clnim to a piece 
of land, now section 2 in the 
town of Marion. They built an 
8x10 log shanty, and in the fall 
Isaac went, with two yoke of oxen, 
to Steven's Point, and secured 
lumber for the erection of a larger 
and more convenient house. This 
settlement was made on the Indian lands, and 
although the Warwicks were repeatedly ordered to 
vacate their claim by both the Indians and the 
Indian agent, they managed by hook or by crook 
to appease their wrath, and became permanent set- 
tlers. In 1849 a new road was opened from Berlin 
to what is now Wautoma. At the latter place, 
Phillip Green had built a shanty during the winter 
of 1848 and 1849. This claim was later (in 1849) 
sold to Mr. Atkins, who kept a tavern during the 

winter season for the accommodation of the lum- 
bermen going into the wood* above. 

During 1849 and 1850, settlers began to gather 
in and make settlements in many parts of the pres- 
ent county. In the first mentioned year, John C. 
Williams, William F. Chipman and family, and 
John H. Detrick and family, arrived, followed 
soon by Lewis H. Bagg and Mr. Shepard. These 
all settled in the southeast part in the present town 
of Morrow. A school, the first in the county, was 
started in this town in 1849, the teticher having 
been Mrs. Diana Carr, who lived in Mr. Bagg's 
family, and the tuition having been paid by sub- 

The first claim made in the town of Leon, in the 
eastern part of the county, was in 1849, by a bee- 
hunter by the name of Worden. He came from 
Neenah, and went back there after a short time. 
His claim was made on what is now V^an Aernam*s 
prairie. In the same year E. W. Alverd and Will- 
lam Tibbett settled in Mount Morris, in the central 
part of the county. The first settlement in the 
west end of the county was made in 1849 by 
Tliomas Kelley and his son, William N. Kelley, who 
located in the town of Plain field. W. W. Beach 

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and Leonard Wilcox followed him in the same 
year, locating in the second tier of towns from the 
western end of the county. William Lord came 
about the same time and settled in the same part 
of the county. He kept a tavern in the town 
of Oasis. The Shaws came about the same time. 
C. E. Waterman and Charles Hamilton came in the 
winter of 1849 and 1850, and located at the site of 
the present village of Plainfield. 

All these early comers began farming, and most 
of them brought with them their families. 8o, at the 
beginning of 1850, several settlements had been 
started at different points. During this year 
numerous others joined the new settlement, a few of 
such being Rev. William Bassenger, who was the 
first preacher; John and Charles Shumway; Dr. 
Moses Barrett, the first physician in the county ; 
Martin Becker, John Howell, Solomon Mundinger, 
Joel Howard and M. Aman. Cartwright, Firman 
and many others came within the next two or three 
years, so that neighbors were not far removed from 
each other. Many of the original settlers are still 
living and occupying the places upon which they lo- 
cated on their arrival. Such as have remained are 
well-to-do or possessed of more than a comfortable 
competence of this world's goods. 

Pioneer Tragedies. 

The Cartwright-Firman tragedy — killing of Fir- 
man by Cartwright at Wautoma, and the lynching 
of Cartwright at Princeton — is elsewhere related in 
detail. Another tragedy of the pioneer days oc- 
curred in the town of Aurora. John Shontz had 
pre-empted a quarter-section of land and built a 
shanty on it, and then gone back to Illinois to get 
some money due him there. In Illinois he was 
taken with fever and ague, and was prevented 
from returning in time to "prove up*' on his claim. 
In the meantime John Leahy, with his wife, had 
taken possession of the property and moved into 
Shontz's house. When he came back Shontz ex- 
plained the circumstances of his detention to Leahy, 
and asked him to resign the claim to him. Leahy 
sought advice, and it seems to have been bad 
advice that he found, for he refused to comply 
with Shontz's request. Shontz, with some sympa- 
thizing neighbors, went to the claim in Leahy's 

absence, and upon Mrs. Leahy's refusing to vacate 
the house, they took it down, leaving her and her 
belongings on the bit of ground which had been its 
floor, but offered her no other molestation. Having 
completed the work of demolition, they went to 
dinner. When they came back they saw that 
Leahy had returned also, and was awaiting their 
coming gun in hand. As the}' approached, Leahy 
call out to Shontz, "If you come, I'll shoot you ! " 
Shontz dropped on one knee and brought a shot- 
gun which he carried to his shoulder, and fired 
with fatal effect, killing Leahy almost instantly. 
Shontz was arrested and tried for murder, but was 
cleared, self-defense being claimed, through the 
influence and good management of his attorneys, 
Ezra Wheeler and J. V. S wetting, of Berlin. 

Old Settler's Union. 

In pursuance of a previous call, a meeting of the 
old settlers of Waushara County, of the year 1850, 
was held in the Congregational Church at Pine 
River, Jan. 28, 1871. The meeting was called to 
order by George Hawley, of Poysippi, Dr. J. S. 
Ewing was made Chairman, and Dr. D. B. Jewell, 
Secretary. A prayer was offered by the Rev. D. 
Campbell; George Hawley presented the draft of 
the constitution, which was adopted. George Haw- 
ley, E. W. Daniels, J. A. Williams, F.lC.Noyes and 
F. Dewey, were appointed a committee to nominate 
oflScers for the union for the ensuing year, and re- 
ported the following: President, J. S. Pawing; Vice 
Presidents — E. W. Daniels, Aurora; George Haw- 
ley, Poysippi; Joel Howard, Bloomfield; Oliver 
Pierce, Saxville; B. F. Frisbie, Leon; T. S. Chip- 
mnn, Warren; T. F. Metcalf, Marion; George Mar- 
shall, Mt. Morris; J. A. Williams, Springwater. 
Secretary, J. J. Hawley ; Treasurer, B. D. Jewell. 
The President gave somft interesting reminiscences 
of early settlement, and closed with a feeling eulogy 
of some early settlers whose lives had been sacri- 
ficed in the late war — Capt. Edward Sax, Cooley 
Smith and Nathan K. Barker. The meeting ad- 
journed to Marshall's hotel for supper. The fol- 
lowing gave in their names as members of the 
union: S. A. Kimball, Anna M. Kimball, B F. Fris- 
bie, P. C. Frisbie, E. W. Daniels, Elizabeth Dan- 
iels, George Hawley, Isabel G. Hawley, J. S. Ewing, 

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Betsy Ewing, Silvia Cole, Ella Marshall, B. D. Jew- 
ell, Olive Jewell, Eva Jewell, Jacob Van Aernam, 
Mary Van Aernam, J. J. Hawlcy, Helen M. Haw- 
ley, R. F. Sax. Alice Dewey, J. A. Williams, Laura 
Williams, Fred Dewey, Lucy Dewey, F. E. Noyes, 
Hannah Noyes D. A. White and F. C. Clark. It was 
voted that all settlers of 1851 be invited to become 
honorary members of the union. At the third an- 
nual meeting at Pine River, Jan. 28, 1873, the fol- 
lowing additional names were signed to the constitu- 
tion : J. H. Carter, Nelson Nelson, D. C. Perkins, 
W. Williams, T. S. Chipman, H. Lang, J. Howard, 
H. E. Fri3bie,T. F. Metcalf, F. D. Broce,N. L.Gill, 
T. S. Case, B. Sears, O. Peirce (with those of their 
wives) A. J. McGowan, S. Westoner, Isabel Mc- 
Millan and Susan SkiflP. The following new mem- 
bers were admitted at the fourth annual meeting, 
held at Auroraville, Jan. 27, 1874: Rev. D. Hale, 
D. Willman, A. A. Daniels, D. W. Cate, F. Cham- 
berlain, S. Ward, S. Culver, William Covill, G. W. 
Mclntyre, H. W. Berray, M. Carter, G. Spoor, A. 
Prutsman, N. Harrington, F. Terrill, J. J. Wood, 
L. C. Jordan, A. Strang, H. Stowers, William C. 
Wait, C. H. Gill, M. Ream, N. W. Milliken, L. J. 
Shumway, M. Hallowell and their wives, Mrs. E. 
Sax, J. B. Jordan, Nancy Howard, Mrs. W. Gallo- 
way, Mrs. Shumway, W. F. Chipman, T. Sears, 
George B. McMillan, A. W. Davenport, Mrs. M. 
Russell, E. A. Jordan. At the fifth annual meeting 
held Jan. 28, 1875, the following members were 
admitted: John Maitland, S. S. Brown, William 
Warwick, A. A. Cole, William Stratton, Emma 
Stratton, Betsy Lamphenr, Albro Parker, Sarah Par- 
ker, Charles Russell, Nellie Russell, I. R. Lathrop, 
E.J. Davies, Anna Davies, I. L. Parker, Harriet Par- 
ker, John Leach, Betsy Leach, Venlora Cole, E. W. 
Alvord, Mary Alvord, Hiram B. Terrill, Joseph 
Matthews, Lydia Matthews, R. H. Graves, D. H. 
Davis, C. W. Virgen, B. A. Cady, T. L. Hall, 
Henry Hitchcock, Julia Hitchcock, N. B. Holcomb, 
Emeline Holcomb, Sam Havener, Alvina B. Cole, 
Mrs. A. C. Berray, Mrs. J. F. Millken, Amanda 
Clark, Harriet Waite, M. L. Cary, William Murphy, 
Yorty Burtzell, Robert A. Havener, Rosa Havener, 
Barbara Norris, Lester Stevens, Jacob Cady. At 
the sixth annual meeting, held at Poysippi, Jan. 
28, 1876, the following named persons were admit- 

ted to membership: William A. Hamlin, Mary J. 
Hamlin, J. M. Cover, Mary Cover, Martha Brown, 
Sumner Brown, Alida Vanlindy, Elihu F. Corse, 
Betsy Corse, John Mott, Frances Mott, John Palen, 
Charles Hawley, Bertie Haw ley, May Hawley, Se- 
lim S. Putam, Susan Putnam, Eugene Leach, 
Thomas Far ran. 

The following new members were admitted at the 
seventh annual meeting, at Willow Creek, Jan. 27, 
1877: Charles W. Smith, John D. Williams, Mary 
Ann Williams, Henry Joekling, E. J. Stewart, J. C. 
Stewart, L. H. Covill, Sarah Covill,L. S.Parker, S. L. 
Briggs, Mrs. S. L. Briggs, J. M. Whitman and wife, 

A. S. Rogers and wife, A. S. Barnes and wife, Phil 
Walker and wife, I. C. Herrick and wife. At the 
eighth annual meeting, Jan. 28, 1878, at Aurora- 
ville, Charles J. and Hattie L. Davis, DeWitt L. 
and Louisa M. Davenport, Bennett T. Davenport, 
Charles F. Jewell, A. H. and Melissa Wheaton, 
F. Livermore, John R. and Mary Heffemon and 
Clark Daniels were admitted to membership. The 
following, among others, were subsequently admits 
ted: Abbie L. Jewell, John Griffin and wife, Jane 
Allen, Frank D. Pierce, Mark H. Pierce, Mrs. Polly 
Clark, T. Jewell, R. Blanchard, F. Blanchard, Han- 
nah Davis, A, Kittenger, J. Walters, J. W. Carpen- 
ter, G. W., John P. Perkins, Dan Borst, 
Lavina Borst, T. H. Patterson, Belle Patterson, 
George Stetson and wife. Minor C. Wilson and wife, 

B. S. Williams and wife, Mrs. T. L. Hall, W. S. Skeel, 
Hattie E. Kimball Mrs. Nathan Kimball, John D. 
Jones, W. T. Williams, P. B. Membran and wife, 
John C. and Isabel Rice, William Pierce and wife, 
Joseph and Flora Brigham, A. W. Heavely, James 
Bolton and wife, J. W. Coon, Marie Warren, E. M. 
Owens, Nettie Graves, Mrs. L. B. Vosburg, Cora M. 
Prutsman, Willard E. Carpenter. 

Ekirly Experiences. 
The exercises at the annual meetings of the soci- 
ety have been varied and interesting. From time 
to time members have read papers or delivered ad- 
dresses replete with historical interest. Without 
giving dates and names of places at which they 
were read or delivered, as such information is of 
but secondary importance, we give in the following 
pages such extracts as it is deemed will add to the 
historical value of this chapter. 

Digitized by 




Hon. George Hawley said that he visited what is 
now Waushara County ia 1850 and made his claim, 
putting, as the custom was, a blaze on a tree. He 
reviewed at length the condition of the east half of 
Waushara County, in an early day, with no roads, 
no bridges, no schools, no homes, etc., and the cir- 
cumstances of the first settlers. They were all 
poor; the most favored had but scanty means. He 
remembered how the old settlers watched the first 
potato patch for the first potatoes, and the little 
cornfield for the first ear of corn, and the wheat 
field for the appearance of the first head of wheat. 
He thought the old settlers had realized their most 
sanguine expectations and might well feel proud 
of their work. He mentioned at some length the 
present products of Waushara County that are an- 
nually shipped to other place — her thousands of 
cords of wood, of hewed lumber, of oak, pine, 
tamarack, etc. ; her wagon timl)er, including boxes, 
felloes, spokes, etc., ''quantities of which are made 
into wagons at Racine to be shipped to Japan;" her 
basswood, sent in large quantities to Vermont, 
manufactured into articles and sent back within a 
dozen miles of home; her farm products of all kinds, 
especially her buckwheat, saying that he thought 
his friend, John A. Williams had "made buckwheat 
flour enough to make a slap-jack that would reach 
round the world;*' her maple sugar; her cranberries, 
saying that he believed all the Berlin cranberries 
excepting a very few bushels, were raised in Wau- 
shara County, making a total of production more 
than equal that of the same number of towns in 
adjoining counties. 

Dr. D. B. Jewell spoke of the death of one of the 
old settlers, referred to the little band of heroic 
men who made the early settlements, and whose 
garden patches had grown to large fields, saying 
that what was once a wilderness had now six thriv- 
ing villages, with churches, schools, houses, stores, 
and ''too many doctors," but wanted to see railways 
and river improvements. 

W. F. Chipman said he made the first settlement 
in the county north of Willow Creek; Isaac and 
William Warwick, John C. Williams, and one other 
were elsewhere in the county. He moved his family 
from Milwaukee with an ox-team, but on account 
of the mud made only fourteen miles a day. He 

made his claim the 9th of May, 1849, and helped 
to cut out the Berlin and Wautoma road. He be- 
lieved the first two children born in the county 
were George Williams and Amelia Chipman. 

Dr. Ewing said, *'You remember, old settlere, 
the condition of things in 1848-49. People in the 
State turned north because the land had all been 
taken up in the southern part of the State. Fox 
River was a barrier that could not be crossed be- 
cause the land was yet owned by the Indians. At 
that time there was a great desire to see the coun- 
try north and west of Fox River; was one of a 
party who went out to explore the country; found 
one or two houses across the river from Sacra- 
mento, one house in Wautoma and one or two 
others elsewhere. Many people had collected at 
and near the towns along the Fox River, and had 
often expended their all before getting there and in 
waiting for the Government to extinguish the title 
to Indian lands. Some of the settlers were comfort- 
ably well off, but most of them were miserably 
poor. One man earned three shillings by a day's 
work, and in the night walked to Berlin from Poy- 
sippi to expend the amount for food for his family, 
and returned in time to begin another day's work. 
Claims were made to lands by the first settlei*s, and 
when the land came into market they did so so 
suddenly and unexpectedly that people were not 
prepared. Fillmore was then President, and he 
appointed a man some of you prqbably remember 
registrar of the land office at Menasha. This man 
was a particular pet of the President. Some thought 
the land had been brought into market for the sake 
of this pet, others that the pet was here for the sake 
of the land. Around the land-office were many 
wShylocks, land-grabbers who would take eight acres 
for laying a land warrant on 160 acres, or eJse take 
$25 or more per forty acres, besides the Govern- 
ment price of $1.25 per acre, giving the settlers a 
bond for a deed in case of payment. The speaker had 
known much about this as he was Notary Public at 
this time and was ol'ten called upon to put his official 
seal to the papers. When he had entered his land 
and was on his way home on the boat among many 
settlers were only two who had paid for land with 
their own money. Some of them were not able to 
pay for their lands, and the accumulating interest, 

Digitized by 




and left them and went away, while others sold out 
and it took others years to finally settle up. 

According to promise, wrote Mrs. J. S. Ewing, 1 
will tell this audience about the first settlement of 
the Indian land. I am the oldest surviving female 
now (1876"^ resident in the Towns of Leon, Poy- 
sippi, Saxville and Bloomfield. The first settle- 
ment of Leon and Poysippi was commenced Jan. 
28, 1860, by Mr. Hawley, Mr. Becker, Mr. Evans 
and J. S. Ewing. The autumn preceding a com- 
pany of five men left W^aukau for the purpose of 
exploring the Indian land. The Doctor and Mr. 
Eekley were of that number. They crossed Fox 
River at Berlin — then called Strong's Landing — 
took a northwesterly direction until reaching the 
place now called Wautoma, where they found one 
solitary log house, and a sawmill in contemplation. 
They went east until they came to the headwaters 
of Willow Creek, where they camped the third 
night after leaving home. Their next camp was 
near a lake which they called Lone Pine, from the 
circumstance of there being a solitary pine beside 
it. Here they remained awhile, killing ducks, 
hunting bees and deer, and examining for a suflS- 
cient inducement to form a settlement. Not find- 
ing anything satisfactory and their search being con- 
tinued with much diflSculty, being obliged to wade 
the marshes and ford the streams, they concluded 
to return. The Doctor and Eekley determined to 
see more, not being satisfied with what they had seen. 
They shouldered guns and packs and kept still 
east, following the trail that crosses Varf Aer- 
nam's prairie until they came to a black ash swamp 
near Mr. Cady's, when night overtook them. This 
was the most unpleasant night since they left home, 
and they were least prepared for it It had been 
one of our glorious Indian summei*s, with a full 
moon to add to its splendors, and they had often 
continued their hunt until midnight. They kindled 
a fire, spread their couch and watched alternately. 
In the night Eekley awakened the Doctor, assuring 
him they were near some settlement, as he had 
heard some one calling. They came to the conclu- 
sion that it was a lynx near them instead of a set- 
tlement, but he did not molest them. The next 
day they came to Willow Creek, which bad swollen 
to quite a stream since they left it. Here they had 

the good fortune to find an Indian with a canoe to 
carry them over. Soon they came to another 
stream — what is now called Pumpkin-seed Creek — 
and a little Indian girl undertook to bring them a 
canoe. In recrossing, Eekley, in adjusting his 
gun, upset the canoe and alarmed the poor girl, but 
they succeeded in bringing her safe on shore. So 
much for a savage ferry; when they reached home 
they looked more like savage than civilized men. 
The Doctor, after making the above observations, 
concluded there must be a stream not far from 
Van Aernam*s prairie that would muke it a desir- 
able place to settle. Accordingly he pictured in 
glowing colors the beauty of the Indian land, in 
order to beat up a new recruit, as his fall compa- 
triots were too well settled in winter quarters to 
venture out. Mr. Hawley was the first volunteer. 
Being at his house, I remarked, "It's hard to get up 
another expedition to the Indian land, but it must 
be done before it thaws out." "Why don't the Doctor 
ask me to go ?** "You wouldn't go." " Yes, I would," 
said he. There was a starter. Others fell in and they 
were soon on their way. The second night they 
camped on the north bank of the Pine River, near 
a mile west of where we live. Here they found 
some one had preceded them, for "c-l-a-m-e-d" was 
written several times in the space of a mile. Near 
the present site of the school house were a few logs 
thrown together — an attempt to build a shanty — but 
nothing fearing the men proceeded to write under 
the above ^'c-l-a-i-m-ed," and concluded those who 
worked fastest would win, and accordingly hastened 
home for lumber, and the next day but one, sev- 
eral loads of lumber were on the ground and sev- 
eral shanties were soon built. The men occupied 
them three weeks before moving their families, ex- 
amining all the resources of the newly acquired 
territory, and entertaining travelers who now began 
to come with a rush to see the " promised land." 
Twenty slept in our shanty, which was only 12x14. 
February 20, the Doctor and Mr. Hawley brought 
their families. It was a cold day and it was a tedi- 
ous ride, seated high on wheels, for there was no 
sleighing at that time. We passed but one place 
that was inhabited and that was soon after leav- 
ing the Fox River. There was a log house at 
Auroraville, but it was deserted. The road seemed 

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twice as long as now, winding along among the 
trees, and happy were we to reach our rude shanty 
on the banks of Pine River. Mr. Hawley had 
preceded us, and also all the teams. I shall never 
forget the cheerful look that lighted up a shanty, 
filled to overflowing, all in the height of enjoyment. 
I was nigh frozen and had not seen a (ire since morn- 
ing. Mrs. Hawley (deceased) was very enthusi- 
astic in our new beginning. She had the teakettle 
boiling and the board spread with luxuries such as 
the wilderness had never seen. Whfen morning 
came, and she took a view of the surroundings, her 
exclamation was "Beautiful!*' I had nearly forgot- 
ten. There was one unhappy poor '^pHSs" we had 
brought in a sack, for we would not desert him, 
that was put upon a shelf the men had secured to 
the side of the shanty. Then he watched the peo- 
ple, thinking his time had come. Fred begged to 
take him down, but no one was allowed to touch that 
poor disconsolate, mourning the loss of his quiet 
home. That night he made his escape and did not 
return until the second night, when he came to the 
door and scratched and we bade him to come in 
and be welcome. 

The first settlement made within the limits of 
Waushara County, (quoting from an historical ad- 
dress) so far as we have been able to learn, was 
made Sept. 24, 1848, by Isaac and William War- 
wick, two brothers who had just been discharged 
from the United States service (4th Regiment In- 
diana Infantry Volunteers) in the Mexican War. 
Their claim was made to a piece of land now on 
section 2, in the town of Marion, and in making it 
out by marking a line around it, they tried to go 
round so large a piece, that they could not find the 
point started from until they had followed the 
glaize back. They first built a shanty 8x10 feet 
on the ground, and gabled to a point at the top, 
leaving out a few of the under logs on one side for 
a door, and covered it with sods. Later in the fall 
Isaac went to Stevens Point with two yoke of 
oxen, and brought back a load of lumber with 
which they covered the shanty. As soldiers with 
the army blue on were not very common then, 
these men were known in the settlement on the 
other side of the Fox as "the Soldiers," and their 
claim, which was near to the Territorial road from 

Strong's Landing, on the Fox River, to Stevens 
Point, as the "Soldier's Claim." The brothers lived 
in the shanty during the winter on rather rough 
fare, but toward spring found a bee-tree, from 
which they took a large amount of honey, left the 
tree standing, and took it up the next fall, and the 
next spring commenced to open up a farm. When 
their claim was made, the Menomonee tribe of In- 
dians owned what is now Waushara County, and 
other lands on the west side of the Fox River, aud 
some negotiations had been made looking to the 
purchase of the same, but the contract was not com- 
pleted until the spring of 1849. At one time the 
brothers were ordered to leave, by an Indian agent 
stationed somewhere on the Fox, and all whites for- 
bidden to enter upon these lands of the Indians as 
settlers. They were also ordered to leave by the 
chief of the Menomonees, who was known since 
among the whites as "Menomonee John," but com- 
promised with him by breaking some land for a 
cornfield near what is known as John's Lake — some- 
times called Jo's Lake — in the town of Mt. Morris. 

In the spring of 1849, settlers began going west 
of the Fox. A new road was cut out, about the first 
of May, from Strong's Landing to what is now 
Wautoma, where Philip Green had built a shanty 
during the previous winter, where he staid a part of 
the time, and a part of the time at his father's, two 
and a half miles beyond Strong's Landing (Berlin). 
This claim was later sold to a Mr. Atkins, who kept 
a tavern on it in the winter, but not in the summer 
(living: on his farm south of "the Landing" then) 
to accommodate lumbermen who were going to 
and returning from the Little Pinery, leaving the 
old Territorial military wagon road in many places, 
but especially that part of it which went by way of 
Willow Creek, the new one, which is now known 
as the south road, going from three to five miles 
south of it. 

At the bend in Willow Creek — now near Rich- 
ardson's Corners, and not far from the "Sol- 
dier's Claim" — had been a great camping ground 
on the old road, on account of water and feed, and 
a claim was made here in May. It had been the 
custom of the Indians to live during the winter 
and spring in the "Big Timber," or timber lands in 
the eastern part of the count}', camping here and 

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there along Willow Creek, Pine River, and the 
other small streams, and the custom was continued 
for many years after the laud had come into posses- 
sion of the whites. In the fall, hundreds of In- 
dians were to be seen winding their way along to 
the woods, their ponies loaded with a few cooking 
utensils, their flag tents, squaws, pappooses and old 
Indiars, followed by some of the squaws carrying 
part of the baggage, and by a large number of 
dogs. Their trails or paths were sometimes deeply 
worn, as they often went the same route, following 
one another in Indian file. During the winter, 
hunting parties went out in the openings or in the 
timber to hunt, as occasion required. The princi- 
pal game was deer, of which there was an abundance, 
droves of fifteen or twenty often being seen to- 
gether in the deer season. There wee also some 
wolves, the gray and the black, though not many 
as compared to other localities at that time, and a 
good many bears, coming principally from the re- 
gion of the pines for "shack" or acorns in the fall, 
man}' partridges, some grouse, a few prairie chick- 
ens, badger, otter, muskrats, marten, mink, etc. 
There was an abundance of wild rice growing about 
Poygan Lake, and in and along the lower waters of 
Willow Creek and Pine River, which the Indians, 
or rather the squaws, as they always did the work, 
gathered for food. Great quantities of huckleber- 
ries grew in many of the openings, both the blue 
and the black, which were gathered in their season 
by the squaws and dried. 

Menomonee John lived to be quite an old man. 
Among the Menomonees were a great many 
Potto watomies and some Chippewas, scattering 
members of the old Chippewa tribe, of Mich- 
igan. Nearly all the lakes and streams had 
names by which they were known to the Indians. 
Willow Creek was called by the Menomonees "Kee- 
tah Shawagun Sapa or Sippi," the latter term hav- 
ing been used by many tribes to designate a river. 
Fox River was called ''Nonaccogun Sippi;" Pine 
River,**Poygan Sippi," from Poygan Lake, Poygan 
meaning pipe, from the shape of the lake, an^ Wolf 
Rifer running into it, which bore in form a re- 
mote resemblance to an Indian pipe. In the spring 
the Indians made maple sugar, catching the sap 
from the maple trees in little birch bark troughs 

that held from two to twelve quarts each. Troughs 
were sometimes made of elm bark. Fish — suckers, 
pickerel and red horse, were then plenty in all the 
streams, coming up every spring to spawn. They 
were often caught by putting across the stream a 
rack or dam of timber and stakes so close together 
that the fish could not pass through, so that it was 
an easy matter to spear them. After the building 
of mill dams by the whites, large quantities of fish 
were caught every spring for a number of yeai-s. It 
is related that they were so thick at one time below 
the dam at Poysippi, that people caught them in 
their bare hands, and carried them away by the 
wagon-load. The first roads were built on the 
routes which could be made with least labor. 
Among the first were the ones already mentioned, 
leading from Strong's Landing to Wautoma, one 
was cut out from Poysippi westward, around the 
timber land, and also one from Pine River south- 
ward, the two uniting at Willow Creek; also one 
from the Soldier's mill to Saxville; also one toMt. 
Morris. The streams were forded before bridges 
were built. There was a ford on Willow Creek, 
near the ^'Soldier's Claim.'* 

Pioneer Women. 

Much may be said (to quote from a paper by J. 
Mathews on "The Pioneer Women of Waushara 
County"), in praise of the fortitude of our pioneer 
women, who were willing to leave comfortable and 
pleasant associations, and come with their families 
to build up homes in this, then, wilderness, trod 
only by savage beasts, and still more savage men. 
Among the earliest inhabitants of this county, were 
representatives of about every Northern State, and 
ever}^ civilized nation. These settlers were not of 
the lowest, and perhaps not of the very highest, 
but of the middle class that make up the bone and 
sinew of our country. Many of them were well 
educated, intelligent and refined, and I think I am 
justified in sa3'ing that Waushara County's first 
women were, as a class, well fitted for laying the 
foundation of a new society, in a new countr3\ I 
believe they were led by a holy ambition to come 
here to build up homes for themselves and their 
children. How often we have heard the mother 
say: "We would never have left the old home and 

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come here, if it had not been to get land for the 
boys." For this they willingly endured the hard- 
ships and privations of pioneer life. Many had to 
go without suitable clothing to protect them from 
the severity of this Northern climate, and often 
with insufficient food. Some were obliged to cross 
the Fox and help carry provisions home on their 
backs to their families, and often they were found 
doing the work on the little patches of land cleared, 
and in many cases their own hands helped to chop 
and burn the timber from the land. Once accus- 
tomed to comfortable, well- furnished houses, they 
here found that rude log cabins or board shanties 
were the best that could be afforded, and in place 
of horses and carriages and sleighs, the ox lumber- 
wagon and log sleds were substituted. But while 
suffering so many privations, toils and hardships, 
that strength and endurance sometimes failed, and 
death was a welcome relief from the weary struggle 
of life, there was a brighter side to this picture. 
Hope and courage wore theirs, for were they not 
toiling for a spot of earth they could call their 
own ? And when the land comes into market, and the 
father or eldest son starts for Menasha with the care- 
fully hoarded money for which they toiled so long, 
with what anxiety the mother awaits the return, 
and when the paper which secures to them their 
home is placed in her hand for safe keeping, what 
a thanksgiving goes up from that family circle. 
The best supper for the happy family is prepared 
by the tired but willing hands of the mother. The 
next day everything looks brighter, the birds sing 
sweeter, the hills and valleys look more dear. The 
home is secured I All honor to the brave hearts and 
willing hands of our pioneer women. Yours was 
the hardest task, your sacrifices, trials and hard- 
ships were the greatest, but you bore them with 
true Spartan courage. Many of your number have 
passed over the mystic river, but their names are 
cherished as holy household words, and their mem- 
ories treasured among things immortal. Many of 
you are enjoying the fruits of your labors in good, 
pleasant homes, your children grown up to honor 
and bless you. I think you can. look back with 
satisfaction on the past, and feel a consciousness 
that you have acted well your part, and that you 
have merited the approbation of all who are inter- 

ested in the advancement of civilization in our 


Aurora is the southeastern town of the County 
of Waushara, and the only one of the eighteen 
towns of the county that deviates any from a uni- 
form size, shape and area, the southeast corner, 
south of the Fox River, having been attpxjhed to 
Berlin, in Green Lake County. Willow Creek 
crosses the northwest corner with a broadening at 
Auroraville on its way to Lake Poygan. There is 
much swamp land in this town, in which are located 
wholly the immense Sacket and Carey cranberry 
marshes, owned in Berlin and mentioned in the 
history of that city. Aurora is bounded on the 
north by Poysippi, on the east by Winnebago 
County, on the south by Green Lake County, and 
on the west by Warren. 

Prominent among the early settlers of this town 
were: Henry R. Floyd, who came in 1849; E. W. 
Daniels, in 1850; N. W. Harrington, in 1851; A. 
A. Daniels, in 1852; W. F. Williams, in 1854; B. 
F. and D. L. Davenport, in 1859. 


The only postoffice in this town is at Auroraville, 
a village of 300 population, on Willow Creek, 
eighteen miles east of Wautoma, and seven miles 
north of Berlin. Settlement began here in 1848 
or 1849. The village contains two churches, the 
general stores of F. P. Corrill and Strang & Wells, 
the sawmill of J. Montgomery, the nursery of E. 
W. Daniels and the hotel of J. W. Hollenbeck. T. 
M. Harvey, Charles Fero and James Brown are 


This is the northeastern town of the county, 
bounded north by Waupaca County, east by Win- 
nebago County, south by the town of Wausippi, 
and west by the town of Saxviile. It is swampy 
in most parts, in large tracts, but the intervening 
land is productive. Some small streams which flow 
eastward and southward have their sources in this 
town. Lake Poygan cuts into its southeast corner. 

Among the earl v settlers of Bloomfield wehe: 
John Howell, the first, in May, 1850; Mr. Kellogg, 

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Kimball, Metoalf, J. B. Woodward and Cyrus B. 
Barnes, who came also in 1850 and 1856, respect- 

West Bloomfield. 

West Bloomfield is a village of about 300 inhab- 
itants, twenty-six miles northeast of Wautoma and 
seven and one-half miles south of Weyauwega, 
on the Wisconsin Central line, the nearest railway 
station. It was settled in 1855, and contains a 
Lutheran church, schools, the general stores of H. 
Koehler and A. Bast, the blacksmith shops of W. 
Loose, William Timm aud R. Wendt, and other 
interests. This Is the home ofl3ce of the Bloom- 
field Insurance Company, of which G. Bachman 
is President; F. Kopiske, Secretary, and William 
Kerist Treasurer. 


Tustin is a village of about 250 population, on 
Lake Poygan, twenty six miles northeast of Wau- 
toma, twelve miles from Winneconne, the nearest 
railroad station, and seventeen miles from Berlin, 
the nearest banking point. It contains a feed mill 
owned by the Leverson Brothers, a saw mill, owned 
by the same parties ; a saw and heading mill, owned 
by Clark & Nelson; the hotel of (). C. Jenks; the 
boat-building establishment of F. La Borde <& Son ; 
the cheese factory of John Lind; the hotel of Wil- 
liam Richards; the cheese factory of John Schinde- 
holtz; the general stores of Gottlieb Velte and John 
Boyson and other business interests. 


is a hamlet of about seventy-five inhabitants, on 
Spring Creek, twenty miles northeast of Wautoma, 
and sixteen miles north of Berlin, the nearest rail- 
road station. It contains a steam saw mill, the 
property of S. R. Clark <fe Son, two churches, a 
creamery, and other business interests. 

Early Events. 

The first child born was Kellogg's, in 1851. The 
first marriage was Stephen King and Miss Kel- 
logg's, in 1852, by Dr. J. S. 'Ewing, a Justice of 
the Peace. The first death was Calvin Swift's, 
in 1853. Mr. Swift kept the first public house in 
a log and board shanty on section 8. The first re- 
ligioqs meeting was l\et\c\ in 1850 by the Howells, 

Kelloggs and Wilsons. The first school was taught 
by Miss Wilson in 1856; the first school house was 
built the same year. Justin Noble and Charles 
Stowers built the first sawmill on section 2 in 1857. 
The only house on the Berlin road from Little 
River to Cady's, north of Auroraville, was Joel 


This is the western of the southern tier of towns 
of Waushara County, and is considered a good ag- 
ricultural town. In common with Hancock and 
Plainfield, its companion towns in the western tier 
of towns, it enjoys the advantages of railway facil- 
ities« the Wisconsin Central crossing east of the cen- 
ter in a north and south direction, with a station 
named for the town, Coloma. Hancock is the 
town lying north of Coloma; Rickford is to the 
east, Marquette County is to the south, and Adams 
County is to the west. There are no streams wor- 
thy of note in this town, aud only one small body 
of water, lying mostly in section 33, on its south- 
ern boundary. The Mecan River may be said to 
have its source in the northeast section of Coloma. 


Coloma is a hamlet of about fifty people, in this 
town, seventeen miles west of Wautoma, twelve 
miles south of Plainfield and a little less than four 
miles west of Coloma Station. It was settled in 
1850. Here are the steam, feed and saw-mills of J. 
W. Smith, the hotel of T. B. Smith, and the gen- 
eral stores of J. F. Spaulding, W. 'P. Bishop and 
Elias Follett. 

Coloma Station; 

Nearly four miles east of Coloma, has a population 
of 150. It was settled in 1858, after the coming of 
the railroad, and contains a church and a district 
school, besides the general stores of S. Dulin, £. 
Exner, Smith Brothers, and Mrs. J. A. Smith, the 
hardware store of C. P. Schmudlock, the harness 
shop of H. W\ Gibbs, and blacksmiths, wheel- 
wrights, and other small mechanics' shops. 


Dakota is of the middle tier of towns of Wau- 
shara County, and lies just west of the line divid- 
ing the county into its east »nd we^t halves, In 

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the northern part of this town White River is 
formed by the junction of several small streams. 
Pine creek and another stream of equal size have 
their courses through and their sources partly in, 
the western parts. Bass Lake and three other 
smaller bodies of water lie within this town. There 
is considerable swamp land in the western and cen- 
tral portions, but good farms are found in nearly all 
parts of the town. Dakota's boundaries are these: 
north, the town of Wautoma; east the town of 
Marion ; south, Marquette County ; west, the town 
of Richford. 


Is a small village of seventy -five inhabitants, the 
only post-office in this town. It is eight miles 
southwest of Wautoma, and ten miles southeast 
of Coloma Station, the nearest railroad point. It 
was settled in 1851. Here are the sawmills of 
Julius Granise and Herman Testlauf, the general 
store of W. L. Roberts, the hotel and grocery of 
Mrs. L. J. Crandall, and some small mechanics' 

Among the early settlers and prominent men of 
Dakota were: G. W. Wilter, D. R. Coon, F. E. 
Wandrey, H. J. Peep, B. S. Crandall, Gottfried 
Stenzel, William Diggles, Peter Hamel, H. Har- 
rington, John Wandrey, H. W. Rood and Allen 


The town of Deerfield is the second town from 
the western border of the county in the middle 
tier of towns. It is bounded north by the town of 
Oasis, east by the town of Wautoma, south by the 
town of Dakota and west by the town of Hancock. 
It is a level, agricultural town and has no streams 
of importance. Fish Lake extends over its west- 
ern boundary from the town of Hancock and a 
little east of the eastern extremity of this lake is a 
smaller body of water, mostly in section 17. In 
section 25, in the southeast part of the town is an- 
other small body of water which discharges through 
the White River. This town contains neither vil- 
lage, hamlet nor post-office. 

Among the early settlers and prominent citizens 
of this town we may mention P. S. Thurston, 
James Crowl, Levi Boyce, J. M. Harford, Charles 

J. Marshall, S. S. Mills, G. W;. Perry, Richard 
Searles, Ira Wood and Lewis Marshall. 


Hancock is the western of the middle tier of 
towns of Waushara County, It is bounded on 
the north by the town of Plainfield, on the east by 
the town of Deerfield, on the south by the town of 
Coloma, and on the west by Adams County. No 
streams worthy of note have their courses within 
its borders. Pine and Fish Lakes, in the north- 
east part are bodies of water which have attracted 
some attention. The Wisconsin Central Line crosses 
the eastern part of this town, near the center with 
a station at Hancock. The soil is sandy and adapted 
to general farming. 

Hancock was organized in 1856 by the legally 
qualified voters of the territory comprising the 
town, by electing Sylvester Richmond, Jefferson 
Abbott and H. B. Lewis Supervisors; Hiram 
Barnes, Town Clerk; L. A. Babcock, Assessor; and 
Benjamin Chamberlain and H. B. Lewis, Justices of 
the Peace. Among the early settlers were William 
Sylvester, H. Barnes, L. A. Babcock, Story Ab- 
bott, J. F. Wiley, Chauncey Riley, John Rawson, 
S. R. Dunham, J. E. Tilton, C. E. Manger, John 
LaSelle, Samuel Hutchinson, Stillman Ordway, 
Isaiah Moor, William and Thomas O'Connor and 
Walter Ware. 


Hancock is a village in this town, on the Wis- 
consin Central Line, fifteen miles northwest of 
Wautoma and five and three-fourths miles south 
of Plainfield. It contains a steam feed mill, a 
church and a district school and has a population of 
about 150. The business of this village twenty 
years ago may be thus stated: A. R. Edwards, 
dry goods and groceries; D. S. Kingsley, black- 
smith; Isaiah Moor, meat market; S. Miner, physi- 
cian; Horace Merriman, proprietor of hotel; Mrs. 
O. J. Wiley, millinery ; J. F. Wiley, general mer- 
chant. The principal business interests of the 
present day are the general store of Fred F. Goss : 
the drug store of B. L. Hales; the feed mill of G. 
E. Moor; the harness shop of J. Ordway, and the 
store of J. F. Wiley. Although settlement began 
here about forty years ago, the growth of the vil- 

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lage has occurred since the railroad was put 
through it. A Mr. Sylvester was the first settler 
and erected a small house, called a *'hotel," in 1850. 
About 1855 quite a number came — J. F. Wiley, 
Levi Babcock, G. and C. Hutchinson, J. B. and L. 
Rawson and G. T. Youts. Mr. Wiley opened a 
store, and is now a leading merchant of the place, 
owuing also an elevator and warehouse. The Moor 
brothers, pioneers, also became substantial busi- 
ness men. 

Hancock is not incorporated as a village. It 
was surveyed and platted by C. F. Atwood, in 
1877, for its proprietor, J. F. Wiley. The Congre- 
gational Church was organized about twenty years 
ago. Several congregations worship in its neat 

Thomas Eubank Post, No. 150, Grand Army of 
the Republic was organized at Hancock, March 26, 

1884, with the following charter members: J. E. 
Tilton, B. L. Hales, F. B. Hamilton, W. D. Weld, 
Thos. Beal, W. S. Curtis, W. J. Moore, J. A. Ro- 
zell, John K. Worthing, Henry Edson, Geo. C. 
Guest, J. A. Schofield, Peter J, Johnson, Wm. 
Jump, L. D. Marshall, S. Ferguson, C. W. Bab- 
cock, F. R. Jones, C. W. Moors, Jas. Ordway, O. 
Hepburn, D. N. Green, Geo. Hutchinson, D. W. 
Booth, J. R. Barker, Wm. H. Welcome, A. D. 
Hamilton, J. W. Greenfield, M. V. Ferdon, G. P. 
Bushey, John H. Ostrum and K. B. Wilkinson, M. 

The following were the officers for 1884: Com., 
John E. Tilton; S. V. C, F. B. Hamilton; J. V. C, 
B. L. Hales; Adj., C. W. Moors; Q. M., F. R. 
Jones; Surg., K. B. Wilkinson; Chap., W. 8. Cur- 
tis; O.D., Thos. Beal;0. G., C. W. Babcock; Q. 
M. S., Heary Edson; 8. Maj., W. D. Weld. 

John E. Tilton was re-elected Commander in 

1885. F. B. Hamilton was Commander in 1886 and 
and 1887; Thomas Beal in 1888; F. B. Hamilton 
again in 1889 and C. A. Green is serving in 1890. 
This post holds its regular meetings at Hancock 
on the second and fourth Saturdays of each 
month. It has had a membership of over one hun- 
dred, but by transfers and dropped members it now 
has eighty members in good standing. It has lost 
only two members by death — George C. Guest, 
\f^\e Corp, Co. G., 29th Ohio Infantry, and J, L. 

i Wing, late Corp. Co. A., 2nd Wisconsin Infantry. 

I It has a Relief Corps just organized with thirty- 
two Charter Members, with Mrs. W. D. Weld, 
President and Mrs. Lucy Barton, Secretary. 


Leon is the second of the middle tier of towns 
from the east line of the county, bounded north by 
Saxville, east by Poysippe, south by Warren and 
west by Mount Morris. Pine River and some of 
its tributaries flow through the northern part. Jack- 
ling's Lake is a small body of water in section 30 
in the southwest part. The surface is uneven to a 
degree and there is considerable swamp land in the 
southern part. Most of the town is well adapted 
to agriculture. 

The first claim made in the town of Leon was by 
a bee-hunter named Worden in 1849. He remained 
only a short time and returned to Neenah, whence 
he had come. His claim was made on what is now 
Van Aernam's prairie. Other early comers were: 
Henry Lang and Mr. Buck, in 1850; Edson Terrill, 
in 1851 ; Baldwin Sears, in 1852 ; Joseph Mat- 
thews, in 1853; George Frogin and Leicester 
Stephens, 1856. 

Pine River. 

Pine River is a postvillage on the river of the 
same name in this town, twelve miles northeast of 
Wautoma and sixteen miles northwest of Berlin, 
the nearest railroad station. R. F. Frisbie arrived 
in this place in April, 1850. made his claim and 
builc a shanty, and the next fall put up a frame 
house. With John A. Williams and Mr. Ream, he 
built a sawmill in 1856. The first tavern was 
opened in 1851. The village was platted in 1856. 
The first store was built in 1855 and has been oc- 
cupied by A. M. Kimball and A. M. Kimball <fe 
Son to the present time. The postoffice was estab- 
lished about 1856, with A. P. Noyes as postmas- 
ter. B. D. Jewell is the present postmaster. A Con- 
gregational Church edifice was begun in 1866 and 
finished in 1867. Elder D. A. Campbell, who came 
in 1857, was the first preacher. The present pas- 
tor is Rev. Mr. Orcutt. Another church (Method- 
ist) has been built since this one, making two in 
the village at this time. 

The b^sipes9 djr^ctorjr of f\n^ River twenty 

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years ago would have read thus: Blythe <fe Berton. 
blacksmiths and painters ; Doolittle & Poll, flour- 
ing mill ; Silas Duncan, cabinet-maker ; Frisbie & 
Westover, saw and planlngmill, door, sash and 
blind factory ; B. D. Jewell, physician, druggist 
and general merchant ; A. M. Kimball, postmaster 
and genera] merchant; George Marshall, Pine River 
Hotel ; William R. Mills, grocery and confection- 
ery ; Thomas Roche, tailor ; W. <fe G. Skeel, 
wagon-makers ; William Trever, boot and shoe- 
maker ; White <fe Faucher, blacksmiths ; G. W. 
White, harness-maker and carpenter. The chief 
business interests at this time are the general stores 
of A. M. Kimball <fe Son and B. A. Barr ; the cran- 
berry business of William Carpenter; the furniture 
and implement trade of H. E. Frisbie; the drug 
store of Dr. D. B. Jewell ; the hotel of Nathan 
Kimball ; the flour mill of T. H. Patterson ; the 
wagon shop of George Skeels and the saw and 
planing mill of S. Westover & Son. The Waushara 
Argus was published at Pine River from March to 
May, 1859, by Pulsifer & Barker, then removed 
to Wautoma. 


Known as " Terrill's Corners,'* has a population of 
50, a general store, a grist mill and other business 


Of the six towns of the southern tier in Wau- 
shara County, Marion is the fourth from the wes- 
tern border, lying immediately east of the line di- 
viding the county into its east and west halves. It 
is bounded on the north by the town of Mount 
Morris, on the east by the town of Warren, on the 
south by Green Lake and Marquette Counties, and 
on the west by the town of Dakota, Fish Lake 
lies mostly in sections 5 and 6 on the northern bor- 
der, extending a short distance into the town of 
Mount Morris. Just north of Fish Lake, in sec- 
tions 5, 6 and 8, is Wolf, or Silver, Lake, which is 
attracting attention as a probable summer resort in 
the near future. A small lake lies in the contigu- 
ous corners of sections 16, 17, 20 and 21, just west 
of the center of the town. Spring Lake covers a 
small part of sections 23 and 26. Several other 
small bodies are in the different parts of the town. 
Tl;c southwestern part is swampy. Good farms 

abound in all directions. The Marion granite out- 
cropping is elsewhere referred to. 

September 24, 1848, Isaac and William Warwick, 
two brothers who had just been discharged from 
the Mexican War, made a claim to a piece of land 
now section 2 in the town of Marion. They built 
an 8x10 log shanty and became the first settlers in 
Waushara County. In the fall, taking two yokes 
of oxen, Isaac made a trip to Steven's Point and 
secured lumber for the erection of a more substan- 
tial house. 

This settlement was made on the Indian lands, 
and though they were ordered to leave by both the 
Indians and the Indian agent, they in various ways 
appeased their wrath and remained and became the 
nucleus of the present settlement of Waushara. S. 
A. and T. F. Metcalf came in 1849 and 1850 re- 

The first child born in the town was Emerson 
Leach ; and a child was born at D. C. Hills' about 
the same time. The first marriage was that of Jane 
Augusta Parker, of Marion, to £. C. Hobart, of 
Oshkosh, by Bishop Kemper, of Milwaukee. The 
first death was that of old Mr. Hollister, who was 
killed by the caving in of a well in June, 1850. 
The first public house wps kept by A. P. Fuller, at 
Spring Lake. The first school was taught in a log 
school house on land now owned by John Leach, 
by Adelia Holcomb, in the winter of 1850-51. 
Elder Millikeu, of Saxvillc, was an early exhorter 
and preacher. 

Spring: Lake. 

Spring Lake is the only post-office in this town. 
It is nine miles northwest of Wautoma and thirteen 
miles northwest of Berlin, the nearest railroad sta- 
tion. Here are the general store of Thomas H. 
Joslin and the hotel of A. P. Fuller. The popula- 
tion is about 25. 

Mount Morris. 

Mount Morris is the third from the eastern limit 
of the county in the middle tier of towns. Its 
boundaries are as follows: On the north, the town 
of Spring Water ; on the east, the town of Leon ; on 
the south, the town of Marion ; on the west, the 
town of Wautoma. Within these bounds are Hills' 
Lake, Sauk's Lake^ Fairburn Lake, John's Lake, 
and several other small bodies of water. Some 

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small creeks have their course wholly or in part 
within this town. There is considerable swamp 
land in the western central part, but most of the 
soil in the town is measurably productive. Fish 
Lake encroaches a little upon sections 31 and 32 of 
this town, but most of it lies over the line in the 
town of Marion. 

The first settlement in this town was made in 
1849 by E. W. Alverd and William Tibbitt. Thomas 
E. Cope and Floyd E. Barker came in 1850, and 
Benjamin F. Raeppoll, in 1856. 


Colebrook is a post-office on Willow Creek, in this 
town, seven miles east of Wautoma and twice that 
distance northwest of Berlin, the nearest railroad 
station and banking point. There are a blacksmith 
shop, a feed mill and other industries here. The 
population is about 75. 

Mount Morris. 

This is a hamlet of about 25 inhabitants, on Wil- 
low Creek, seven miles from Wautomia and twenty 
miles from Berlin. It was settled in 1854, and 
contains a church, a school, two general stores and 
a water-power flouring mill. 

Early Events, 

A child of N. and Anna Nelson, born July 26, 
1850, was the first born in the town. The first 
marriage was that of Andrew Delseals and Cather- 
ine Campbell, in the fall of 1854, by Captain Sax. 
The first death was that of Margaret Nelson, Aug. 
11, 1850. The first religious meeting was held in 
N. Nelson's house. William Stewart preached. A 
Methodist "'class" and Sunday-school was organ- 
ized in the same house in 1854. The first school was 
opened at '*the mountain" in district No 1, Mary 
Morse, teacher. The first school house was erected 
in 1854. 


Oasis is of the northern tier of towns and the 
second from the western border of the county. It 
is bounded on the north by Portage County, on 
the east by the town of Rose, on the south by 
the town of Deerfield, on the west by the 
town of Plainfieid. Oasis is level and adapted to 
farming. There are no important streams in the 

town but there are within its limits several small 
bodies of water scarcely large enough to be digni- 
fied by the name of lakes. 

William Lord settled in this town about 1819, 
and kept a tavern. Other settlers and men of 
mark were N. K. Redlon, John Peevy, W. E. 
Crowe, E. F. Currier, I. C. Herrick, R. R. Crowe, 
Thomas Hyde. 


This is a post hamlet of about fifty population, 
and the only post-office in this town. It is twelve 
miles northwest of Wautoma and six miles south- 
east of Plainfieid, the nearest railway station. 


Plainfieid is the northwest town of the county. 
It is bounded on the north by Portage County, on 
the east the town of Oasis, on the south by the 
town of Hancock, and on the west by Adams 
County. This town is nearly level. It has no 
large streams. The Wisconsin Central line crosses 
it north and south in the east part, with a station at 
Plainfieid Village. Sand Lake is a small body of 
water in the southeast corner. 

The fii*st settlement in the western part of the 
county, was made in this town, in 1849, by Thom- 
as and William N. Kelly, father and son. C. E. 
Waterman and Charles Hamilton came in the win- 
ter of 1849-50, and located at the site of the pres- 
ent of Plainfieid. 

The YiUage of Plainfieid. 

Plainfieid, seventeen miles northwest of Wauto- 
ma and twenty-two miles south of Stevens Point, 
is one of the wide-awake and progressive villages 
on the line of the Wisconsin Central Railroad. It 
is the center of a good country trade and the ship- 
ping point of large quantities of grain and live- 

In 1852 E. C. Waterman settled on land now 
within the corporate limits of the village and erec- 
ted a shanty 12x16 feet whiph he used as a dwell- 
ing and hotel. It is left to the imagination of the 
traveler of to-day to picture such hotel accommo- 
dations as he must have had. This building was 
afterwards enlarged into the nucleus of the Plaing 
field House, still standing on Main Street. 

Others who caroe early to Plainfieid were Judge 

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T. H. Walker, in 1850; Jesse Bentley and family, 
in 1850; and Samuel Westbrook in 1852. 

In Marcb, 1855, W. W. Beach, who became one 
of Plainfield's most honored citizens, settled in the 
village and built the next house. Charles Hamil- 
ton was among the very earliest settlers of the town. 
He, with Messrs. Waterman and Beach, built the 
first school house and Miss Mary Chester was the 
first school teacher. William Kelley, the very 
first settler in the town of Plainfield, who came as 
early as 1848, located just south of, but not within 
the village limits. 

Early in its history, the little settlement on the 
present site of Plainfield was called Norwich ; but 
when the post-office was established and it became 
necessary to choose a name for it, Plainfield was 
decided on at the suggestion of E. C. Waterman, 
the postmaster, from Plainfield, Vt., in honor of 
his earlier home. About this time (1855,) came 
G. W. Sheardown and Charles Mann. The former 
erected the second house after Mr. Beach's and the 
latter the third. Having been named, the village 
was platted the samei year by S. W. Hall, surveyor 
for E. C. Waterman, proprietor. Hamilton's and 
other less important additions to the village have 
been platted. 

The location of a po8tofl3ce and the platting of a 
village is always the signal for fresh growth. This 
proved true in Plainfield. The first gristmill and 
a sawmill run in connection with it were erected 
by Cady <fe Chamberlain in 1856. It was burned, 
however, in 1857, and rebuilt. Beach <fe Chester 
had opened the first general store in the place the 
year before (1855). Thus, by 1856, the ground- 
work had been laid for the present prosperous vil- 
lage. The building of the railroad gave it an ad- 
ded impetus, and it now ranks as one of the most 
thriving and promising villages in this section. 
An idea of its rapid growth during the past twenty 
years may be gained from a comparison of its bus- 
iness in 1869 and at the present time. Then the 
following names were those of all of its prominent 
business men in all lines: Sherman Bordwell, B. F. 
Griffith, J. B. Mitchell, F. B. Munson, J. A. Ro- 
zell, general merchants; J. F. Cannon, Hamilton & 
Rist, blacksmiths; J. H. Millington, merchant tai- 
lor; R. R. Rapp, wagoa mak^rj G. W. Sh^rt^own, 

druggist and postmaster. Of course grist and saw- 
mills were in operation at this time. At the pres- 
ent time Plainfield has fifty or sixty business estab- 
lishments, including the Bank of Plainfield, H. N. 
Drake, proprietor; the general stores of Sherman 
Bard well, F. J. Luce <fe Co., and L. S. Walker; the 
planing mill of W. J. Durham; the flouring mill of 
O'Cain & Bard well : the marble works of Joseph T. 
Sherman; the Mitchell House, Coon <& Perrins, 
proprietors and the Plainfield House, J. L. Shaw, 
proprietor: the drug store of Bishop B. Borden, 
and the farm implement warehouses of George B. 
Fox, Charles H. Millington and Albert J. Steele. 

J. T. Ellarson some years since published a pa- 
per here named the Plainfield Times, It was local 
in character and Republican in politics. TJie Sun, 
published by L. W. Chapman, is in its seventh 
volume. It is a five-column, eight-page paper, de- 
voted to upbuilding the best interests of Plainfield 
and vicinity, ably edited and with a large and 
growing circulation. A special feature is its large 
amount of local correspondence from towns around 
about, which makes it one of the newsiest sheets 
published in this section. 

Walter Waterman Post, No. 197, G. A. R., was 
organized Aug. 22, 1885, with the following char- 
ter members: J. B. Mitchell, Henry McCallin, 
H. B. Holmes, J. C. Rowsam, Peter Mitchell, 
Frank Rathermel, L. S. Walker, J. P. Lane, L. D. 
Stilwell, S. S. Mills, E. M. Pickering, A. M. Pierce, 
Geo. B. Fox, Henry Washburn, Frank Briggs, 
H. C. Wood, C. B. Foss, W. W. Gillett, G. D. Foss, 
John Metier, R. R. Crowe, B. F. Powell, Geo. D. 
Ball, Joseph Waters, B. B. Borden, Gideon Crowe. 
A. Allen, Andrew Lutz, Geo. Goult, Jas Rozell, 
A. D. Dewitt, Louis Thiele, John Tibbetts, S. Bent- 
ley, I. N. Copeland, E. G. Eaton, W. A. Rozell, 
A. Stevens, W. W. Stilwell, D. B. Culbcrtson, 
R. H. Runcorn, B. R. Hutchinson, I. C. Herrick, 
John Townsend, R. D. Sparks, Joseph Sherman, 
Arad Lakin, 8. C. Waterman, John E. Wilson and 
John Peevy. The first officers were: Com. R. H. 
Runcorn; S. V.C, J. B. Mitchell; J. V. C, Peter 
Mitchell, Surg;, L C. Herrick; O. Day., H. B, 
Holmes; Q. M., L. S. Walker; Adjt. R. B. Hutchin- 
son; O. G., Geo. Foss; Chap., R. D. Sparks; Ser, 
Maj., S. C, W^t^rman; q. M. Ser„ G, P, Ball, 

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The present officers are: Com., R. IL Rimcorn; 
S. V. C, Geo. Foss; J. V. C, Arad Laken; Surg., 
I. C. Herrick; O. Day., J. T. Sherman; Q. M., H. F. 
Treadwell; Ajt., S. C. Waterman; O. G., B. A. El- 
liott; Chap., A. W. Alderman : S. M., L. H. Weldon; 
Q. M. 8., H. C. Wood. 

Plain field Lodge, F. A. M., No. 208, holds its 
regular meetings on the first and third Saturdays 
of each month, at Masonic Hall, over Sherman 
Bardwell's store. W. B. La Selle is Worshipful 
Master and George B. Fox is Secretary. 

The village officers of Plaiufteld in January, 1 890, 
were: President, B. B.Borden; Trustees, E. M. 
Pickering, H. E. Pratt, W. W. Runcorn, F. J. Luce, 
J. H. Mattice, W. T. Michi; Clerk, L. W. Chapman; 
Assessor, John A. Printup; Treasurer, L. S. Walker; 
Justice of the Peace, George Spees; Police Justice, 
H. F. Treadwell: Marshal, George W. Goult. 

There are three churches in the village: Metho- 
dist Episcopal, Rev. A. W. Alderman, pastor; Bap- 
tist, Rev. J. U. R. Wolf, pastor; and Congregational, 
worshiping in the Baptist Church, Rev. E. A. 
Child, pastor. 

Early in its history Plainfield was the scene of 
the dread culmination of a tragedy such as few 
towns in this part of the country have witnessed. 
Its story will be found interesting as a dramatic 
chapter of the history, not only of Plainfield, but 
of the county. In 1853, there settled on a piece 
of land on Big Prairie, in Waushara County, a man 
named Firman. Some time thereafter being in 
Milwaukee, he fell in company with a man from 
Chenango County, New York, named Cartwright, 
who was looking for a place in which to settle. 
Firman induced him to come up to Big Prairie, 
offering him one "forty" of the land on which he 
had squatted. Cartwright came home with Firman, 
liked the appearance of the country, went to work 
and built a log house on the ''forty" Firman had 
agreed to let him have; and, after staying about 
the place a few weeks, started back to New York to 
sell out, settle up his affairs and bring on his family 
to his new home. In due time he returned and 
went into his log house with his family. For a 
time all things went on harmoniously, until Firman, 
whose habits and disposition were of a somewhat 
lawless character, got into some controversy with 

Cartwright, who was inclined to keep within and 
stand upon his legal rights, and a series of lawsuits 
arose between them for trespasses, assaults, and a 
variety of other contentions, which kept the justices 
of Berlin and Princeton (where they were obliged 
to seek law, Waushara County being then attached 
to Marquette County for judicial purposes) com- 
paratively busy in adjudicating their disputes. 
This went on until all tlie means and credit of the 
parlies were exhausted. In the meantime the *'Iii- 
dian land," as all northwest of the Fox River was 
called, was taken up and pre-emptors were required to 
make ''final proof." Firman had continued to assert a 
claim to the property he had given Cartwright dur- 
ing tiie period of their quarrel, and the rough and 
lawless elements in the community had sided with 
him in the controversy, while the law-abiding class 
were friendly with Cartwright. The day previous 
to that on which they were notified to appear at 
Menasha to " prove up" their claims, Firman had 
been arrested on a warrant for some offense, and 
his examination was fixed for the same day on 
which he wished to get to the land oflflce. As he 
could not be present to contest CartwrighVs claim 
to the "forty," which the latter obtained a dupli- 
cate for, he started home immediately after his 
case was disposed of and in the bar-room of the 
hotel at Wautoma, where he stopped, he met Cart- 
wright, whom he accuse^ of "swearing to a lie." 
A quarrel ensued, and at length, angered by a bitter 
insult. Firman sprang upon Cartwright, struck him 
repeatedly and at length knocked him out of his 
chair (for he was sitting) against the stove, which 
tumbled over and scattered live coals over the floor. 
The bystanders pulled Firman off of Cartwright 
who immediately fi^ot up, and passing through the 
house went into a large frame building which had 
been lately constructed on the west end of the 
diningroom of the log building. After a few mo- 
ments. Firman went through into the kitchen and 
not seeing Cartwright enquired where he was, and 
being told by the servant girls that he had gone 
into the frame building, started after him. When 
he entered the room where Cartwright was he sprang 
towards him. Cartwright ran out of a side door 
onto the platform in front of the building. Firman 
following him and catching him by the collar just 

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as be sprang from the platform at the soutlicast 
corner of the building, where a hitching-post had 
been erected, and twisting down Cartwright's head 
tried to gouge his eyes. Cartwright being unable to 
release himself put his hand in his back pocket, 
drew a pistol and began firing and at the second 
or third discharge Firman released his hold and 
dropped. . He died in about an hour. Cartwright 
was at once arrested charged with murder. The 
next day he was held for trial. 

Mr. J. V. Swetting, of Berlin, Green Lake 
County, passing through Wautoma in company 
with the district attorney, learned that the friends 
of Firman intended to lynch Cartwright, and with 
the district attorney he went to the justice who had 
held. Cartwright for trial and told him that he (the 
justice) would be held responsible for what might 
follow if he did not immediately make out a com- 
mitment and send the prisoner to jail. The justice 
pleaded that he had no form book and did not 
know how to write out a commitment. Mr. Swett- 
ing wrote the necessary document and the justice 
signed it; and in charge of a constable Cartwright 
was at once started for Oshkosh, where the nearest 
jail was located. They proceeded as far as Berlin 
that afternoon, and the next day Cartwright was 
lodged in jail to await his trial for murder. There 
he quietly remained until after the passage of an 
act by the Legislature of Wisconsin abolishing the 
death penalty; and as by the statutes of the State, 
all offences except a capital offence, were bailable, 
shortly after the enactment became a law Cartwright 
obtained bail and returned to his home. On his 
way home in passing through Berlin he was warned 
that the friends of Firman threatened to lynch him 
if he ever again came to Big Prairie. He insisted 
on going home, taking the precaution of arming 
himself with a pistol and having already a rifle at 
home. The second night after his arrival home, 
about 1 1 o'clock, P. M., the front door of his house 
was broken in and his son, who was sleeping on the 
lower floor seized in bed by about a dozen men and 
carried out of doors. On discovering their mistake 
the lynchers let the boy go and rushed again into 
the house and up the ladder which led to the upper 
floor. The first man whose head appeared above 
the floor wa3 shot and killed instantly. The crowd 

then withdrew from the house, and on consultation 
concluded to burn the building and commenced 
kindling a fire at one corner where the logs came 
to the ground. Cartwright then poked his rifle 
through between the logs and firing, killed another 
of the party, whereupon the rest retreated from 
the house and after a second consultation sent a 
constable who was one of the party to the house of 
Judge Walker living near Plain field and about 
four miles from Cartwright's, of whom he was a 
very warm friend. Walker was duped into going 
back with the constable and to assure Cartwright 
that the crowd of lynchers had dispersed and that 
if he would surrender himself to the constable he 
(the constable) would protect him and return him 
to Oshkosh jail until he could be tried. This 
Walker finally prevailed upon Cartwright, against 
his own judgment, to do, and he started from his 
house in company with the constable and Walker. 

They had not proceeded twenty rods from the 
house when they were surrounded by the mob, 
Cartwright was taken from the constable, who 
made no resistance, put into a sleigh with the crowd 
and driven rapidly to Plainfield, where a pole was 
run out of the upper story of the hay barn belong- 
ing to the tavern. A rope was attached thereto and 
several bunches of shingles were piled up for Cart- 
wright to stand on. Walker who had followed and 
was appealing to the mob to desist, was told that 
if he did not leave he would be hanged with Cart- 
wright. The rope was noosed about Cartwright's 
neck, the shingles were pushed from under him and 
he was left hanging until he was dead. Then the 
rope was untied from the pole and attached to the 
rear of the sleigh, and Cartwright's body was 
dragged behind the sleigh to his home and thrown 
into his house where his horror-stricken wife and 
children had been wondering at his fate. 

To the shame of the good name of Waushara 
County, the human fiends who participated in 
this murderous outrage against law and right were 
never punished nor even prosecuted, though many 
if not all of them were known; but some of them 
have met death by violence. 


The town of Poysippi is the eastern one of the 

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middle tier of towns of Waushara county. Lake 
Poygan takes up about tliree sections on the east 
border, north of tlie center and into it are emptied 
the waters of Pine River and Willow Creek and 
their tributuries. About two-thirds of the town is 
swamp land. This town is bounded on the north 
by the town of Bloomfield, on the east by Winne- 
bago County, on the south by the town of Aurora 
and on the west by the town of Leon. 

Among the early settlers of Poysippi were W. G. 
Strallon and Benjamin Cody, who came in 1850, 
and T. L, Hall who came in 1853. The very first 
was Martin Becker, in 1850. 


Poysippi is a postoffice village of about 200 
population on Pine River, eighteen miles north-east 
of Wautoma and thirteen miles north of Berlin. 
The latter is Poysippi*s nearest railway town. Posippi 
derived its name from the Pine River, which was 
first called Poysippi by a Pottawottomie Indian. 
*'Poy'* from Poygan — "sippi" a river. The 
river ran into Poygan Lake, hence a *^ Poygan 
sippi,*' contracted to Poysippi. The village is 
located on a rise of ground four miles from Poy- 
gan Lake. 

Dr. Ewing, George Hawley, Jacob Cady and 
Nathan Barker were the first settlers. George 
Hawley, Mr. Becker and Vernon Evans were the 
first that made claims here in the winter of 1850. 
The post-ofllce was established in 1851, with George 
Hawley as postmaster. The present postmaster is 
John Moffatt The village was platted by George 
Hawley in 1856. 

Twenty-five years ago the leading business men 
and citizens of Poysippi were the following: D. 
Baxter, boot and shoemaker; R. P. Colt, post- 
master, justice of the peace, and general merchant; 
J. S. Ewing, physician and surgeon; James W. 
Gardner, physician and dentist; George Hawley, 
manufacturer of lumber and wagon and sleigh 
stock; E. P. Knapp, blacksmith; R. D. Moore, wool 
carding; C. S.Spencer, cabinet maker; John Vin- 
cent, carpenter; Levi Winchell, hotel keeper. A mile 
northeast of Poysippi was Woolsey's sawmill. The 
leading business men of to-day are Becker <fe Han- 
son, pump makers; W. W. Chase, grocer; Clarence 

Clark, blacksmith; John Moflfatt <fe Co. and R. P. 
Colt, general merchants; George W. Contauch, 
grocer; Fred M. Hawley, hotel keeper; G. G. Mc- 
Cue and N. Matthieson, masons; Henry Moffatt, 
carpenter; George Soraers and John Montgomery, 
saw mill proprietors; Poysippi Cheese Company, 
cheese manufacturers; Dr. H. A. McWain is a resi- 
dent physician. The village contains two churches, 
known as the Methodist and the Presbyterian. 

James S. Ewing Post, No. 231, Grand Army of 
the Republic, was organized in 1886, and has had 
F. E. Noyes and R. P. Colt as Commanders. Its 
present officers are R. P. Colt, Commander; F. 
Blaisdell, S. V. C; E. Taber, J. B. C; H. Lam. 
phear, O. D.; J. BIcGregor, Adjt.; C. Spencer, 
Qmr. Its membership comprises all of the veter- 
ans living in that part of the county. 

Early Events. 

The first chihl born in this town was Mr. Rich- 
ardson's, in July, 1850. Its death in September 
following was the first. The first marriage was that 
of Jacob Van Aernam to May Cady, by the Rev. Mr. 
House, in February, 1852. The first public house 
was kept by Martin Becker in a board shanty on 
the bank of what is now the mill pond at Poysippi. 
The first religious meeting was held in the chamber 
of the George Hawley residence. Rev. Mr. Hast- 
ings preaching the first sermon. The first " class " 
was organized in the winters of 1850-51 by Rev. 
Mr. Barringer. Miss V. G. Newcomb taught the 
firsl school in a board shanty on section 7. The 
first regular school house — a frame building — was 
built in the village in 1854. Catharine Van- 
Aernam was the first teacher in it. ' 


The town of Richford is the second from the 
west border of the county of the southern tier of 
towns. It is bounded on the north by the town of 
Dcerfield, on the east by the town of Dakota, on 
the south by Marquette County, and on the west 
by the town of Coloma. The Mecan River, which 
may be said to have its source in the north-east 
section of the town of Coloma, flows across Rich- 
ford in a south-easterly direction. In the south 
part rise small streams which in Marquette 

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County become tributaries to the Mecan. Pine 
Creek and other small streams have their source in 
the northeast part of the town. There is some 
swamp land in the east part, but most of the town 
is fairly good farming land. 

Among the early settlers in this town -was Will- 
iam S. Monroe, who came in 1857. Other early 
and prominent citizens were William Durgin, F. 
B. Cogswell, L. M. Follett, Ellas Follett, Hiram 
Durgin and C. TiflPany. 


Richford, on the Mecan River, in this town, nine 
miles south-west of Wantoma, fifteen miles south 
of Plainfield and five miles southeast of Coloma 
Station, the nearest railroad point, is the only post- 
office in this town. It contains two churches, a 
school, the water-power flouring mill of A. Weshner 
<fe Son, the general stores of G. A. Eichman, E. L. 
TiflPany and August Weshner, the hotel of L. D. 
Harris, a blacksmith and other shops. Population 

90 to 100. 


Rose is the third town in the northern tier from 
the western boundary of the county and the first 
one in that tier in the western half of the county. 
It is bounded on the north by Portage County, on 
the east by the town of Spring water, on the south 
by the town of Wautoma and on the west by 
Adams County. The surface is generally level, 
sloping gently toward the east. Pine River has 
its source near the center. On the southern and 
western boundaries and in the northern parts there 
are small ponds. 

Among the pioneer settlers in Rose were Elisha 
W. Stewart and Benjamin R. Evans, who came in 
1850 and 1853 respectively. Other early comers 
and prominent citizens were Robert H. Roberts, S. 
D. Love, Richard R. Davies, Andrew Wilson, 
Henry Smith and T. Holland. 

Wild Rose 

is a small village on the border between this town 
and Springfield, mostly in the last mentioned town. 


The town of Saxville is the second of the north- 
ern tier from the east border of the countv. It is 

bounded on the north by Waupaca County; on the 
east by the town of Bloomfield ; on the south by 
the town of Leon ; and on the west by the town of 
Spring water. Long Lake extends into the town 
from Spring water in the western part. There are 
two small lakes in the northeastern corner, and 
large swamps in the central and southern parts. 
The Pine River crosses the southwestern corner, 
and a tributary to that stream drains a large swamp 
further east. Small streams rise in the northern 

Prominent among the early settlers of this town 
were the following: Oliver Pierce and Henr}^ E. 
Van Aersdale, who came in 1850; Patrick Heaney, 
in 1851; Archie McMillan, in 1852; and A. W. 
Heaney and Patrick Cosgrove, in 1854. Other 
early and prominent residents were: John Griffin, 
S. T. Watson, B. M. Barnes, And r us Allen, B. 
Cook, W. H. Williams, W. James, J. W. Warren, 
Charles Brooks, I. M. Cook and Julius Dudley. 

Saxville, in this town, on Pine River, has a 
population of about fifty. It is fourteen miles 
noitheast of Wautoma, and thirteen miles south of 
Waupaca, the nearest railway station. 

J. Noble came to this place in 1849. Mr. Sax 
came soon after and built a sawmill the same year. 
In 1850 he built a frame house and a hotel. He 
built a flouring-mill in 1853. The village was 
platted in 1854 by E. Sax. The first store was 
kept by Sax <fe Bro. Capt. Sax, whose name is 
perpetuated in that of Ed. Sax Post, Grand Army 
of the Republic of Wautoma, was killed during the 
Rebellion at the battle of Shiloh. 

In 1869, the business of Saxville was summa- 
rized thns:E. Bard well, wagon-maker; Bates Cook, 
blacksmith; John Coon, Postmaster and proprietor 
of the Cedar Lake House, Berlin and Waupaca 
road; Edward Ghoca, fiouring-mill ; William 
James, steam sawmill; Joseph Milliken, Postmaster 
and Notary Public; N. W. Milliken, general mer- 
chant; Mrs. L. B. Vosburg, hotel; John A. Will- 
iams, general merchant; V. Wilmer, sawmill. The 
place now contains the general store of H. C. Van 
Airsdalc and N. W. Milliken; the blacksmith-shops 
of J. S. Burson and John Crandall, and the shoe- 
shop of W. B. Coburn. 

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Cedar Lake. 

Cedar Lake is another post-oflSce in this town, 
twenty-two miles northeast of Wautoraa, and nine 
miles south of Waupaca, the nearest railroad sta- 
tion. It contains little of business importance, and 
only a small population. E. Emerson is Post- 
master, and William James deals in lumber. 

Spring Water. 

This town derives its name from the number of 
lakes and springs within its borders. The larger 
of these are Pine Lake and another east of it in 
the north part; Gilbert Lake and Long Lake south 
of the two just mentioned, the latter extending 
into the town of Saxville; Silver Lake in the south- 
west part; and Lewis Lake, Rusk Lake and Round 
Lake in the southeast part. Between these lakes 
rise numerous small streams, which unite with 
Pine River and make the princi|ial volume of that 
stream. The soil is marshy. The boundaries of 
the town are as follows: North, Portage and Wau- 
paca Counties; east, the town of Saxville; south, 
the town of Leon; west, the town of Rose. 

The first settlement in this town was made in 
1849 by John Hughes. Richard Davis was one of 
the pioneers. Ebenezer I. Davis came in 1852. 
George Stetson and John W. Lane came the same 
year. E. R. Humphrey came in 1854; M. C. 
Wilson in 1855; Joseph Brigham, in 1856. 

Wild Rose, 

Wild Rose is a village of about eighty popula- 
tion, on a branch of the Pine River, on the line 
between the towns of Rose and Spring Water, nine 
miles northeast of Wautoma, and sixteen miles 
east of Plainfield. It was settled in 1874, and 
contains a water power, grist-mill, a church and a 
school. Charles A. Smart is i)ostmaster and pro- 
prietor of the only general store. The mill is 
owned by James Larson. Mrs. Mary Gordon 
keeps a hotel. George A. Sage has a blacksmith 
and wagon shop. S. G. Abbott is a resident phys- 
ician and dentist. 

Spring Water. 

Spring Water is a village of about 150 inhab- 
itants in this town, eighteen miles northeast of 

Wautoma and twelve miles south of Waupaca, the 
nearest railway station. It was settled in 1852, 
and has two churches, a school, a sorghum manu- 
factory and other interests. M. C. Wilson is Post- 

£arly Events. 

Robert Christie was the first child born in this 
town, Feb. 14, 1852.* The first death was that of 
Morgan Davies, in March, 1852. The firit school 
was taught in 1852, at the house of Owen Owens, 
by John E. Davies, afterward Professor of Chem- 
istry and Natural Philosophy in the State Uni- 
versity at Madison. The first schoolhouse was of 


The town of Warren is the second from the 
eastern border of the county of the southern tier 
of towns. It is bounded on the north by the town 
of Leon, on the east by the town of Aurora, on 
the south by Green Lake County, and on the west 
by the town of Marion. Willow Creek flows east- 
ward ly across the northern half of the town. Jor- 
dan's Lake is a small body of water in section 24, 
near the eastern border. Much of the town is 
swamp land, but good advance has been made in 
agriculture in some parts. 

The settlement of this town began in 1849, 
when John C. Williams, William F. Chipman and 
family, and John H. Dedrick and family arrived, 
followed soon by Lewis H. Bagg and Mr. Shepard. 
These all settled in the southeastern part of the 
town, as now bounded. A school, the first in the 
county, was started in this town in 1849. Instruc- 
tion was given by Mrs. Diana Carr, who lived in 
the family of Mr. Bagg. Tuition was paid by 
subscription. The first district school was opened in 
1851. Henry W. Berray came in 1850, and Will- 
iam O'D. Reilley in 1853. 


This is a hamlet of about twenty population, 
sixteen miles southeast of Wautoma and nine miles 
northwest of Berlin. The principal interests here 
are the dairy, blacksmith shop and sawmill of 
Thomas E. Decker, and the cheese factory of J. R. 

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The Town of Wautoma, which is all that is left 
of the large original town of that name, lies in the 
center of the county north and south and just west 
of the center east and west. The surface is uneven 
in most parts, and in the southern portion there is 
considerable swamp land. It is one of the best 
towns in the county for agricultural purix)ses. Sev- 
eral small streams in the south part unite beyond 
the town limits to form the White River. There 
is a small body of water in the north part, on sec- 
tions 10 and 11. This town is bounded on the 
north by the town of Rose, on the east by the 
town of Mount Morris, on the south by the town 
of Dakota, and on the west by the town of Deer- 

In 1849 a new road was opened from Berlin to 
what is now Wautoma. At the latter place, Phil- 
lip Green had built a shanty during the winter of 
1848-49. This claim was afterward, in 1849, sold 
to Mr. Atkins, who kept a tavern during the win- 
ter season for the accomodation of the lumbermen 
going into the woods above. B. S. Williams came 
in 1854. Other early settlers are mentioned in the 
following sketch of the village of Wautoma. 

The Village of Wautoma. 

Wautoma, the judicial seat of Waushara County, 
in the center of which it is situated, is a place of 
about 500 population, on the White River, thirteen 
miles east of Coloma, the nearest railway point, 
and twenty-two miles northwest of Berlin, the 
county seat of Green Lake County, on the Berlin 
and Stevens Point road. Its inhabitants are en- 
gaged in the various industries of an agricultural 
region. There is scarcely an element that marks a 
quiet, moral village that Wautoma does not possess, 
and at the same time it is the center of a good and 
increasing country trade. 

The original settler upon the site of the village 
of Wautoma was Phillip Green, in the winter of 
1848-49. He built a log house which was used as 
a tavern. Soon after Mr. Atkins purchased his 
claim, and later the Shumway brothers, who set- 
tled in the early part of 1850. 

The country was then rich in pine, and the 
Shumways improved the waterpower, built a saw- 

mill and a store house, and christened the place 
'^ Shumways' Mills." The next year John Bugh, 
who identified himself with the growth of the vil- 
lage, opened a farm a mile north. In 1852 F. 
Munsen brought a stock of goods from Ohio and 
opened the first general store in Shumway's store 

In 1853, from Dane County, came David L., 
now known as *' Judge" Bunn, and established a 
general store. About the same time Levi L. Soule 
located with his family upon the land where his res- 
idence now stands, and as he expresses it, " built a 
house around them." His law oflfice was over 
Judge Bunn's store. The first hotel was the Wau- 
toma House, N. W. Boynton, proprietor. 

The original plat of the village of Wautoma was 
recorded Dec. 24, 1853. S. W. Hall was surveyor 
and William Everhard proprietor. The latter had 
purchased the Shumway claim, which included the 
land platted. G. W. Smith bought of him a half 
interest in the village property, and the two built 
a grist mill which was in running order in the 
winter of 1854. This year was an important one 
in the early history of Wautoma. The village re- 
ceived several important accessions to its popu- 
lation, among other arrivals being that of Dr. 
Moses Barrett, a physician, afterward County 
Treasurer, and the recipient of many public favors. 
Marble <fe Curtis established another general store. 

For three years — since the organization of the 
county — the county seat had been located at Sacra- 
mento, three miles from Berlin. In September, 
1854, by a vote of 740 to 397 it was removed to 
Wautoma, and there has been no reversal of the 
vote cast at that time. When the county business 
was first removed to Wautoma, the sessions of the 
courts were held over Marble & Curtis' store with- 
out cost to the county. The rooms of the Treas- 
urer and Clerk of the Board of Supervisors were 
furnished by C. M. Shumway; that for Register 
and Clerk of the court by Alvah Nash; that for 
the Sheriff's otfice by W. C. Webb; while the school 
house was used for a grand jury room; and with- 
in one month after the election all the officers were 
at the new county seat. The first building owned 
by tlie county for a court house was bought in 
1857 of G. W. Smith, for $1,237, and the deed wa^ 

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^iven August 30. A fine, commodious brick 
court house has recently been erected at a cost of 
$10,000. It is beautifully situated on high ground 
in the southerly part of the town. 

The location of the county seat decided, the vil- 
lage grew as rapidly as others in its vicinity, at 
least up to the time when it became apparent that 
it would have to wait indefinitely for railroad con- 
nection. When the railroad from Milwaukee is ex- 
tended in that direction, as it must be eventually, 
Wautoma will certainly become one of the princi- 
pal points on this line and must gain a large in- 
crease of population and trade. At present it is 
the natural center and trading point for a consider- 
able area of country. The land in the town and 
vicinity is productive, though rather sandy. There 
is a good water power there, and in the neighbor- 
hood may be found some of the best pottery clay 
in the State. 

The first school house was built by contributions, 
and a school was maintained and religious meet- 
ings were held in the summer of 1850. The first 
preacher here was Rev. J. Milliken. In early days 
the few settlers were exposed to great hardships, 
and labored under difflculties that would perplex 
and astonish us now. Tliey had to go to Kingston 
and Ceresco for their grists and to Dartford for their 
blacksmithing; and many strange adventures ha<l 
they on the way, sometimes amusing only, but 
often perilous. 

Mr. Boynton had many successors in the pioneer 
hotel. We may mention E. Martin, Phineas 
Walker, S. M. Olds, James Pine, Alvah Nash, • 
Alexander R. Potts. The latter had built another 
house on the other side of the river, and with the 
idea of wiping out opposition bought the old 
house, moved it across the river and attached it to 
his other. He was succeeded by James Lyman, 
Mr. Fluno, Levi Sharp, Mr. Creer, and Ira Coon. 
The house was burned and rebuilt in 1871, and re- 
opened by Mr. Coon's sons. Caleb Greenfield 
kept it later. It passed to the ownership of Alex- 
ander R. Potts, and from his to that of Bugh <fe 
Youngman, the present proprietors. The Lincoln 
House was built a few years ago. A. E. Bean is 

Among the early and later merchants we may 

mention David L. Bunn, Francis B. Munson, 
David Lockerby (druggist), W. D. Marble, C. R. 
Moulton, Benjamin Markwell, A. L. Trufant & 
Brother, John Sterm, A. D. Mclntyre, Walker & 
Sexton, Hawley <fe Berray, Trufant <fe Son, Sontag 
<fe Henkee, George P. Walker and L. Nickerson 

Well known physicians of the past aad present 
may be thus named: Moses Barrett, Dr. Lake, Dr. 
Wilter, Miles G. Myers, Richard Jones, J. M. Whit- 
man and A. D. Mclntyre. 

Resident lawyers have been : W. C, H. G., and 
C. M. Webb, Levi L. Soule, R. L. D. Porter, W. 
H. Mitchell, II. J. Curtice and Sheridan J. Ab- 

The business, professional and other interests of 
Wautoma twenty years ago are given from an 
authentic source: Bean <fe Kingsley, carriage and 
wagon makers; Albert Bean, blacksmith; David 
L. Bunn, general merchant; J. S. Bugh, assessor of 
internal revenue; Miss Lottie Corrie, milliner and 
dressmaker; Ira Coan, produce dealer, hotel keeper, 
liveryman and stage proprietor; John Dougherty, 
merchant tailor; J. N. Edwards, harnessmaker ; 
William Foote, carpenter; G. H. Gile, county 
treasurer; George W. Gustin, cabinet maker; A. T. 
Hall, grocer; I). Lockerby, postmaster and drug- 
gist; William Lockerby, butcher; Mclntyre & 
Chaffer, druggists and general merchants; J. 
McKeague & Co., wagon makers; F. B. Munson, 
general merchant; Alvah Nash, sheriff, hotel keeper 
and liveryman; R. L. D. Potter, lawyer and pub- 
lisher of the Argus; T. D. Remington, jeweler; 
Rew <fe Co., furniture dealers; George W. Smith, 
owner of flouring mills; J. Sontag, boot and shoe 
maker; Levi L. Soule, lawyer; C. E. Storm, hard- 
ware and implement dealer; C. 11. Stowers, clerk of 
the Board of Supervisors and assistant assessor of 
internal revenue; A. Strang, circuit clerk; Gilbert 
Tenant, register of deeds; A. L. Trufant, general 
merchant; W. A. Warren, deputy collector of 
internal revenue; L. S. Walker, general merchant; 
J. M. Whitman, physician and surgeon. 

At the present time the village contains Metho- 
dist, Catholic and Congregational churches, a school, 
a weekly newspaper, a water-power roller flour mill 
of 100 barrels capacity, and a steam grist mill. 

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The following shows the names and occupations of 
the business and professional men of Wautoma at 
this time: A. E. Bean, liveryman and proprietor 
Lincoln House; David L. Bunn, stationer; O. C. 
Davis, wagon maker; John N. Edwards, harness 
maker; EUarson & Berray, publishers Argus; 
Hollender & Hanke, millers; C. Kreuger, shoe- 
maker; J. <fe T. McKeague, wagon makers; L. 
P. Bloulton, jeweler; L. Nickerson, grocer and 
druggist; S. L. Olds, stove manufacturer; Bugh <fe 
Youngman, hotel keepers; L. H. Ralph 6i Sons, 
dry goods merchants; T. D. Remington, grist mill; 
H. C. Soule, physician; Levi L. Soule, lawyer; A. 
L. Trufant <fe Sons, grocers; George P. Walker, 
postmaster and hardware dealer; Walker <fe Sexton, 
general merchants ; Frank W. Younglove, physician. 

Ed. Sax Post, No. 35, Grand Army of the Re- 
public, was organized at Wautoma, in March, 1883, 
with the following charter members: 

J. N. Bird, E. E. Terrill, Geo. Sexton, B. S. 
Williams, C. H. Taplin, Chas. Lethart, Fred. Wan- 
dry, C. Davenport, C. P. Toplin and C. P. Soule. 
The Post Commanders have been as follows : J. N. 
P. Bird, C. H. Taplin, A. S. Rogers. The first 
officers of the Post were as follows: P.C., J. N. P. 
Bird; S.V.C, J. B. Castertine; J.V.C, C. H. Tap- 
lin ; Chaplain, Asa Cogswell ; Adjutant, C. P. Soule ; 
Q.M.,E. E. Terrill; Surgeon, H. C. Soule; O.D., 
B. S. Williams; O.G., F. Wandry. The present 
officers arc: P.C, T. S. Chipman; S.V.C, D. H. 
Davies; J.V.C, R. M. Gustin; Q.M., J. S. Bugh; 
Adjt., A. S. Rogers; Surgeon, James Jameson; 
Chaplain, L. Clintsman; O.D., C H. Taplin; O.G., i 
D. W. Robinson; S.M., JohnEagan; Q.M.S.,Thos. 
McKeague; Trustees, B. S. Williams, R. M. Gustin, I 
F. S. Berray. 

Wautoma Lodge No. 148, F. & A. M., is one of 
the institutions of the place. Its regular communi- 
cations are held on the first and third Tuesdays of 
each month. Its offlcei-s are: W.M., H. G. Bridg- 
man; S.W., A. R. Potts; J.W., F. W. Younglove; 
Treas., A. L. Trufant; Sec'y, A. H. Walker; S.D., 
J. T. EUarson; J.D., A. L. Trufant, Jr.; Tyler, F. 
L. Hubbard. 

The Waushara Argus was established as the 
Waushara County Argus^ at Pine River, in March, 
1859, by D. H. Pulcifer <fe Co., who, in the follow- 
ing May, removed it to Wautoma. J. W. Rist <fe 
Co. became the proprietors in the fall of 1859. Up 
to March 1, 1863, when the name of the paper was 
changed to the Waushara Argus, the dififerent pro- 
prietors had been,f since J. W. Rist & Co., W. C 
Webb & Co., I860; Hall <fe Stowers, 1861; A. P. 
Lackerby & Stowers, 1862. In 1865, W. S. Mun- 
roe succeeded Mr. Lackerby, and the control of the 
paper passed to R. L. D. Potter, in 1867. In 1872 
Mr. Munroe became sole proprietor again. J. T. 
EUarson became editor and publisher August] 13, 
1880. The present proprietors are EUarson <fe 
Berray. The Argus has been ably conducted from 
the first, and has always been recognized as a help- 
ful influence upon the progress and prosperity of 
the town. 

Wautoma has good schools, under competent 
management, and her people are well-read and well- 
informed generally. Her business men are enter- 
prising and liberal, and little, except the lack of 
railway facilities, stands in the way of her progress. 
Stages reach the village from all directions, and 
telephone connection is perfect with all points 
reached by the Wisconsin Telephone Company. 

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aT for iko ^nion^ 



jHE first call for troops was 
made in April, 186L Com- 
pany G, 5th Wisconsin In- 
f an try was organized in 
Green Lake County during 
that month, and was origin- 
ally known as the •' Berlin 
Light Guard/' Its first captain 
was W. A. Bugh, who ranked from 
April 30, 1861. He was wounded 
at Williamsburg, and September 6, 
1862, was promoted to Lieutenant 
Colonel of the 32d Wisconsin In- 
l;fantry. Louis G. Strong ranked 
as First Lieutenant from April 30, 
1861, and was promoted to Cap- 
tain Sept. 6, 1862. He was 
killed in action May 3, 1863, at Fredericksburg, 
Va. George E. Hilton enlisted in April, 1861, ns 
First Sergeant. He was made First Lieutenant 
Dec. 23, 1862, and promoted to Captain May 24, 

1863. He died May 18, 1864, of wounds received 
at Spottsylvania, Va.; William H. Kees enlisted in 
April, 1861, as Sergeant; was promoted to Second 
Lieutenant May 4, 1863, and to Captain, June 17, 

1864, serving to the close of the war. Henry K. 
W. Ay res was mustered as Second Lieutenant April 
30, 1861, and discharged Aug. 7, 1862. His (lis 

charge was revoked by order of the War Depart- 
ment and he was re-commissioned to date Aug. 7, 
1862. He was discharged Dec. 23, 1862, and pro- 
moted to First Lieutenant, V. R. C, March 18, 1864. 
Samuel Y. Naylor enlisted April, 1861, as Sergeant; 
was promoted to First Sergeant; and to Second 
Lieutenant May 4, 1863, serving to the end of the 

Company 1, 1 Ith Wisconsin Infantry was organ- 
ized in the fall of 1861, a Green Lake County 
company known as the ''North Wisconsin Tigers.'* 
Allen J. Whittier, the first Captain, ranked from 
Oct. 8, 1861, and resigned Feb. 18, 1864. Nelson 
R. Doan, who succeeded Capt. Whittier March 22, 
1864, enlisted Oct. 18, 1861. From First Sergeant 
he was promoted to Second Lieutenant, March 8, 
1862; to First Lieutenant Nov. 12, 1863. He was 
wounded at Ba3'ou Cache, and mustered out Sept. 
4, 1865. De Witt C. Benham enlisted Aug. 11, 
1861, and ranked as First Lieutenant from Oct. 
8, 1861, resigning March 7, 1862. Jerome Chesbro 
ranked as Second Lieutenant from Oct. 8, 1861, 
was promoted to First Lieutenant March 8, 1862; 
and died May 3, 1863. Henry C. Welcome en- 
listed Sept. 20, 1861; was promoted from First 
Sergeant to First Lieutenant March 22, 1864, and 
was mustered out Sept. 4, 1865. Harvey H. Hop- 
kins enlisted Oct. 5, 1861, and was First Sergeant 

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and Second Sergeant; he was promoted to Second 
Lieutenant Sept. 1, 1865, and was mustered out 
Sept. 4, 1865; he was wounded at Bayou Cache. 

Company A, 16th Wisconsin Infantry, orginally 
known as the *' Waushara